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Cultural Anthropology,9780132197335
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Cultural Anthropology

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780132197335

ISBN10:
0132197332
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $140.20
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Summary

The human species may be the most widespread species in the world today. Humans have been moving tremendous distances ever since Homo erectus moved out of Africa. In the last 100 years or so, the number of migrants has grown enormously. With jet planes, cell phones, and the internet, people live more and more global lives, and often move back and forth from one country to another. Anthropology is increasingly studying immigrant populations and the flow of people and ideas across the globe. Cultural Anthropology, 12/E, will help to enrich your understanding of this fascinating discipline. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Boxes vii
Preface ix
About the Authors xvi
Part I Introduction
What Is Anthropology?
3(14)
The Scope of Anthropology
3(1)
The Holistic Approach
4(1)
The Anthropological Curiosity
4(1)
Fields of Anthropology
4(5)
Specialization
9(2)
The Relevance of Anthropology
11(6)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
15(2)
The Concept of Culture
17(16)
Defining Features of Culture
17(2)
Attitudes That Hinder the Study of Cultures
19(3)
Cultural Relativism
22(1)
Describing a Culture
22(4)
Some Assumptions about Culture
26(7)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
31(2)
Theoretical Approaches in Cultural Anthropology
33(16)
History of Theoretical Orientations
34(11)
The Hypothesis-Testing Orientation
45(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
47(2)
Explanation and Evidence
49(14)
Explanations
49(1)
Why Theories Cannot Be Proved
50(2)
Generating Theories
52(1)
Evidence: Testing Explanations
52(4)
Types of Research in Cultural Anthropology
56(7)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
61(2)
Part II Cultural Variation
Communication and Language
63(22)
Communication
63(4)
The Origins of Language
67(1)
Descriptive Linguistics
68(4)
Historical Linguistics
72(2)
The Processes of Linguistic Divergence
74(1)
Relationships between Language and Culture
75(3)
The Ethnography of Speaking
78(4)
Writing and Literacy
82(3)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
83(2)
Getting Food
85(18)
Food Collection
86(2)
Food Production
88(7)
Environmental Restraints on Food-Getting
95(2)
The Origin of Food Production
97(2)
The Spread and Intensification of Food Production
99(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
101(2)
Economic Systems
103(22)
The Allocation of Resources
103(6)
The Conversion of Resources
109(5)
The Distribution of Goods and Services
114(11)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
123(2)
Social Stratification: Class, Ethnicity, and Racism
125(18)
Variation in Degree of Social Inequality
126(1)
Egalitarian Societies
127(1)
Rank Societies
128(1)
Class Societies
129(6)
Racism and Inequality
135(2)
Ethnicity and Inequality
137(2)
The Emergence of Stratification
139(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
141(2)
Sex, Gender, and Culture
143(18)
Gender Concepts
144(1)
Physique and Physiology
144(1)
Gender Roles
145(2)
Relative Contributions to Work
147(2)
Political Leadership and Warfare
149(2)
The Relative Status of Women
151(2)
Personality Differences
153(2)
Sexuality
155(6)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
159(2)
Marriage and the Family
161(22)
Marriage
161(1)
Why Is Marriage Universal?
162(2)
How Does One Marry?
164(3)
Restrictions on Marriage: The Universal Incest Taboo
167(3)
Whom Should One Marry?
170(3)
How Many Does One Marry?
173(3)
The Family
176(7)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
181(2)
Marital Residence and Kinship
183(22)
Patterns of Marital Residence
183(2)
The Structure of Kinship
185(4)
Variation in Unilineal Descent Systems
189(2)
Functions of Unilineal Descent Groups
191(4)
Ambilineal Systems
195(1)
Explaining Variation in Residence
195(3)
The Emergence of Unilineal Systems
198(1)
Explaining Ambilineal and Bilateral Systems
198(1)
Kinship Terminology
199(6)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
203(2)
Associations and Interest Groups
205(16)
Nonvoluntary Associations
206(6)
Voluntary Associations
212(6)
Explaining Variation in Associations
218(3)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
219(2)
Political Life: Social Order and Disorder
221(22)
Variation in Types of Political Organization
222(8)
The Spread of State Societies
230(1)
Variation in Political Process
231(1)
Resolution of Conflict
232(11)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
241(2)
Psychology and Culture
243(20)
The Universality of Psychological Development
244(2)
Cross-Cultural Variation in Psychological Characteristics
246(12)
Psychological Explanations of Cultural Variation
258(5)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
261(2)
Religion and Magic
263(16)
The Universality of Religion
264(1)
Variation in Religious Beliefs
265(4)
Variation in Religious Practices
269(5)
Religion and Adaptation
274(5)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
277(2)
The Arts
279(16)
Body Decoration and Adornment
280(1)
Explaining Variation in the Arts
281(10)
Viewing the Art of Other Cultures
291(1)
Artistic Change and Culture Contact
291(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
293(2)
Culture Change and Globalization
295(22)
How and Why Cultures Change
295(7)
Culture Change and Adaptation
302(1)
Types of Culture Change in the Modern World
303(6)
Ethnogenesis: The Emergence of New Cultures
309(3)
Globalization: Problems and Opportunities
312(1)
Cultural Diversity in the Future
313(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
315(2)
Part III Using Anthropology
Applied and Practicing Anthropology
317(14)
Motives for Applying and Practicing Anthropology
319(1)
History and Types of Application
320(1)
Ethics of Applied Anthropology
321(1)
Evaluating the Effects of Planned Change
322(1)
Difficulties in Instituting Planned Change
323(3)
Cultural Resource Management
326(1)
Forensic Anthropology
327(4)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
329(2)
Medical Anthropology
331(16)
Cultural Understandings of Health and Illness
332(2)
Treatment of Illness
334(3)
Political and Economic Influences on Health
337(1)
Health Conditions and Diseases
338(9)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
345(2)
Global Social Problems
347(15)
Natural Disasters and Famine
348(1)
Inadequate Housing and Homelessness
349(3)
Family Violence and Abuse
352(1)
Crime
353(2)
War
355(3)
Terrorism
358(2)
Making the World Better
360(2)
Discovering Anthropology: Researchers at Work
361(1)
Glossary 362(7)
Notes 369(12)
Bibliography 381(35)
Photo Credits 416(2)
Index 418

Excerpts

PREFACE The human species may be the most widespread species in the world today. Humans have been moving tremendous distances ever since Homo erectus moved out of Africa. To highlight this fact, this uniqueness of humans, we have prepared a new box feature for this edition which we call "Migrants and Immigrants." Almost half the chapters now contain a box about some aspect of the movement of people, ranging from prehistory to recent times. Examples are research on when hominids first migrated out of Africa, possible routes humans may have taken in their migration to the Americas, the spread of foods in recent times, arranging marriages in the diaspora, and the problem of refugees. We have decided to reintroduce a separate chapter on theoretical approaches in cultural anthropology, which reviewers suggested. The separate chapter on "Explanation and Evidence" now has new material on ethics in fieldwork and an expanded discussion of cross-cultural research. Ethical issues are also given more attention in various other chapters. In updating the book, we try to go beyond descriptions, as always. We are interested not only in what humans are and were like; we are also interested in why they got to be that way, in all their variety. When there are alternative explanations, we try to communicate the necessity to evaluate them logically as well as on the basis of the available evidence. Throughout the book, we try to communicate that no idea, including ideas put forward in textbooks, should be accepted even tentatively without supporting tests that could have gone the other way.


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