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Cultural Anthropology,9780130455451
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Cultural Anthropology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130455451

ISBN10:
0130455458
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Cultural Anthropologyis the only book that integrates the important issues of globalization and culture change in every chapter as it introduces students to the concepts and methods that anthropologists bring to the study of cross-cultural diversity. Nancy Bonvillain, a best-selling author in linguistics, gender and Native American studies, has written an introductory textbook that encourages students to see what is going on in the world and how it affects cultures. By presenting extended examples from a variety of cultures and incorporating the voices of these peoples, she brings the study of cultural anthropology to life, so that students may come to understand the global processes that affect us all.

Table of Contents

Special Features xiii
Preface xvii
What Is Anthropology?
2(20)
Preview
3(1)
The Study of Humanity
4(4)
The Concept of Culture
5(1)
A Comparative Perspective
6(1)
A Holistic Perspective
7(1)
The Four Subfields of Anthropology
8(10)
Cultural Anthropology
8(4)
Linguistic Anthropology
12(2)
Archaeology
14(1)
Biological Anthropology
15(3)
Applied Anthropology
18(4)
Chapter Summary
20(1)
Key Terms
21(1)
Review Questions
21(1)
The Nature of Culture
22(26)
Preview
23(1)
What is Culture?
24(1)
Characteristics of Culture
25(11)
Culture Is Shared
25(2)
Culture Is Learned
27(1)
Culture Is Adaptive
28(4)
Culture Is Integrated
32(1)
Culture Is Based on Symbols
32(2)
Culture Organizes the Way People Think about the World
34(2)
Culture Change
36(7)
Internal Culture Change
37(4)
External Culture Change
41(2)
Global Culture
43(5)
Chapter Summary
46(1)
Key Terms
47(1)
Review Questions
47(1)
Studying Culture
48(24)
Preview
49(1)
Anthropology and the Explanation of Cultural Diversity
50(6)
Evolutionism
51(1)
Empiricism
52(1)
Functionalism
52(1)
Modern Theoretical Perspectives: An Overview
53(1)
Materialist Perspectives
54(1)
Structuralist Perspectives
54(1)
Interpretive Anthropology
55(1)
Conflict Perspectives and the Analysis of Culture and Power
55(1)
Ethnography and Fieldwork
56(10)
Cross-Cultural Comparisons
56(2)
Ethnographic Fieldwork
58(1)
Doing Fieldwork
59(4)
Anthropological Research in Large-Scale Societies
63(3)
The Anthropology of Anthropology
66(6)
Labeling Issues in Anthropology
66(2)
Ethical Issues in Anthropology
68(1)
Chapter Summary
69(1)
Key Terms
70(1)
Review Questions
71(1)
Language and Culture
72(30)
Preview
73(1)
What is Language?
74(2)
The Components of Language
76(4)
Phonology: The System of Sounds
76(2)
Morphology: The Structure of Words
78(1)
Syntax: The Structure of Sentences
78(1)
Semantics: The Study of Meaning
78(2)
Nonverbal Communication
80(2)
Linguistic Anthropology
82(10)
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
82(1)
Language, Culture, and Society
83(1)
The Study of Language Speakers
84(1)
Language and Dialects
85(3)
Language and Gender, Class, and Race
88(1)
African-American English
89(3)
Ethnosemantics
92(3)
Componential Analysis
92(1)
Cultural Presuppositions
93(1)
Ethnography of Communication
93(2)
Processes of Language Change
95(7)
Creoles, Pidgins, and Lingua Francas
95(1)
Historical Linguistics
96(4)
Chapter Summary
100(1)
Key Terms
100(1)
Review Questions
101(1)
Learning One's Culture
102(34)
Preview
103(1)
The Process of Enculturation
104(7)
Becoming a Human Being
105(2)
Child Rearing
107(4)
Informal and Formal Learning
111(13)
Learning Skills and Values
111(1)
Learning Behavioral Expectations
112(2)
Age and Gender Socialization
114(3)
Rites of Passage
117(1)
Schooling
118(6)
Psychological Anthropology
124(6)
Culture and Personality Traits
124(2)
Culture and Self-Concept
126(2)
Culture and Cognition
128(2)
Deviance and Abnormal Behavior in Cross-Cultural Perspective
130(6)
Responses to ``Mental Illness''
130(1)
Culture-Specific Psychological Disorders
131(3)
Chapter Summary
134(1)
Key Terms
135(1)
Review Questions
135(1)
Making a Living
136(26)
Preview
137(1)
Economic Anthropology
138(1)
Understanding Human Subsistence Patterns
139(3)
Foraging versus Food Production
139(1)
Ecosystem, Adaptation, and Carrying Capacity
139(1)
Subsistence and Settlement Pattern
140(1)
Subsistence and Population
140(1)
Subsistence, Work, and Division of Labor
141(1)
Subsistence and Social Relations
141(1)
Foraging
142(6)
Ecological Factors
142(1)
Optimal Foraging
142(1)
Population Factors
143(1)
Social and Cultural Factors
143(4)
Land, Labor, and Production in Foraging Societies
147(1)
Pastoralism
148(6)
Combined Subsistence Strategies
149(1)
Land and Labor in Pastoralist Societies
150(1)
Nomadic Pastoralism
151(3)
Horticulture
154(3)
Impacts of Sedentism and Surpluses
155(1)
Slash-and-Burn Horticulture
155(1)
Gender Allocation of Work
155(2)
Agriculture
157(2)
Subsistence and Culture Change
159(3)
Chapter Summary
160(1)
Key Terms
161(1)
Review Questions
161(1)
Economic Systems
162(30)
Preview
163(1)
Economics of Agriculture
164(5)
Intensive Agriculture and Crop Variety
165(2)
Industrial Agriculture
167(2)
Analyzing Economic Systems
169(7)
Allocating Land and Resources
169(1)
Producing Goods
170(1)
Organizing Labor
170(3)
Distributing and Exchanging Products and Services
173(3)
Market Economies and Capitalism
176(2)
Impacts of Colonial Expansion, Industrialism, and Globalization
178(10)
Colonialism and the Exploitation of Labor
182(2)
Industrial Economies
184(4)
Comparing Subsistence Strategies
188(4)
Chapter Summary
189(1)
Key Terms
190(1)
Review Questions
191(1)
Kinship and Descent
192(28)
Preview
193(1)
Kinship Systems
194(4)
Bilateral Descent
195(2)
Unilineal Descent
197(1)
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Systems
198(5)
Prevalence of Matrilineal and Patrilineal Descent
198(1)
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Societies Compared
198(1)
Influence and Inheritance in Unilineal Descent Groups
199(3)
Other Forms of Unilineal Descent
202(1)
Unilineal Descent Groups
203(7)
Lineages
203(1)
Exogamy and Endogamy
204(1)
Clans
204(6)
Phratries and Moieties
210(1)
Patterns of Relationships
210(1)
Patterns of Change
211(2)
Kinship Terminology Systems
213(7)
The Eskimo and Hawaiian Systems
214(1)
The Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese Systems
215(1)
Comparing Kin Terms in English and Seneca
216(2)
Chapter Summary
218(1)
Key Terms
219(1)
Review Questions
219(1)
Marriage and the Family
220(30)
Preview
221(1)
Defining Marriage and Family
222(2)
Families and Ideal Types
224(5)
Nuclear Families
224(1)
Extended and Joint Families
225(4)
Endogamy, Exogamy, and the Incest Taboo
229(2)
Effects of Exogamy on Social Organization
229(1)
Effects of Endogamy on Social Organization
230(1)
Forms of Marriage
231(3)
Polygyny and Polyandry
231(1)
Explanations of Polygyny
231(1)
``Ghost Marriage'' and Other Adaptive Forms
232(2)
Same-Sex Marriage
234(1)
Marriage as Alliance and Economic Exchange
234(3)
Bridewealth and Brideservice
235(1)
Dowry
235(2)
Marriage as a Rite of Passage
237(4)
Patterns of Residence After Marriage
241(4)
Matrilocal and Patrilocal Residence
241(1)
Avunculocal Residence
242(1)
Bilocal and Neolocal Residence
242(1)
Correlates of Residence Patterns
242(3)
Widowhood and Divorce
245(5)
The Levirate and Sororate
245(1)
Divorce
245(3)
Chapter Summary
248(1)
Key Terms
249(1)
Review Questions
249(1)
Gender
250(34)
Preview
251(1)
Sex and Gender
252(5)
The Cultural Construction of Gender Identity
252(1)
Gender and Sexuality
253(1)
Gender and Homosexuality
253(4)
Gender Roles and Relations
257(7)
Division of Labor by Gender
258(2)
Gender and Status
260(4)
Gender and Subsistence
264(11)
Foragers and Gender
264(3)
Gender in Pastoral and Horticultural Societies
267(2)
Gender in Agricultural States
269(1)
Industrialism, Postindustrialism, and Gender
269(6)
Globalization and Gender
275(9)
Women's Roles in Urban and Rural Economic Development
276(2)
Women in Changing Socialist States
278(1)
Impacts of Ideology on Gender Constructs
279(2)
Chapter Summary
281(1)
Key Terms
282(1)
Review Questions
283(1)
Equality and Inequality
284(26)
Preview
285(1)
Equality, Inequality, and Social Stratification
286(6)
Egalitarian Societies
287(1)
Ranked Societies
288(1)
Stratified Societies
288(3)
Explaining Social Stratification
291(1)
Caste and Class
292(5)
Determinants of Class
292(3)
Social Class and Language
295(1)
Slavery
295(2)
Race and Ethnicity
297(8)
Race as Caste
297(1)
Race in the United States
297(5)
Race in Brazil
302(1)
Ethnic Identity
302(3)
Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Ideology in American Society
305(5)
Chapter Summary
307(2)
Key Terms
309(1)
Review Questions
309(1)
Political Systems
310(28)
Preview
311(1)
Political Anthropology
312(1)
Types of Political Organization
312(16)
Bands
313(4)
Tribes
317(2)
Confederacies
319(3)
Chiefdoms
322(6)
Characteristics of State Societies
328(6)
Internal Political Change and State Societies
334(4)
Chapter Summary
336(1)
Key Terms
337(1)
Review Questions
337(1)
Conflict and Conflict Resolution
338(26)
Preview
339(1)
Evolutionary Perspectives on Conflict
340(1)
Avoiding Conflict
341(6)
Politeness
342(1)
Channeled Aggression
342(4)
Role of Reciprocity in Conflict Avoidance
346(1)
Witchcraft and Ritual in Conflict Resolution
347(1)
Patterns of Family and Community Conflict
348(2)
Family Violence
348(1)
Conflicts in Bands and Tribes
349(1)
Blood Vengeance and the Feud
350(1)
Patterns of Conflict Between Groups
350(14)
Warfare
351(1)
Impacts of Globalization on Warfare
352(4)
Warfare in State Societies
356(5)
Chapter Summary
361(1)
Key Terms
362(1)
Review Questions
363(1)
Religion
364(30)
Preview
365(1)
What is Religion?
366(2)
Spirit Beings and Forces
368(3)
Animism and Animatism
368(1)
Gods and Heroes
368(1)
Ancestors, Ghosts, and Demons
369(1)
Mana, Totems, and Taboos
369(2)
Religious Practitioners
371(2)
Mediums, Diviners, and Healers
371(1)
Shamans and Priests
372(1)
Religious Practice
373(10)
Sacred and Secular Rituals
373(1)
Prayer and Sacrifice
374(2)
Rites of Passage
376(2)
Healing or Curing
378(3)
Magic and Witchcraft
381(2)
The Origins and Functions of Religion
383(3)
Explaining the World
383(1)
Solace, Healing, and Emotional Release
383(1)
Social Cohesion
384(1)
Social Control
384(1)
Economic Adaptation
384(2)
Religion and Culture Change
386(8)
Revitalization Movements
387(1)
Cargo Cults
387(1)
Role of Founders in Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
388(1)
Religion and Globalization
389(2)
Chapter Summary
391(2)
Key Terms
393(1)
Review Questions
393(1)
The Arts
394(24)
Preview
395(1)
What is Art?
396(1)
Cultural Aesthetics
397(2)
Body Art
399(3)
Origins and Functions of Art Objects
402(3)
The Arts of Sound and Movement
405(2)
Oral Literature and Written Texts
407(3)
Art and Globalization
410(8)
Art and Identity
411(1)
Art in the Global Economy
412(1)
Art and Tourism
412(4)
Chapter Summary
416(1)
Key Terms
417(1)
Review Questions
417(1)
Colonialism and Cultural Transformations
418(28)
Preview
419(1)
European Colonialism
420(3)
Colonialism Defined
420(1)
Types of Colonies
421(2)
The European Slave Trade
423(2)
Slavery in Africa
423(2)
Slavery in the Americas
425(1)
Trade and Settlement in North America
425(2)
The Fur Trade
426(1)
Westward Expansion and Depopulation
426(1)
Spanish Colonization in the Americas
427(4)
Spanish Landholding in the Colonies
430(1)
Mining Quotas
430(1)
Intermarriage
430(1)
The Mission System
430(1)
Agents of Directed Culture Change
431(2)
Missionaries
431(1)
Schoolteachers
432(1)
Government Officials
432(1)
A Cash Economy
433(1)
Justifications for Colonial Rule
433(4)
White Man's Burden
434(1)
A Sacred Trust
434(1)
The Reservation System
435(2)
Reactions of Indigenous Peoples to European Colonizers
437(4)
Trade Goods and Gods
437(1)
Guns and Other Technological Wonders
438(1)
Native Resistance and Retaliation
439(2)
Globalization in the Postcolonial Era
441(5)
Chapter Summary
443(2)
Key Terms
445(1)
Review Questions
445(1)
Living in a Global World
446(32)
Preview
447(2)
Migration
449(4)
Rural-to-Urban Migration
449(3)
Transnational Migration
452(1)
Ethnogenesis and Ethnic Identities
453(8)
Transnationalism
455(1)
Nationalism and Pluralism
456(2)
Genocide? The Case of Rwanda
458(1)
Reactions against Pluralism
459(1)
Globalization and Cultural Identities
460(1)
A Global Identity?
460(1)
Cultural Minorities in a Global World
461(11)
United States and Canada
461(2)
Mexico and Indigenismo
463(2)
Brazil and the ``Indian Problem''
465(4)
Costs of Economic Development in Ecuador and Bolivia
469(1)
Developments in Africa
469(3)
Legal Rights and International Recognition
472(3)
Ecotourism and Indigenous Lands
475(3)
Chapter Summary
476(1)
Key Terms
477(1)
Review Questions
477(1)
Glossary 478(8)
References 486(10)
Credits 496(1)
Index 497


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