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Cultural Anthropology,9780534617066

Cultural Anthropology

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780534617066

ISBN10:
0534617069
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/28/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $272.95

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Summary

Build your own awareness of cultures around the world with CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY! Emphasizing the issues of gender, stratification, ethnicity, globalization, and the similarities and differences among all cultures, this anthropology text provides you with the tools you need to succeed. Take advantage of CengageNOW, which saves you time and enhances your performance in the course through Pre-Tests, Personalized Study Plans and Post-Test materials.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
List of Features
xxiii
PART ONE Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Anthropology and Human Diversity
2(24)
Ethnography Body Ritual Among the Nacirema
4(3)
Specialization in Anthropology
7(5)
Cultural Anthropology
7(1)
Linguistic Anthropology
8(1)
Archaeology
8(2)
Physical or Biological Anthropology
10(1)
Applied Anthropology
10(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Medical Anthropology
12(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference About ``Makes a Difference''
14(1)
What We Learn from Anthropology: Understanding Human Differences
14(2)
Ethnocentrism
15(1)
Global Perspective ``Stone Age'' Tribes
16(4)
Human Biological Diversity
18(1)
The Cultural Construction of Race
18(2)
Anthropological Approaches to Culture
20(2)
Anthropology and Cultural Relativism
20(1)
Emic and Etic Approaches to Culture
21(1)
Anthropology in a Changing World
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Suggested Readings
24(1)
Online Study Resources
24(2)
Human Evolution
26(32)
Darwin and Natural Selection
28(3)
The Theory of Natural Selection
28(2)
Evolution, Politics, and Religion
30(1)
Humans and Our Nearest Relatives
31(1)
Our Shared Ancestor and Common Characteristics
31(1)
Global Perspective Disappearing Primates
32(3)
Primate Social Life
33(1)
Tool Use among Primates
34(1)
The Evolution of Humans
35(1)
Naming Names
35(1)
A Closer Look There's Evidence!
36(4)
The Earliest Human Ancestors
36(2)
The Australopithecines
38(2)
Ethnography Fossil Hunters
40(8)
Homo Habilis and Homo Rudolfensis
43(1)
Homo Erectus
44(2)
Homo Sapiens
46(2)
Homo Sapiens Culture
48(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Forensic Anthropology
50(1)
Human Variation
51(3)
Summary
54(1)
Key Terms
55(1)
Suggested Readings
56(1)
Online Study Resources
57(1)
Doing Cultural Anthropology
58(26)
Ethnography and Fieldwork
60(1)
Ethnography in Historical Perspective
61(2)
Franz Boas
62(1)
Bronislaw Malinowski
63(1)
Changing Directions in Ethnography
63(1)
Postmodernism
63(1)
Ethnography An Ethnographic Field Study in India
64(5)
Feminist Anthropology
68(1)
Ethnographic Data and Cross-Cultural Comparisons
69(1)
Global Perspective Ethnography
70(3)
Special Issues in Contemporary Ethnography
73(1)
Studying One's Own Society
73(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Anthropologists Study the Use of Illegal Drugs
74(4)
Collaborative Ethnography
77(1)
Ethical Considerations in Fieldwork
78(1)
New Roles for the Ethnographer
78(1)
A Closer Look The American Anthropological Association Statement of Ethics
79(1)
Summary
80(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Suggested Readings
81(2)
Online Study Resources
83(1)
The Idea of Culture
84(30)
Defining Culture
86(2)
Culture Is Made Up of Learned Behaviors
88(2)
Culture Is the Way Humans Use Symbols to Organize and Give Meaning to the World
90(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Culture and HIV
92(4)
Global Perspective Understanding 9/11
96(2)
Culture Is an Integrated System---Or Is It?
98(1)
Culture Is a Shared System of Norms and Values---Or Is It?
99(3)
Culture Is the Way Human Beings Adapt to the World
102(2)
Ethnography Building a House in Northwestern Thailand
104(2)
Culture Is Constantly Changing
106(2)
A Closer Look Diffusion: 100% American
108(2)
Rethinking Culture
110(1)
Summary
110(1)
Key Terms
111(1)
Suggested Readings
112(1)
Online Study Resources
113(1)
Language
114(30)
Origins and Development of Human Language
116(1)
Characteristics of Human Language
116(2)
A Closer Look Nonhuman Primate Communication
118(1)
Acquiring Language
118(4)
The Structure of Language
122(3)
Phonology
122(1)
Morphology
123(1)
Syntax
124(1)
Semantics: The Lexicon
124(1)
Language and Culture
125(1)
The Ethnography of Communication
125(1)
Ethnography The Indian and the ``Whiteman''
126(5)
Languages and Dialects
128(2)
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE)
130(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Ebonics
131(2)
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
132(1)
A Closer Look The ``Genderlects'' Controversy
133(2)
Nonverbal Communication
135(3)
Language Change
138(1)
Changing Sounds
138(1)
Changing Syntax
138(1)
Global Perspective Endangered Languages
139(2)
Changing Lexicon
140(1)
Summary
141(1)
Key Terms
142(1)
Suggested Readings
142(1)
Online Study Resources
143(1)
PART TWO Families in Society
Making a Living
144(30)
Human Adaptation and the Environment
145(2)
Major Types of Subsistence Strategies
147(3)
Foraging
148(2)
Ethnography The Complex Strategy of Australian Foragers
150(3)
Pastoralism
152(1)
Ethnography The Maasi of East Africa: A Transhumant Pastoral Adaptation
153(5)
Horticulture
157(1)
Ethnography The Lua': Swidden Cultivators in Thailand
158(4)
Agriculture (Intensive Cultivation)
161(1)
Ethnography A Peasant Village in Upper Egypt
162(4)
Industrial Economies
165(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference A Successful Agricultural Intervention in Bolivia
166(2)
Ethnography Industrial Agriculture: The Beef Industry in the United States
168(2)
Summary
170(2)
Key Terms
172(1)
Suggested Readings
172(1)
Online Study Resources
173(1)
Economics
174(30)
Economic Systems
175(2)
Economic Behavior
176(1)
Production
177(6)
Allocating Resources
177(4)
Organizing Labor
181(2)
Ethnography Women and Labor in Urban Turkey
183(5)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Anthropologists in Business
188(1)
Distribution: Systems of Exchange
188(4)
Reciprocity
188(3)
Redistribution
191(1)
A Closer Look The Kula Ring
192(2)
Global Perspective West African Traders in New York City
194(7)
Summary
201(1)
Key Terms
202(1)
Suggested Readings
202(1)
Online Study Resources
203(1)
Marriage, Family, and Domestic Groups
204(30)
Functions of Marriage and the Family
205(3)
Are Marriage and the Family Universal? - The Na of China
208(1)
Marriage Rules
209(6)
Incest Taboos
209(1)
Exogamy
210(1)
Endogamy
211(1)
Preferential Marriages
211(1)
Number of Spouses
212(3)
Choosing a Mate
215(1)
Exchange of Goods and Rights in Marriage
215(4)
Bride Service and Bridewealth
216(2)
Dowry
218(1)
Families, Domestic Groups, and Rules of Residence
219(1)
The Changing American Family
219(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Power, Culture, and Violence within Families
220(5)
Composite Families
223(1)
Extended Families
223(2)
Ethnography Matrilineal Families among the Minangkabau of Sumatra
225(3)
Global Perspective Aging and Family Life in Different Societies
228(2)
Summary
230(2)
Key Terms
232(1)
Suggested Readings
232(1)
Online Study Resources
233(1)
Kinship
234(24)
Kinship: Relationships through Blood and Marriage
236(1)
Global Perspective Kinship and Transmigration
237(1)
Rules of Descent and the Formation of Descent Groups
237(1)
Unilineal Descent Groups
238(3)
Patrilineal Descent Groups
239(1)
Matrilineal Descent Groups
240(1)
A Closer Look Rules and Realities: Conflict over Inheritance in a Korean Village
241(4)
Double Descent
245(1)
Nonunilineal Kinship Systems
245(1)
The Classification of Kin
246(1)
Ethnography Kinship Classification Systems in Action: A Comparison between North America and North India
247(7)
Principles for Classifying Kin
250(1)
Types of Kinship Terminologies
251(3)
Summary
254(1)
Key Terms
255(1)
Suggested Readings
255(2)
Online Study Resources
257(1)
PART THREE Equalities and Inequalities
Gender
258(212)
Sex and Gender
260(2)
The Cultural Construction of Gender
260(2)
Cultural Variation in Sexual Behavior
262(1)
Ethnography The Hijras: An Alternative Gender Role in India
263(3)
Sexuality and the Cultural Construction of Gender
266(1)
Coming of Age in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Male and Female Rites of Passage
266(4)
Male Initiation
267(1)
Female Initiation
268(1)
The Construction of Masculinity in Spain
269(1)
Global Perspective International Human Rights and Female Circumcision
270(2)
Proving Manhood: A Cultural Universal?
271(1)
Gender Roles, Power, and Prestige: The Status of Women
272(2)
Gender Relations: Complex and Variable
274(4)
Challenging ``Man the Hunter''
274(1)
Women and the Distribution of Power in Foraging Societies
274(2)
Gender Relations in Horticultural Societies
276(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Advocating for Female Workers in the Global Economy
278(3)
Economic Development and the Status of Women
278(2)
Technology and Gender Roles
280(1)
Summary
281(1)
Key Terms
282(1)
Suggested Readings
282(1)
Online Study Resources
283(1)
Political Organization
284(30)
Social Differentiation
285(1)
Egalitarian Societies
286(1)
Rank Societies
286(1)
Stratified Societies
286(1)
Power and Social Control
286(4)
Formal and Informal Sources of Power and Authority
288(1)
Law: Social Control and Conflict Management
289(1)
Types of Political Organization
290(7)
Band Societies
290(2)
Tribal Societies
292(5)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Alternative Forms of Conflict Resolution
297(6)
Chiefdoms
299(2)
State Societies
301(2)
Ethnography Wealth and Power in the Precolonial Asante State
303(4)
Global Perspective Crossing State Borders
307(3)
Summary
310(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Suggested Readings
311(2)
Online Study Resources
313(1)
Stratification: Class and Caste
314(28)
Explaining Social Stratification
315(1)
Criteria of Stratification: Power, Wealth, and Prestige
316(2)
Ascription and Achievement
318(1)
Global Perspective Globalization and Stratification
319(6)
Social Class in the United States
320(5)
Ethnography Downward Mobility in the United States
325(5)
China: Class Stratification in a Socialist Society
329(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Engaging with Homelessness
330(5)
Caste
335(3)
The Caste System in India
336(1)
The Dynamics of Caste
337(1)
Changes in the Caste System
338(1)
Summary
338(1)
Key Terms
339(1)
Suggested Readings
340(1)
Online Study Resources
341(1)
Stratification: ``Race'' and Ethnicity
342(30)
Racial Stratification
343(5)
Racial Stratification Systems: A Comparison of the United States and Brazil
345(3)
Ethnicity and Ethnic Stratification
348(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Anthropologists Take a Stand against Racism
349(2)
Two Perspectives on Ethnicity
350(1)
The Nation-State and Ethnicity
351(9)
How the Nation-State Shapes Ethnicity
352(2)
The Nation-State and Ethnic Conflict
354(2)
Nation-States and Indigenous Peoples
356(4)
Ethnicity in the United States
360(3)
Ethnic Identity
360(2)
Ethnicity and Immigration
362(1)
Immigration Laws: The Intersection of Ethnicity and ``Race''
362(1)
Global Perspective Refugees and Political Asylum
363(2)
Models of Adaptation
363(2)
Ethnography Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
365(3)
Summary
368(1)
Key Terms
369(1)
Suggested Readings
370(1)
Online Study Resources
371(1)
PART FOUR Symbols and Meanings
Religion
372(36)
Global Perspective The Globalization of Religion in the United States
374(2)
A Closer Look Religion and Ecology
376(1)
What Religion Does in Society
376(3)
Searching for Order and Meaning
376(2)
Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Control
378(1)
Reinforcing or Modifying the Social Order
378(1)
Characteristics of Religion
379(2)
Stories, Sacred Narratives, and Myths
379(1)
Symbols and Symbolism
380(1)
Supernatural Beings, Powers, States, and Qualities
380(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Population Growth, Fertility, and Religion
381(4)
Rituals and Ways of Addressing the Supernatural
384(1)
A Closer Look Cargo Cults, Colonialism, and Ritual
385(12)
Religious Practitioners
390(4)
Witches and Sorcerers
394(2)
Religion and Change
396(1)
Ethnography The Rastafari: Religion and Resistance to Domination
397(3)
A Closer Look Fundamentalism
400(5)
Summary
405(1)
Key Terms
406(1)
Suggested Readings
406(1)
Online Study Resources
407(1)
Creative Expression: Anthropology and the Arts
408(28)
Some Characteristics of Art
410(1)
Some Functions of Art
411(5)
Art as Ritual
413(1)
The Arts and the Expression of Cultural Themes
414(2)
Global Perspective World Music
416(7)
The Display of Cultural Themes: Deep Play
417(3)
The Arts and the Depiction of Social Structure
420(1)
The Arts and Resistance
420(1)
The Arts and the Recording of Cultural History
421(2)
The Arts and the Expression of Cultural and Personal Identity
423(4)
Cultural Identity and Body Art
423(1)
The Expression of Personal Identity Through the Arts
424(1)
The Arts: Representing the Other
425(2)
The Artist in Society: Artists and Their Audiences
427(2)
Marketing Cultural Identities Through the Arts
429(2)
Ethnography The Arts, Tourism, and Cultural Identity among the Toraja
431(1)
Summary
432(2)
Key Terms
434(1)
Suggested Readings
434(1)
Online Study Resources
435(1)
PART FIVE Culture Change
Culture Change and the Modern World
436(34)
Making the Modern World
438(2)
European Expansion: Motives and Methods
439(1)
A Closer Look Why the Natives Died
440(8)
The Era of Colonialism
445(3)
Ethnography African Soldiers of Misfortune
448(4)
Independence and Poverty
452(2)
Development
453(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference Development Anthropology and the Anthropology of Development
454(4)
Multinational Corporations
456(2)
Global Perspective Just Doing It: Nike and Sweatshop Labor
458(7)
Urbanization
460(2)
Population Pressure
462(1)
Instability
463(2)
Looking to the Future
465(2)
Summary
467(1)
Key Terms
468(1)
Suggested Readings
468(1)
Online Study Resources
469(1)
APPENDIX A Brief Historical Guide to Anthropological Theory
470(8)
Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism
470(1)
The Early Sociologists
471(1)
American Historical Particularism
471(1)
Functionalism
472(1)
Culture and Personality
472(1)
Cultural Ecology and Neo-Evolutionism
472(1)
Neomaterialism: Evolutionary, Functionalist, Ecological, and Marxist
473(1)
Structuralism
473(1)
Ethnoscience and Cognitive Anthropology
474(1)
Sociobiology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Behavioral Ecology
474(1)
Anthropology and Gender
475(1)
Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology
475(1)
Postmodernism and Its Critics
476(1)
What's Next?
476(1)
Online Study Resources
477(1)
Glossary 478(10)
References 488(27)
Index 515


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