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Cultural Anthropology (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac),9780534614799
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Cultural Anthropology (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534614799

ISBN10:
0534614795
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/25/2003
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $284.66
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Summary

This is a mainstream comprehensive cultural anthropology text with a balanced theoretical perspective. The text has always had as its signature, the extended ethnographies within each chapter as well as excellent coverage of gender and ethnicity. The Eighth Edition features a new companion CD, packaged for free with new copies of the text as well as a robust and content-rich Web site to accompany the text.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
List of Features
xxix
PART ONE: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Anthropology and Human Diversity
2(20)
Specialization in Anthropology
4(2)
Cultural Anthropology
4(1)
Linguistic Anthropology
5(1)
Archaeology
5(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Franz Boas and the History of Anthropology
6(2)
Physical or Biological Anthropology
8(1)
Applied Anthropology
8(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Medical Anthropology
10(1)
What We Learn from Anthropology: Understanding Human Differences
10(5)
Ethnocentrism
10(2)
Human Biological Diversity
12(3)
Anthropological Approaches to Culture
15(1)
Anthropology and Cultural Relativism
15(1)
Emic and Etic Approaches to Culture
15(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Body Ritual Among the Nacirema
16(1)
Anthropology in a Changing World
16(2)
Global Connections
Stone Age Tribes
18(1)
Summary
19(1)
Key Terms
20(1)
Suggested Readings
20(1)
Multimedia
21(1)
Human Evolution
22(28)
Darwin and Natural Selection
24(3)
The Theory of Natural Selection
25(1)
Evolution, Politics, and Religion
26(1)
Humans and Our Nearest Relatives
27(2)
Our Shared Ancestor and Common Characteristics
27(1)
Primate Social Life
28(1)
Global Connections
Disappearing Primates
29(1)
Tool Use among Primates
30(1)
The Evolution of Humans
30(1)
A Closer Look
There's Evidence!
31(1)
Naming Names
31(1)
The Earliest Human Ancestors
32(1)
The Australopithecines
33(2)
Homo habilis and rudolfensis
35(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Fossil Hunters
36(2)
Homo erectus
38(2)
Homo sapiens
40(1)
Homo sapiens Culture
41(2)
Human Variation
43(3)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Forensic Anthropology
46(1)
Summary
46(2)
Key Terms
48(1)
Suggested Readings
48(1)
Multimedia
49(1)
Doing Cultural Anthropology
50(20)
Ethnography and Fieldwork
52(1)
Ethnography in Historical Perspective
53(2)
Global Connections
Ethnographic Data in the Global Economy
55(1)
Changing Directions in Ethnography: Postmodernism and Beyond
55(1)
The Influence of Feminist Anthropology on Ethnography
56(1)
Cross-Cultural Comparison
57(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
An Ethnographic Field Study in India
58(4)
Special Problems in Contemporary Ethnography
62(2)
Studying One's Own Society
62(2)
Anthropology Makes A Difference
Anthropologists Study the Use of Illegal Drugs
64(1)
Ethical Considerations in Fieldwork
64(2)
Perspectives in Anthropology
The African American Burial Ground
66(1)
New Roles for the Ethnographer
67(1)
Summary
67(1)
Key Terms
68(1)
Suggested Readings
68(1)
Multimedia
69(1)
The Idea of Culture
70(24)
Defining Culture
72(1)
Culture Is the Way Human Beings Adapt to the World
73(1)
Global Connections
Understanding 9/11
74(2)
In the Field: Ethnography
Building a House in Northwestern Thailand
76(1)
Culture Is the Way Humans Organize the World
77(2)
Culture Is the Way Humans Give Meaning to Their Lives
79(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Native American Cultural Resources
80(1)
Culture Is an Integrated System---Or Is It?
81(2)
Culture Is a Shared System of Norms and Values---Or Is It?
83(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Culture and HIV
84(3)
Culture Is Constantly Changing
87(2)
A Closer Look
Diffusion: 100% American
89(2)
Rethinking Culture
91(3)
Summary
91(1)
Key Terms
92(1)
Suggested Readings
92(1)
Multimedia
93(1)
Language
94(26)
Origins and Development of Human Language
96(1)
Characteristics of Human Language
96(1)
Acquiring Language
97(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Nonhuman Primate Communication
98(3)
The Structure of Language
101(4)
Phonology
101(2)
Morphology
103(1)
Syntax
104(1)
Semantics: The Lexicon
104(1)
Language and Culture
105(1)
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
105(1)
Global Connections
Endangered Languages
106(1)
A Closer Look
Genderlects
107(1)
The Ethnography of Communication
108(1)
Languages and Dialects
109(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Indian and the Whiteman
110(1)
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
111(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Ebonics
113(1)
Nonverbal Communication
114(2)
Language Change
116(4)
Changing Sounds
116(1)
Changing Syntax
116(1)
Changing Lexicon
117(1)
Summary
118(1)
Key Terms
118(1)
Suggested Readings
119(1)
Multimedia
119(1)
Learning Culture Throughout Life
120(18)
Becoming a Social Person
122(1)
A Closer Look
Culture and Personality Studies: An Historical Perspective
123(1)
Cross-Cultural Variation in Child Rearing
124(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Preschools in Japan, China, and the United States
125(3)
Coming of Age in Cross-Cultural Perspective
128(4)
Male Initiation Rituals
129(1)
Female Initiation
130(1)
College and Coming of Age in the United States
131(1)
Learning Culture in Adulthood
132(1)
Old Age
133(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Aging among the Ju/'hoansi of Botswana
134(1)
Death and Dying
135(3)
Summary
136(1)
Key Terms
137(1)
Suggested Readings
137(1)
Multimedia
137(1)
PART TWO: Families in Society
Making a Living
138(24)
Human Adaptation and the Environment
140(1)
Global Connections
Where's the Beef?
141(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Indigenous Healing in South Africa
142(1)
Major Types of Subsistence Strategies
143(2)
Foraging
144(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Complex Strategy of Australian Foragers
145(2)
Pastoralism
147(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Maasai of East Africa: A Transhumant Pastoral Adaptation
148(3)
Horticulture
151(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Lua': Swidden Cultivators in Thailand
152(2)
Agriculture
154(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
A Peasant Village in Upper Egypt
155(2)
Perspectives in Anthropology
A Successful Agricultural Intervention in Bolivia
157(1)
Making a Living in the Industrial and Postindustrial Global Economy
158(4)
Taiwan: Transition to Industrialism in the Global Economy
158(1)
Characteristics of Industrial and Postindustrial Society
159(1)
Summary
160(1)
Key Terms
160(1)
Suggested Readings
161(1)
Multimedia
161(1)
Economics
162(26)
Economic Systems
164(1)
Economic Behavior
164(1)
Production
165(4)
Allocating Resources
165(3)
Organizing Labor
168(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Plantation Archaeology
169(4)
Distribution: Systems of Exchange
173(2)
Reciprocity
173(2)
A Closer Look
The Kula Ring
175(1)
Redistribution
176(3)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Anthropologists in Business
179(1)
Market Exchange
179(1)
Global Connections
West African Traders in New York City
180(2)
In the Field: Ethnography
Women and Labor in Urban Turkey
182(3)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
186(1)
Suggested Readings
186(1)
Multimedia
187(1)
Marriage, Family, and Domestic Groups
188(24)
Functions of Marriage and the Family
190(1)
Global Connections
International Rights of Children
191(1)
Marriage Rules
192(6)
Incest Taboos
192(1)
Exogamy
193(1)
Endogamy
194(1)
Preferential Marriages
194(1)
The Levirate and the Sororate
195(1)
Number of Spouses
196(2)
Choosing a Mate
198(1)
Exchange of Rights and Goods at Marriage
198(4)
Bride Service and Bridewealth
199(2)
Dowry
201(1)
Families, Domestic Groups, and Rules of Residence
202(1)
The Nuclear Family and Neolocal Residence
202(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Family Violence and the Cultural Defense
203(1)
Composite Families
204(1)
Extended Families
205(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Matrilineal Families among the Minangkabau of Sumatra
206(4)
Summary
210(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Suggested Readings
211(1)
Multimedia
211(1)
Kinship
212(20)
Kinship: Relationships through Blood and Marriage
214(1)
Rules of Descent and the Formation of Descent Groups
214(1)
Unilineal Descent Groups
215(3)
Patrilineal Descent Groups
216(1)
Matrilineal Descent Groups
217(1)
A Closer Look
Rules and Realities: Conflict over Inheritance in a Korean Village
218(2)
Double Descent
220(1)
Global Connections
Kinship and Transmigration
221(1)
Nonunilineal Kinship Systems
221(1)
The Classification of Kin
222(2)
Principles for Classifying Kin
223(1)
Types of Kinship Terminologies
223(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Kinship Classification Systems in Action: A Comparison between North America and North India
224(5)
Summary
229(1)
Key Terms
230(1)
Suggested Readings
230(1)
Multimedia
231(1)
PART THREE: Equalities and Inequalities
Gender
232(20)
The Cultural Construction of Gender
234(2)
The Pioneering Work of Margaret Mead
234(1)
Alternative Sexes, Alternative Genders
235(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Hijras: An Alternative Gender Role in India
236(2)
Cultural Variation in Sexual Behavior
238(1)
Sexuality and the Cultural Construction of Gender
239(2)
The Construction of Masculinity in Spain
240(1)
Proving Manhood: A Cultural Universal?
240(1)
Gender Roles and the Status of Women
241(1)
Global Connections
Female Circumcision: An International Human Rights Issue
242(1)
Gender Relations: Complex and Variable
243(2)
Challenging ``Man the Hunter''
244(1)
Women and the Distribution of Power in Foraging Societies
244(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Men, Women, and the Evolution of Bipedalism
245(1)
Gender Relations in Horticultural Societies
246(2)
Economic Development and the Status of Women
248(1)
Technology and Gender Roles
248(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Advocating for Female Workers in the Global Economy
249(1)
Summary
250(1)
Key Terms
250(1)
Suggested Readings
250(1)
Multimedia
251(1)
Political Organization
252(24)
Social Differentiation
254(1)
Egalitarian Societies
254(1)
Rank Societies
254(1)
Stratified Societies
254(1)
Power and Social Control
254(4)
Formal and Informal Sources of Power and Authority
256(1)
Law: Social Control and Conflict Management
257(1)
Types of Political Organization
258(5)
Band Societies
258(2)
Tribal Societies
260(3)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Alternative Forms of Conflict Resolution
263(2)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Violence and ``Human Nature''
265(1)
Chiefdoms
266(2)
State Societies
268(2)
In the Field: Ethnography
Wealth and Power in the Precolonial Asante State
270(3)
Global Connections
The Economic Power of Political Borders
273(1)
Summary
274(1)
Key Terms
275(1)
Suggested Readings
275(1)
Multimedia
275(1)
Social Stratification in Contemporary Societies: Class, Caste, and Race
276(20)
Explaining Social Stratification
278(1)
Criteria of Stratification: Power, Wealth, and Prestige
279(1)
Global Connections
A Touch of Class, Global Style
280(1)
Ascription and Achievement
281(1)
Social Class in the United States
281(2)
Caste
283(1)
The Caste System in India
283(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
Downward Mobility in the United States
284(2)
The Dynamics of Caste
286(1)
Changes in the Caste System
286(1)
Stratification and Race
287(3)
Racial Stratification in the United States
288(1)
``Racial'' Minorities and School Achievement
288(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Anthropologists Take a Stand Against Racism
290(1)
Racial Stratification Systems: A Comparison of the United States and Brazil
291(3)
Summary
294(1)
Key Terms
294(1)
Suggested Readings
294(1)
Multimedia
295(1)
Ethnicity
296(24)
Perspectives on Ethnicity
298(1)
An Essentialist Perspective
298(1)
A Constructionist Perspective
298(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Who Is Kennewick Man?
299(2)
The Nation-State and Ethnicity
301(3)
How the Nation-State Shapes Ethnicity
302(1)
The Nation-State and Ethnic Conflict
303(1)
Global Connections
Refugees and Political Asylum: A Global Problem
304(1)
Nation-States and Indigenous Peoples
305(4)
The Imposition of Western Law
306(1)
Saami Reindeer Herders and the Nation-State
307(2)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnicity in the United States
309(3)
Ethnicity and Immigration
310(1)
The American Discourse on Immigration
311(1)
U.S. Models of Cultural Diversity
312(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Anthropologists as Advocates for Indigenous Peoples
312(2)
In the Field: Ethnography
The New Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
314(3)
Summary
317(1)
Key Terms
318(1)
Suggested Readings
319(1)
Multimedia
319(1)
PART FOUR: Symbols and Meanings
Religion
320(28)
What Religion Does in Society
322(1)
Searching for Order and Meaning
322(1)
A Closer Look
Religion and Ecology
323(1)
Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Control
324(1)
Reinforcing or Modifying the Social Order
324(1)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Population Growth, Fertility, and Religion
325(1)
Characteristics of Religions
326(7)
Sacred Narratives and Symbols
326(1)
The World of Spirits and Sacred Powers
327(2)
Religious Rituals
329(2)
Means of Addressing the Supernatural
331(2)
Religious Practitioners
333(1)
Shamans
333(1)
Global Connections
The Globalization of Religion in the United States
334(2)
Priests
336(1)
Perspectives in Anthropology
The Ethnoarchaeology of Witchcraft and Gender Among the Mura
337(1)
Witchcraft and Sorcery
338(1)
What Are Witchcraft and Sorcery?
338(1)
Accusations of Witchcraft or Sorcery
338(1)
Modern Witches, Wiccans, and Neopagans
339(1)
Religion and Change
339(3)
Religion and Resistance
340(1)
Religious Nativism and Vitalism
340(1)
Religious Change in Native North America
341(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Rastafari: Religion and Resistance to Domination
342(4)
Summary
346(1)
Key Terms
346(1)
Suggested Readings
347(1)
Multimedia
347(1)
The Arts: Expressing Cultural Identities
348(20)
Anthropological Perspectives on Art
350(2)
The Artist in Society
350(2)
Artistic Styles
352(1)
Global Connections
World Beat
352(1)
Some Functions of Art
353(2)
Art in Ritual: Controlling the Environment
353(1)
Art and the Display of Cultural Themes
353(2)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Paleolithic Cave Art
355(1)
The Integrative Function of the Arts
355(1)
Cultural Identity: Art, Power, and the Making of History
356(1)
A Closer Look
Bhangra: Resistance and Assimilation
356(2)
Deep Play as a Form of Art
358(1)
Representing the Other in Art
359(3)
Orientalism in European Art: Picturing the Middle East
359(2)
Representing Europeans: Performing the Conquest in Latin America
361(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
The Arts, Tourism, and Cultural Identity among the Toraja
362(2)
Marketing Cultural Identities through the Arts
364(4)
Summary
365(1)
Key Terms
366(1)
Suggested Readings
366(1)
Multimedia
367(1)
PART FIVE: Culture Change
Culture Change in the Modern World
368(26)
The World in 1400
370(1)
European Expansion: Motives and Methods
370(2)
Perspectives in Anthropology
Why the Natives Died
372(1)
Pillage
372(1)
Forced Labor
372(2)
Joint Stock Companies
374(1)
The Era of Colonialism
375(4)
Colonizing the Americas
376(1)
Colonizing in the Nineteenth Century
377(1)
Making Colonialism Pay
378(1)
In the Field: Ethnography
African Soldiers of Misfortune
379(1)
Colonialism and Anthropology
380(1)
Independence and Poverty
381(1)
A Closer Look
Colonialism, Change, and Cargo Cults
382(1)
Development
383(2)
Anthropology Makes a Difference
Development Anthropology and the Anthropology of Development
385(1)
Multinational Corporations
386(1)
Urbanization
387(2)
Population Pressure
389(1)
Instability
390(2)
Summary
392(1)
Key Terms
392(1)
Suggested Readings
392(1)
Multimedia
393(1)
APPENDIX A Brief Historical Guide to Anthropological Theory
394(7)
Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism
394(1)
The Early Sociologists
395(1)
American Historical Particularism
395(1)
Functionalism
395(1)
Culture and Personality
396(1)
Cultural Ecology and Neo-Evolutionism
396(1)
Neo-Materialism: Evolutionary, Functionalist, Ecological, and Marxist
396(1)
Structuralism
397(1)
Ethnoscience and Cognitive Anthropology
397(1)
Sociobiology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Behavioral Ecology
398(1)
Anthropology and Gender
398(1)
Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology
399(1)
Postmodernism and Its Critics
399(1)
Multimedia
400(1)
Glossary 401(10)
References 411(16)
Photo Credits 427(2)
Index 429


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