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Cutlip and Center's Effective Public Relations,9780130082008
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Cutlip and Center's Effective Public Relations

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780130082008

ISBN10:
0130082007
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $136.00

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Summary

Effective Public Relations presents a comprehensive summary of public relations concepts, theory, principles, history, management, and practices. This "bible" of the public relations field continues in its role as the single most authoritative and complete reference for public relations professionals.Still the most comprehensive and authoritative introductory book, continuing its long-standing tradition as the most-cited reference book. Often referred to as the "bible of public relations," the new edition covers the many aspects of public relations theory and practice in a variety of settings. This text also serves as the basic reference for accreditation programs worldwide. Updates examples, sources, and references to provide readers with contemporary cases, contexts, and perspectives that illustrate major concepts and issues essential to understanding the field. The new edition offers an up-to-date synthesis and interpretation of the scholarly and professional literature. Expands discussions of how the public relations field relates to marketing, integrated marketing communication (IMC), and related management functions, clarifying the unique and essential role of the public relations management function in organizations.An excellent,essentialdesk reference for those in the practice.

Author Biography

Glen M. Broom is Professor, School of Communication, San Diego State University, and Adjunct Professor, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART 1 CONCEPT, PRACTITIONERS, CONTEXT, AND ORIGINS
1(117)
Introduction to Contemporary Public Relations
1(28)
Study Guide
1(1)
Evolution of the Concept
2(2)
Defining the Concept in Practice
4(1)
Public Relations Defined
5(2)
Confusion with Marketing
7(2)
Parts of the Function
9(13)
Internal Relations
9(1)
Publicity
10(2)
Advertising
12(2)
Press Agentry
14(1)
Public Affairs
15(1)
Lobbying
16(3)
Issues Management
19(1)
Investor Relations
20(2)
Development
22(1)
Confusion of Terms
22(1)
Toward Recognition and Maturity
23(3)
Notes
26(2)
Additional Sources
28(1)
Practitioners of Public Relations
29(24)
Study Guide
29(1)
Number and Distribution
30(2)
Where They Work
30(2)
The New Majority: Women
32(1)
Education and Preparation
32(1)
Salaries
33(1)
Work Assignments
34(3)
Roles
37(4)
Communication Technician
38(2)
Expert Prescriber
40(1)
Communication Facilitator
41(1)
Problem-Solving Facilitator
41(1)
What Roles Research Tells Us
41(3)
Technicians Versus Managers
42(1)
Environmental Influences
43(1)
Scanning and Evaluation
43(1)
The Glass Ceiling
44(1)
Minorities
45(1)
Professionalism
45(3)
Requirements for Success
48(2)
Notes
50(2)
Additional Sources
52(1)
Organizational Settings
53(34)
Study Guide
53(1)
Origins within Organizations
54(2)
Establishing a Public Relations Department
55(1)
Retaining Outside Counsel
55(1)
Public Relations Starts with Top Management
56(2)
Staff Role
58(1)
Role in Decision Making
59(2)
The Internal Department
61(6)
The Department's Advantages
62(1)
The Department's Disadvantages
63(1)
Titles and Reporting Relationships
64(2)
Determinants of Excellence
66(1)
Working with Other Departments
67(3)
Marketing
67(1)
Legal Counsel
68(1)
Human Resources
69(1)
The Outside Counseling Firm
70(11)
Public Relations Firms
70(2)
Advertising Agency Ownership
72(1)
Specialization
73(2)
Reasons for Retaining Outside Counsel
75(1)
Client-Firm Relationships
75(3)
Counselors' Advantages
78(1)
Counselors' Handicaps
79(1)
Counseling Firm Costs
80(1)
New Approaches
81(2)
Notes
83(2)
Additional Sources
85(2)
Historical Origins
87(31)
Study Guide
87(1)
Ancient Genesis
88(1)
American Beginnings: Born in Adversity and Change
88(6)
Before the Revolution
88(1)
Independence
89(2)
Growth and Change
91(1)
Press Agentry Origins
92(1)
Business Practices
93(1)
First Corporate Department
93(1)
Evolution to Maturity
94(2)
Seedbed Era: 1900-1916
96(5)
Early Firms
96(2)
Early Pioneers
98(3)
Growth in Other Areas
101(1)
World War I Period: 1917--1918
101(2)
Booming Twenties Era: 1919--1929
103(3)
Roosevelt Era and World War II: 1930-1945
106(2)
Postwar Boom: 1946--1964
108(2)
Period of Protest and Empowerment (1965--1985)
110(3)
Digital Age and Globalization (1965--Present)
113(1)
Notes
113(4)
Additional Sources
117(1)
PART 2 FOUNDATIONS
118(163)
Ethics and Professionalism
118(29)
Study Guide
118(1)
Philosophical Foundations of Ethics
119(3)
Utilitarian Philosophy
120(1)
Deontological Philosophy
120(1)
Benefits of Deontology
121(1)
Ethical Foundations of Professionalism
122(3)
Professional Ethics
122(1)
The Imperative of Trust
123(1)
Professional Privilege
123(1)
Social Responsibility
124(1)
Criteria of a Profession
125(1)
Professional Education
126(1)
Degree Programs
126(1)
Continuing Education
127(1)
Research and the Body of Knowledge
127(2)
Support for Research
128(1)
The Literature
128(1)
Licensing and Accreditation
129(3)
Legal Considerations
130(1)
Accreditation
131(1)
Professional Organizations
132(6)
International Professional Organizations
132(2)
National Professional Organizations
134(1)
Specialized, Regional, and Local Associations
135(2)
Student Organizations
137(1)
Codes of Ethics
138(3)
Winning Acceptance and Stature
141(2)
Toward a Promising Future
143(1)
Notes
143(3)
Additional Sources
146(1)
Legal Considerations
147(27)
Study Guide
147(1)
What Is Law?
148(2)
Public Relations and the First Amendment
150(1)
Public Relations Access to Mass Media
151(2)
Print Media
151(1)
Broadcast Media
151(1)
Cable Systems
152(1)
The Internet
152(1)
Access to Government Information and Meetings
153(1)
Corporate Political Expression
154(1)
Lobbying
155(3)
Labor Relations
158(1)
Representative Elections
158(1)
Collective Bargaining
158(1)
Regulation of Publicly Owned Companies
159(2)
Copyright and Trademark Law
161(3)
Copyright
161(2)
Trademarks
163(1)
Tort Law: Libel and Privacy Invasion
164(4)
Libel
164(3)
Privacy
167(1)
Other Legal Issues
168(1)
Litigation Public Relations
168(1)
Contract Law
168(1)
Postscript
169(1)
Notes
169(4)
Additional Sources
173(1)
Theoretical Underpinnings: Adjustment and Adaptation
174(21)
Study Guide
174(1)
The Ecological Approach
175(1)
Tracking the Trends
176(1)
A Systems Perspective
176(5)
Environmental Change Pressures
178(1)
Subsystems and Suprasystems
179(1)
Organizations as Systems
180(1)
Open and Closed Systems
181(2)
Cybernetics in Open Systems
183(4)
Open Systems Model of Public Relations
187(4)
Notes
191(2)
Additional Sources
193(2)
Communication and Public Opinion
195(27)
Study Guide
195(1)
The Battle for Attention
196(1)
Dissemination Versus Communication
197(1)
Elements of the Communication Model
198(5)
The Sender
198(1)
The Message
199(1)
The Medium or Channel
200(1)
The Receivers
201(1)
Context of the Relationship
201(1)
The Social Environment
202(1)
Communication Effects
203(3)
Creating Perceptions of the World around Us
203(1)
Setting the Agenda
204(1)
Diffusing Information and Innovation
205(1)
Defining Social Support
205(1)
Publics and Their Opinions
206(5)
Definition of Public Opinion
207(2)
Publics
209(2)
Individual Orientations and Coorientation
211(6)
Orientation
211(1)
Coorientation
212(1)
Coorientational Consensus
213(2)
Coorientational Relationships
215(2)
Notes
217(3)
Additional Sources
220(2)
Internal Relations and Employee Communication
222(29)
Study Guide
222(1)
Importance of Internal Relations
223(2)
Organizational Culture
225(5)
Culture and Power
227(1)
Dominant Coalition's Impact on Public Relations
227(1)
Worldview and Organizational Culture
228(2)
Internal Relations Challenges
230(4)
Safety and Compliance
231(1)
Labor Relations
231(1)
Organizational Change: Mergers, Acquisitions, and Layoffs
232(2)
Communicating Internally
234(3)
Vision Statements
234(1)
Mission Statements
235(1)
Policy Documents
235(1)
Training Materials
236(1)
Internal Media
237(6)
Employee Publications
237(2)
Newsletters
239(1)
Letters
239(2)
Inserts and Enclosures
241(1)
Published Speeches, Position Papers, and ``Backgrounders''
241(1)
Bulletin Boards and Electronic Notices
242(1)
Face-to-Face Communication and the ``Grapevine''
243(5)
Hotlines
243(1)
Meetings and Teleconferences
244(1)
Video and Film Presentations
245(2)
Displays
247(1)
Notes
248(2)
Additional Sources
250(1)
External Media and Media Relations
251(30)
Study Guide
251(1)
New Media, New Challenges
252(2)
Traditional Media, New Uses
254(12)
Newspapers
255(2)
Wire Services and News Syndicates
257(3)
Magazines
260(1)
Radio
261(2)
Television
263(3)
Cable and Satellite Television
266(1)
Working with the Media
266(11)
The Person in the Middle
268(2)
Guidelines for Good Media Relations
270(3)
Guidelines for Working with the Press
273(4)
Notes
277(3)
Additional Sources
280(1)
PART 3 MANAGEMENT PROCESS
281(105)
Step One: Defining Public Relations Problems
281(27)
Study Guide
281(1)
Management Process
282(2)
Role of Research in Strategic Planning
284(1)
Research Attitude
284(1)
Listening as Systematic Research
285(2)
Defining Public Relations Problems
287(5)
Problem Statement
287(1)
Situation Analysis
288(4)
Research Process
292(1)
Informal or ``Exploratory'' Methods
293(6)
Personal Contacts
293(1)
Key Informants
294(1)
Focus Groups and Community Forums
294(1)
Advisory Committees and Boards
295(1)
Ombudsman or Ombuds Officer
296(1)
Call-In Telephone Lines
297(1)
Mail Analysis
298(1)
Online Sources
298(1)
Field Reports
299(1)
Formal Methods
299(6)
Secondary Analysis and Online Databases
301(1)
Content Analysis
302(1)
Surveys
302(3)
Notes
305(2)
Additional Sources
307(1)
Step Two: Planning and Programming
308(30)
Study Guide
308(1)
Strategic Thinking
309(3)
Public Relations as Part of Strategic Thinking
309(1)
Management Expectations
310(2)
Strategic Management
312(5)
Mission Statements
313(1)
Management by Objectives
314(1)
Strategy and Tactics
315(1)
Reasons for Planning
316(1)
Writing the Program
317(8)
Program Plan
317(1)
Role of Working Theory
318(3)
Defining Target Publics
321(2)
Writing Program Objectives
323(2)
Planning for Program Implementation
325(10)
Writing Planning Scenarios
325(1)
Anticipating Disasters and Crises
326(3)
Establishing an Information Center
329(2)
Budgeting
331(1)
Pretesting Program Elements
332(2)
Selling the Plan
334(1)
Notes
335(2)
Additional Sources
337(1)
Step Three: Taking Action and Communicating
338(23)
Study Guide
338(1)
Action and Communication
338(1)
The Action Component of Strategy
339(5)
Acting Responsively and Responsibly
339(1)
Coordinating Action and Communication
340(2)
Action as an Open Systems Response
342(2)
Communication Component of Strategy
344(13)
Framing the Message
344(4)
Semantics
348(1)
Symbols
349(2)
Barriers and Stereotypes
351(2)
Putting It All Together in a Campaign
353(1)
Disseminating the Message
354(2)
Reconsidering the Process
356(1)
Implementing the Strategy
357(1)
Notes
358(2)
Additional Sources
360(1)
Step Four: Evaluating the Program
361(25)
Study Guide
361(1)
The Push for Measurable Results
362(2)
Evaluation Research Process
364(3)
Levels of Program Evaluation
367(14)
Preparation Criteria and Methods
368(3)
Implementation Criteria and Methods
371(5)
Impact Criteria and Methods
376(5)
Interpreting and Using Results of Evaluation
381(2)
Notes
383(2)
Additional Sources
385(1)
PART 4 THE PRACTICE
386(90)
Business and Industry Public Relations
386(24)
Study Guide
386(1)
The Profit Motive
387(1)
Public Relations in Corporate Organizations
388(2)
Corporate Social Responsibility
390(6)
Corporate Philanthropy
396(1)
Corporate Financial Relations
397(1)
Business Misconduct
398(5)
Remedies for Corporate Misbehavior
403(1)
Restoring Public Trust
404(1)
Terrorism and Corporate Security
404(2)
Globalization
406(1)
Notes
407(2)
Additional Sources
409(1)
Government and Public Affairs
410(33)
Study Guide
410(1)
The Goals of Public Affairs in Government
411(1)
Informing Constituents
412(3)
U.S. Department of State
413(1)
International Broadcasting
414(1)
Ensuring Active Cooperation in Government Programs
415(1)
Fostering Citizen Support
416(3)
Public Participation
417(1)
Public Opinion Surveys
418(1)
Serving as the Public's Advocate
419(1)
Electronic Government and Citizen Participation
420(1)
Managing Information Internally
421(1)
Facilitating Media Relations
421(1)
Building Community and Nation
422(2)
U.S. Programs
422(1)
Other Nations
423(1)
Barriers to Effective Government Public Affairs
424(5)
Questionable Credibility
424(1)
Public Apathy
425(1)
Legislative Hostility
426(3)
Government-Media Relations
429(5)
Media Access to Government
429(1)
Government Dependence on Media
430(2)
Media Reporting of Government
432(2)
Military Public Affairs
434(1)
Government as Business
435(2)
Public Affairs in Politics
437(1)
Notes
438(4)
Additional Sources
442(1)
Nonprofits, Trade Associations, and Nongovernmental Organizations
443(33)
Study Guide
443(1)
The Third Sector
444(5)
Defining Nonprofit Organizations
444(1)
Volunteerism and Philanthropy
445(1)
Changing Climate
445(4)
Role of Public Relations in Nonprofit Organizations
449(2)
Foundations
451(1)
Social Service Agencies
451(2)
Health Care
453(4)
Health Care in Crisis
453(1)
Health-Care Public Relations and Marketing
454(1)
Role of the News Media
455(2)
Education
457(4)
Accountability
457(1)
Public Relations for Public Schools
457(2)
Higher Education
459(2)
College Presidents' Public Relations Role
461(1)
Churches and Other Nonprofit Organizations
461(2)
Associations and Societies
463(4)
Types of Associations
463(2)
The Problem of Serving Many Masters
465(1)
Growing Importance of Public Relations
465(2)
The Nature of Programming
467(1)
Labor Unions
467(4)
The Role of Public Relations
469(1)
The Problem of Strikes
469(2)
The Challenge for Labor
471(1)
Notes
471(3)
Additional Sources
474(2)
Index 476


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