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Death, Society, and Human Experience,9780205264773

Death, Society, and Human Experience

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205264773

ISBN10:
0205264778
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
List Price: $54.00
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Summary

Landmark text in death education. Interdisciplinary approach. New chapter on HIV/AIDS. Includes case examples and reflective exercises to encourage students to reflect upon their own experiences with death issues.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xv
1 AS WE THINK ABOUT DEATH
1(24)
NOT THINKING ABOUT DEATH: A FAILED EXPERIMENT
2(2)
Listening and Communicating
3(1)
YOUR SELF-INVENTORY OF ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, AND FEELINGS
4(6)
SOME ANSWERS--AND THE QUESTIONS THEY RAISE
10(5)
Knowledge Base
10(2)
Attitudes, Experiences, Beliefs, Feelings
12(2)
How Does State of Mind Affect Death-Related Behavior?
14(1)
HUMANS ARE MORTAL: BUT WHAT DOES THAT HAVE TO DO WITH ME?
15(1)
ANXIETY, DENIAL, AND ACCEPTANCE: THREE CORE CONCEPTS
15(1)
THEORIES AND STUDIES OF DEATH ANXIETY
16(3)
How is Death Anxiety Studied?
16(1)
How Does Death Anxiety Influence Our Lives? Theoretical Perspectives
16(1)
How Much Do We Fear Death?
17(1)
Are There Gender Differences in Death Anxiety?
18(1)
Are There Age Differences in Death Anxiety?
18(1)
Is Death Anxiety Related to Mental Health and Illness?
18(1)
Back to Death Anxiety Theory
19(1)
ACCEPTING AND DENYING DEATH
19(6)
Types and Contexts of Acceptance and Denial
19(2)
The Interpersonal Side of Acceptance and Denial
21(1)
Anxiety, Denial, and Acceptance: How Should We Respond?
21(4)
2 WHAT IS DEATH? What Does Death Mean?
25(28)
COMPETING IDEAS ABOUT THE NATURE AND MEANING OF DEATH
26(2)
"When," "What," and "Why" Questions about Death
26(2)
BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF DEATH
28(4)
Traditional Determination of Death
28(1)
Ways of "Being Dead"
29(1)
Brain Death and the Harvard Criteria
30(1)
Whole-Brain or Neocortal Death?
31(1)
Event Versus State
32(1)
WHAT DOES DEATH MEAN?
32(21)
Interpretations of the Death State
33(2)
Cycling and Recycling
35(2)
Implications of the Ways in Which We Interpret Death
37(1)
Conditions That Resemble Death
37(6)
Conditions That Death Resembles
43(2)
Death As an Agent of Personal, Political, and Social Change
45(4)
Concepts of Death and Readiness to Die
49(4)
3 THE DEATH SYSTEM
53(26)
A WORLD WITHOUT DEATH
53(26)
General Consequences
56(1)
Personal Consequences
57(1)
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEATH SYSTEM
58(16)
A Working Definition
58(1)
Components of the Death System
59(4)
Functions of the Death System
63(11)
HOW OUR DEATH SYSTEM HAS BEEN CHANGING--AND THE "DEATHNIKS" WHO ARE MAKING A DIFFERENCE
74(5)
Changing Ways of Life, Changing Ways of Death
74(1)
The Beginnings of Death Education, Research, and Counseling
75(4)
4 CAUSES OF DEATH: YESTERDAY, TODAY, AND TOMORROW
79(8)
BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS
79(8)
Death Learns to Wait: The Increase in Life Expectancy and Longevity
80(1)
Leading Causes of Death in the United States Today
81(2)
Causes of Death in the Future?
83(4)
5 DYING Transition from Life
87(32)
WHAT IS DYING AND WHEN DOES IT BEGIN?
88(6)
Individual and Interpersonal Responses
88(3)
Onset of the Dying Process: Alternative Perspectives
91(3)
TRAJECTORIES OF DYING: FROM BEGINNING TO END
94(6)
Certainty and Time
95(1)
The Lingering Trajectory
96(1)
The Expected Quick Trajectory
97(1)
The Unexpected Quick Trajectory
98(1)
Life-or-Death Emergencies
99(1)
GUARDED FEELINGS, SUBTLE COMMUNICATIONS
100(6)
Difficulties in Communication
101(1)
Doctor-Patient Communication: The SUPPORT Study
102(1)
Improving Communication
103(3)
INDIVIDUALITY AND UNIVERSALITY IN THE EXPERIENCE OF DYING
106(4)
Factors that Influence the Experience of Dying
106(3)
Interpersonal Relationships
109(1)
Disease, Treatment, and Environment
109(1)
THEORETICAL MODELS OF THE DYING PROCESS
110(9)
Do We Die in Stages?
110(4)
Other Theoretical Models of the Dying Process
114(2)
Your Deathbed Scene
116(3)
6 THE HOSPICE APPROACH TO TERMINAL CARE
119(28)
HOSPICE: A NEW FLOWERING FROM ANCIENT ROOTS
120(2)
STANDARDS OF CARE FOR THE TERMINALLY ILL
122(3)
Hidden or Implicit Standards of Care
123(1)
Proposed Standards Recommended by the International Task Force
123(2)
ESTABLISHMENT OF HOSPICE PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES
125(2)
From Guidelines to Operational Programs
125(1)
Full Service and Partial Service Hospices
126(1)
THE HOSPICE IN ACTION
127(6)
Entering St. Christopher's
127(1)
Mother's Last Moments: A Daughter's Experience
128(2)
Helping Mrs. Doe: Excerpts from a Clinical Record
130(1)
Adult Respite Care
131(1)
Hospice-Inspired Care for Children
132(1)
IS THE HOSPICE EXPERIMENT WORKING?
133(5)
Is Hospice Care Really Helping Terminally Ill People and Their Families?
134(3)
The Cost of Hospice Care
137(1)
The Operational Success of Hospice Care
138(1)
YOUR DEATHBED SCENE, REVISITED
138(2)
ACCESS TO HOSPICE CARE AND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
140(2)
ON THE FUTURE OF HOSPICE CARE: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
142(5)
Hospice as Temple of Learning
143(4)
7 AIDS: LIVING IN THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW
147(28)
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
148(10)
Nature of the Disease
148(2)
Silent and Active Stages of HIV/AIDS
150(2)
How Did the AIDS Virus Become Part of Our Society?
152(2)
How Do Individuals Contract the AIDS Infection?
154(4)
Risky and Not-Risky Behaviors: A Summary
158(1)
THE CASUALTIES: AIDS-RELATED DEATHS
158(13)
AIDS in the United States
158(3)
AIDS Throughout the World
161(2)
Changing Patterns of AIDS in the U.S. Death System
163(7)
Comfort for Grief, Alternatives to Suicide
170(1)
The AIDS Watch: Continuing Developments
171(1)
APPENDIX: NATIONAL AIDS ORGANIZATIONS
171(4)
8 SUICIDE
175(32)
THE STATISTICAL PROFILE
176(4)
United States and World Suicide Rates
178(1)
The Human Side
179(1)
THREE PROBLEM AREAS
180(7)
Youth Suicide
180(4)
Suicide among Elderly Persons
184(2)
Suicide among Native Americans
186(1)
Balancing Individual and Cultural Influences on Suicide
187(1)
SOME CULTURAL MEANINGS OF SUICIDE
187(5)
Suicide as Sinful
187(2)
Suicide as Criminal
189(1)
Suicide as Weakness or Madness
189(1)
Suicide as "The Great Death"
190(1)
Suicide as Rational Alternative
191(1)
A POWERFUL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY OF SUICIDE
192(2)
The Importance of Social Integration
192(1)
Four Types of Suicide
193(1)
SOME INDIVIDUAL MEANINGS OF SUICIDE
194(4)
Suicide for Reunion
194(1)
Suicide for Rest and Refuge
195(1)
Suicide for Revenge
195(1)
Suicide As the Penalty for Failure
196(1)
Suicide As a Mistake
197(1)
A PSYCHOANALYTICAL APPROACH TO SUICIDE
198(1)
THE DESCENT TOWARD SUICIDE
199(1)
FACTS, MYTHS, AND GUIDELINES
200(1)
Popular Myths about Suicide
200(1)
SUICIDE PREVENTION
201(6)
Individual Guidelines to Suicide Prevention
201(1)
Systematic Approaches to Suicide Prevention
202(5)
9 VIOLENT DEATH: MURDER, TERRORISM, ACCIDENT, AND DISASTER
207(28)
MURDER
208(10)
Overview
208(1)
Murder: The Statistical Picture
208(2)
Patterns of Murder in the United States
210(1)
Domestic Violence: The Abused Woman Defends Herself
211(1)
People Who Kill Children
212(1)
Mass and Serial Killers: Who Are They and Why Do They Do It?
213(2)
Political Murder: Assassination in the United States
215(2)
Young Men with Guns
217(1)
TERRORISM
218(10)
Who is the Terrorist?
218(3)
Twentieth Century Terrorism
221(2)
Terrorism and the Death System Today
223(5)
ACCIDENT AND DISASTER
228(7)
Accidents
229(2)
Natural Disasters
231(4)
10 ASSISTED DEATH AND THE RIGHT TO DIE
235(36)
"I SWEAR BY APOLLO THE PHYSICIAN": WHAT HAPPENED TO THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH?
236(1)
KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
237(4)
OUR CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD A RIGHT TO DIE
241(2)
Survey Findings
241(2)
THE RIGHT-TO-DIE DILEMMA: CASE EXAMPLES
243(9)
The Ethics of Withdrawing Treatment: The Landmark Quinlan Case
243(1)
"It's Over, Debbie": Compassion or Murder?
244(2)
An Arrow through the Physician's Armor
246(1)
Does a Person Have to Be Dying to Have the Right to Die?
247(2)
Competent to Decide?
249(2)
A Supreme Court Ruling: The Nancy Cruzan Case
251(1)
RIGHT-TO-DIE DECISIONS THAT WE CAN MAKE
252(6)
From Living Will to Patient's Self-Determination Act
253(1)
Informed Consent and the Patient's Self-Determination Act
254(3)
A Right Not to Die? The Cryonics Alternative
257(1)
DR. KEVORKIAN AND THE ASSISTED SUICIDE MOVEMENT
258(13)
The Netherlands: A Social Experiment Watched Closely by the World
259(1)
Assisted Death in the Kevorkian Manner
260(3)
Evaluating Kevorkian's Approach
263(1)
Compassion in Dying: An Alternative Model
264(2)
New Developments in the Legalization of Assisted Suicide
266(1)
A Personal Word
267(4)
11 DEATH IN THE WORLD OF CHILDHOOD
271(36)
ADULT ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT CHILDREN AND DEATH
272(2)
CHILDREN DO THINK ABOUT DEATH
274(9)
Early Experiences with Death in Childhood
274(2)
Death in the Songs and Games of Childhood
276(1)
Research and Clinical Evidence
277(1)
Research Case Histories
278(5)
CONCEPTS OF DEATH: DEVELOPING THROUGH EXPERIENCE
283(7)
"Auntie Death's" Pioneering Study
284(2)
Evaluating Nagy's contribution
286(1)
Developmental Level--More Important Than Chronological Age?
287(1)
Does Anxiety Influence Children's Thoughts about Death?
288(1)
Cultural Influences on Children's Concepts of Death
289(1)
HOW DO CHILDREN COPE WITH BEREAVEMENT?
290(4)
A Death in the Family: Effects on the Child
290(2)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following a Violent Death
292(1)
Long-term Effects of Childhood Bereavement
292(2)
HELPING CHILDREN COPE WITH BEREAVEMENT
294(2)
THE DYING CHILD
296(5)
Care of the Dying Child
299(1)
Siblings of the Dying Child
300(1)
SHARING THE CHILD'S DEATH CONCERNS: A FEW GUIDELINES
301(1)
THE `RIGHT' TO DECIDE: SHOULD THE CHILD'S VOICE BE HEARD?
302(5)
12 BEREAVEMENT, GRIEF, AND MOURNING
307(40)
DEFINING OUR TERMS: BEREAVEMENT, GRIEF, MOURNING
309(7)
Bereavement: An Objective Fact
309(1)
Grief: A Painful Response
310(3)
Mourning: A Signal of Distress
313(3)
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON GRIEF
316(6)
The Griefwork Theory
317(1)
Interpersonal Applications of Griefwork Theory
318(2)
Other Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Grief
320(2)
HOW DO PEOPLE RECOVER FROM GRIEF?
322(13)
When a Spouse Dies
322(4)
Types of Recovery from the Impact of Marital Bereavement
326(3)
The Family that Has Lost a Child
329(4)
Bereavement in Later Life
333(1)
Grief Responses to Traumatic and Stigmatized Deaths
334(1)
ARE BEREAVED PEOPLE AT HIGHER RISK FOR DEATH?
335(3)
Differential Mortality Risk: The Statistical Pattern
335(1)
Who Is Most at Risk?
336(1)
What Are the Leading Causes of Death among the Bereaved?
336(1)
Hidden and Disenfranchised Grief
337(1)
LIMITED SUPPORT FOR THE BEREAVED
338(2)
American Society's Discomfort with Grief and Mourning
338(1)
Time for Grief--But Not Much Time
339(1)
MEANINGFUL HELP FOR BEREAVED PEOPLE
340(7)
Widow to Widow: The Phyllis Silverman Interview
340(1)
Helpful and Unhelpful Responses to the Bereaved Person
341(6)
13 THE FUNERAL PROCESS
347(32)
FROM DEAD BODY TO LIVING MEMORY: A PROCESS APPROACH
350(6)
Common Elements of the Funeral Process
350(3)
The Funeral Service
353(2)
Memorializing the Deceased
355(1)
Getting on with Life
355(1)
MAKING DEATH "LEGAL"
356(4)
Establishing the Facts of Death
356(2)
The Medical Examiner and the Autopsy
358(1)
Body, Property, and the Law
359(1)
WHAT DOES THE FUNERAL PROCESS ACCOMPLISH?
360(9)
When Great People Die
360(1)
Death Makes a Hero
361(2)
Hiding the Illustrious Dead
363(1)
Balancing the Claims of the Living and the Dead
364(2)
Memories of Our People: Ethnic Cemeteries in the United States
366(3)
THE PLACE OF THE DEAD IN SOCIETY, YESTERDAY AND TODAY
369(3)
An Ethical Position on the Treatment of Human Remains: The Vermillion Accord
370(1)
"You Were the Best Dog Ever": The Pet Cemetery
371(1)
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS: A FUNERAL DIRECTOR'S PERSPECTIVE
372(2)
IMPROVING THE FUNERAL PROCESS
374(5)
Alternative Funerals
375(1)
Spontaneous Memorialization in Response to Violent Death
375(4)
14 DO WE SURVIVE DEATH?
379(30)
CONCEPT OF SURVIVAL IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
380(3)
Does Survival Have to Be Proved?
381(2)
NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES: NEW EVIDENCE FOR SURVIVAL?
383(11)
The Primary, or Moody-Type, Near-Death Experience
383(2)
Evidence Favoring the NDE as Proof of Survival
385(1)
The Sabom Study: Independent Verification of NDE Phenomena
386(1)
Eliminating Other Explanations
387(1)
Can Interview and Questionnaire Data Prove That NDE Survivors Have Actually Survived Death?
387(1)
Has NDE Research Ended Before It Really Started?
388(1)
Evidence and Logic against the Near-Death Experience as Evidence for Survival
389(1)
Mysticism, Depersonalization, and Hyperalertness in Response to Crisis
390(1)
When Do People Not Have NDEs? An Alternative Explanation
391(1)
Are NDEs Hallucinations?
392(1)
NDEs as Exercises in Religious Imagination?
392(1)
The NDER as a Healing and Illuminating Metaphor
393(1)
Is a Conclusion Possible?
OTHER TYPES OF POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR SURVIVAL
394(6)
Deathbed Escorts
394(1)
Guardian Angels
395(2)
Communicating with the Dead?
397(1)
When Spiritism Was in Flower
397(1)
Channeling and Past Life Regression
398(1)
The Psychomanteum and Reunion with the Dead
398(1)
Reincarnation
399(1)
SHOULD WE SURVIVE DEATH?
400(2)
BUT WHAT KIND OF SURVIVAL?
402(1)
YOUR THOUGHTS ON SURVIVAL: A REVIEW
403(1)
THE SUICIDE-SURVIVAL CONNECTION
404(5)
15 HOW CAN WE HELP? The Promise of Death Education and Counseling
409(18)
DEATH EDUCATORS AND COUNSELORS: THE "BORDER PATROL"
410(1)
DEATH EDUCATION IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
411(3)
From Ancient Times
411(3)
DEATH EDUCATION AND COUNSELING: THE CURRENT SCENE
414(5)
How Effective is Death Education?
416(1)
The Expanding Scope of Death Education
417(2)
COUNSELING AND THE COUNSELORS
419(3)
Characteristics of Professionals in the Death System
419(2)
Counseling and Psychotherapy
421(1)
HOW WE ALL CAN HELP
422(1)
APPENDIX: SELECTED LEARNING RESOURCES
423(4)
National Organizations with Interests and Expertise in Related Issues
423(1)
Scholarly and Professional Journals
424(1)
Selected Videos
424(3)
INDEX 427


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