9780226805368

Democracy in America

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780226805368

  • ISBN10:

    0226805360

  • Edition: Reprint
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 4/1/2002
  • Publisher: Univ of Chicago Pr

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Summary

The complete edition based on the revised and corrected text of the 1961 French edition Originally penned in the mid-eighteenth century by Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America remains the most penetrating and astute picture of American life, politics, and morals ever written, as relevant today as when it first appeared in print nearly two hundred years ago. This edition, meticulously edited by the distinguished de Tocqueville scholar J. P. Mayer, is widely recognized as the preeminent translation.

Author Biography

Harvey C. Mansfield is the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Government at Harvard University. Political philosopher and author, he is acknowledged as a leading translator of Machiavelli.

Delba Winthrop is a Lecturer in Extension and administrator of the Program on Constitutional Government at Harvard University. Her articles and essays have appeared in numerous publications.

Table of Contents

Editors' Introduction xvii
Suggested Readings lxxxvii
A Note on the Translation xci
Introduction 3(16)
PART ONE
External Configuration of North America
19(8)
On the Point of Departure and Its Importance for the Future of the Anglo-Americans
27(18)
Reasons for Some Singularities That the Laws and Customs of the Anglo-Americans Present
44(1)
Social State of the Anglo-Americans
45(8)
That the Salient Point of the Social State of the Anglo-Americans Is Its Being Essentially Democratic
46(6)
Political Consequences of the Social State of the Anglo-Americans
52(1)
On the Principle of the Sovereignty of the People in America
53(3)
Necessity of Studying What Takes Place in the Particular States before Speaking of the Government of the Union
56(37)
On the Township System in America
57(1)
Size of the Township
58(1)
Powers of the Township in New England
58(3)
On Township Existence
61(2)
On the Spirit of the Township in New England
63(2)
On the Country in New England
65(1)
On Administration in New England
66(9)
General Ideas about Administration in the United States
75(4)
On the State
79(1)
Legislative Power of the State
80(1)
On the Executive Power of the State
81(1)
On the Political Effects of Administrative Decentralization in the United States
82(11)
On Judicial Power in the United States and Its Action on Political Society
93(7)
Other Powers Granted to American Judges
98(2)
On Political Judgment in the United States
100(5)
On the Federal Constitution
105(60)
History of the Federal Constitution
105(2)
Summary Picture of the Federal Constitution
107(1)
Prerogatives of the Federal Government
108(2)
Federal Powers
110(1)
Legislative Powers
110(3)
Another Difference between the Senate and the House of Representatives
113(1)
On the Executive Power
113(2)
How the Position of the President of the United States Differs from That of a Constitutional King in France
115(3)
Accidental Causes That Can Increase the Influence of the Executive Power
118(1)
Why the President of the United States Does Not Need to Have a Majority in the Houses in Order to Direct Affairs
119(1)
On the Election of the President
120(4)
Mode of Election
124(2)
Crisis of the Election
126(2)
On the Reelection of the President
128(2)
On the Federal Courts
130(3)
Manner of Settling the Competence of the Federal Courts
133(2)
Different Cases of Jurisdiction
135(4)
Manner of Proceeding of Federal Courts
139(2)
Elevated Rank Held by the Supreme Court among the Great Powers of the State
141(2)
How the Federal Constitution Is Superior to the Constitutions of the States
143(3)
What Distinguishes the Federal Constitution of the United States of America from All Other Federal Constitutions
146(3)
On the Advantages of the Federal System Generally, and Its Special Utility for America
149(5)
What Keeps the Federal System from Being within Reach of All Peoples, and What Has Permitted the Anglo-Americans to Adopt It
154(11)
PART TWO
How One Can Say Strictly That in the United States the People Govern
165(1)
On Parties in the United States
166(6)
On the Remains of the Aristocratic Party in the United States
170(2)
On Freedom of the Press in the United States
172(8)
On Political Association in the United States
180(7)
On the Government of Democracy in America
187(33)
On Universal Suffrage
187(1)
On the Choices of the People and the Instincts of American Democracy in Its Choices
187(3)
On the Causes That Can in Part Correct These Instincts of Democracy
190(2)
Influence That American Democracy Exerts on Electoral Laws
192(2)
On Public Officials under the Empire of American Democracy
194(2)
On the Arbitrariness of Magistrates under the Empire of American Democracy
196(2)
Administrative Instability in the United States
198(1)
On Public Costs under the Empire of American Democracy
199(4)
On the Instincts of American Democracy in Fixing the Salaries of Officials
203(2)
Difficulty of Discerning the Causes That Incline the American Government to Economy
205(1)
Can the Public Expenditures of the United States Be Compared to Those of France?
206(4)
On the Corruption and Vices of Those Who Govern in Democracy; On the Effects on Public Morality That Result
210(2)
Of What Efforts Democracy Is Capable
212(3)
On the Power That American Democracy Generally Exercises Over Itself
215(2)
The Manner in Which American Democracy Conducts External Affairs of State
217(3)
What Are the Real Advantages That American Society Derives from the Government of Democracy
220(15)
On the General Tendency of the Laws under the Empire of American Democracy, and on the Instinct of Those Who Apply Them
221(4)
On Public Spirit in the United States
225(2)
On the Idea of Rights in the United States
227(2)
On Respect for the Law in the United States
229(2)
Activity Reigning in All Parts of the Body Politic of the United States; Influence That It Exerts on Society
231(4)
On the Omnipotence of the Majority in the United States and Its Effects
235(15)
How the Omnipotence of the Majority in America Increases the Legislative and Administrative Instability That Is Natural to Democracies
238(1)
Tyranny of the Majority
239(3)
Effects of the Omnipotence of the Majority on the Arbitrariness of American Officials
242(1)
On the Power That the Majority in America Exercises over Thought
243(3)
Effects of the Tyranny of the Majority on the National Character of the Americans; On the Spirit of a Court in the United States
246(2)
That the Greatest Danger of the American Republics Comes from the Omnipotence of the Majority
248(2)
On What Tempers the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States
250(14)
Absence of Administrative Centralization
250(1)
On the Spirit of the Lawyer in the United States and How It Serves as a Counterweight to Democracy
251(7)
On the Jury in the United States Considered as a Political Institution
258(6)
On the Principal Causes Tending to Maintain a Democratic Republic in the United States
264(38)
On the Accidental or Providential Causes Contributing to the Maintenance of a Democratic Republic in the United States
265(9)
On the Influence of the Laws on the Maintenance of a Democratic Republic in the United States
274(1)
On the Influence of Mores on the Maintenance of a Democratic Republic in the United States
274(1)
On Religion Considered as a Political Institution; How It Serves Powerfully the Maintenance of a Democratic Republic among the Americans
275(3)
Indirect Influence That Religious Beliefs Exert on Political Society in the United States
278(4)
On the Principal Causes That Make Religion Powerful in America
282(6)
How the Enlightenment, the Habits, and the Practical Experience of the Americans Contribute to the Success of Democratic Institutions
288(4)
That the Laws Serve to Maintain a Democratic Republic in the United States More than Physical Causes, and Mores More than Laws
292(4)
Would Laws and Mores Suffice to Maintain Democratic Institutions Elsewhere than in America?
296(2)
Importance of What Precedes in Relation to Europe
298(4)
Some Considerations on the Present State and the Probable Future of the Three Races That Inhabit the Territory of the United States
302(101)
Present State and Probable Future of the Indian Tribes That Inhabit the Territory Possessed by the Union
307(19)
Position That the Black Race Occupies in the United States; Dangers Incurred by Whites from Its Presence
326(22)
What Are the Chances That the American Union Will Last? What Dangers Threaten It?
348(31)
On Republican Institutions in the United States; What Are Their Chances of Longevity?
379(5)
Some Considerations on the Causes of the Commercial Greatness of the United States
384(7)
Conclusion
391(12)
Notice
399(4)
PART ONE INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
On the Philosophic Method of the Americans
403(4)
On the Principal Source of Beliefs among Democratic Peoples
407(4)
Why the Americans Show More Aptitude and Taste for General Ideas than Their English Fathers
411(4)
Why the Americans Have Never Been as Passionate as the French for General Ideas in Political Matters
415(2)
How, in the United States, Religion Knows How to Make Use of Democratic Instincts
417(7)
On the Progress of Catholicism in the United States
424(1)
What Makes the Mind of Democratic Peoples Lean toward Pantheism
425(1)
How Equality Suggests to the Americans the Idea of the Indefinite Perfectibility of Man
426(2)
How the Example of the Americans Does Not Prove That a Democratic People Can Have No Aptitude and Taste for the Sciences, Literature, and the Arts
428(5)
Why the Americans Apply Themselves to the Practice of the Sciences Rather than to the Theory
433(6)
In What Spirit the Americans Cultivate the Arts
439(4)
Why the Americans at the Same Time Raise Such Little and Such Great Monuments
443(2)
The Literary Face of Democratic Centuries
445(5)
On the Literary Industry
450(1)
Why the Study of Greek and Latin Literature Is Particularly Useful in Democratic Societies
450(2)
How American Democracy Has Modified the English Language
452(6)
On Some Sources of Poetry in Democratic Nations
458(5)
Why American Writers and Orators Are Often Bombastic
463(2)
Some Observations on the Theater of Democratic Peoples
465(4)
On Some Tendencies Particular to Historians in Democratic Centuries
469(3)
On Parliamentary Eloquence in the United States
472(7)
PART TWO INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON THE SENTIMENTS OF THE AMERICANS
Why Democratic Peoples Show a More Ardent and More Lasting Love for Equality than for Freedom
479(3)
On Individualism in Democratic Countries
482(2)
How Individualism Is Greater at the End of a Democratic Revolution than in Any Other Period
484(1)
How the Americans Combat Individualism with Free Institutions
485(4)
On the Use That the Americans Make of Association in Civil Life
489(4)
On the Relation between Associations and Newspapers
493(3)
Relations between Civil Associations and Political Associations
496(4)
How the Americans Combat Individualism by the Doctrine of Self-Interest Well Understood
500(4)
How the Americans Apply the Doctrine of Self-Interest Well Understood in the Matter of Religion
504(2)
On the Taste for Material Well-Being in America
506(2)
On the Particular Effects That the Love of Material Enjoyments Produces in Democratic Centuries
508(2)
Why Certain Americans Display Such an Exalted Spiritualism
510(1)
Why the Americans Show Themselves So Restive in the Midst of Their Well-Being
511(3)
How the Taste for Material Enjoyments among Americans Is United with Love of Freedom and with Care for Public Affairs
514(3)
How Religious Beliefs at Times Turn the Souls of the Americans toward Immaterial Enjoyments
517(4)
How the Excessive Love of Well-Being Can Be Harmful to Well-Being
521(1)
How in Times of Equality and Doubt It Is Important to Move Back the Object of Human Actions
522(3)
Why among the Americans All Honest Professions Are Reputed Honorable
525(1)
What Makes Almost All Americans Incline toward Industrial Professions
526(4)
How Aristocracy Could Issue from Industry
530(5)
PART THREE INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON MORES PROPERLY SO - CALLED
How Mores Become Milder as Conditions Are Equalized
535(4)
How Democracy Renders the Habitual Relations of the Americans Simpler and Easier
539(2)
Why the Americans Have So Little Oversensitivity in Their Country and Show Themselves to Be So Oversensitive in Ours
541(3)
Consequences of the Preceding Three Chapters
544(2)
How Democracy Modifies the Relations of Servant and Master
546(7)
How Democratic Institutions and Mores Tend to Raise the Price and Shorten the Duration of Leases
553(2)
Influence of Democracy on Wages
555(3)
Influence of Democracy on the Family
558(5)
Education of Girls in the United States
563(2)
How the Girl Is Found beneath the Features of the Wife
565(2)
How Equality of Conditions Contributes to Maintaining Good Mores in America
567(6)
How the Americans Understand the Equality of Man and Woman
573(4)
How Equality Naturally Divides the Americans into a Multitude of Particular Little Societies
577(1)
Some Reflections on American Manners
578(4)
On the Gravity of the Americans and Why It Does Not Prevent Their Often Doing Ill-Considered Things
582(3)
Why the National Vanity of the Americans Is More Restive and More Quarrelsome than That of the English
585(2)
How the Aspect of Society in the United States Is at Once Agitated and Monotonous
587(2)
On Honor in the United States and in Democratic Societies
589(10)
Why One Finds So Many Ambitions Men in the United States and So Few Great Ambitions
599(5)
On the Industry in Place-Hunting in Certain Democratic Nations
604(2)
Why Great Revolutions Will Become Rare
606(11)
Why Democratic Peoples Naturally Desire Peace and Democratic Armies Naturally [Desire] War
617(6)
Which Is the Most Warlike and the Most Revolutionary Class in Democratic Armies
623(3)
What Makes Democratic Armies Weaker than Other Armies When Entering into a Campaign and More Formidable When War Is Prolonged
626(3)
On Discipline in Democratic Armies
629(2)
Some Considerations on War in Democratic Societies
631(8)
PART FOUR ON THE INFLUENCE THAT DEMOCRATIC IDEAS AND SENTIMENTS EXERT ON POLITICAL SOCIETY
Equality Naturally Gives Men the Taste for Free Institutions
639(1)
That the Ideas of Democratic Peoples in the Matter of Government Are Naturally Favorable to the Concentration of Powers
640(3)
That the Sentiments of Democratic Peoples Are in Accord with Their Ideas to Bring Them to Concentrate Power
643(3)
On Some Particular and Accidental Causes That Serve to Bring a Democratic People to Centralize Power or Turn It Away from That
646(5)
That among European Nations of Our Day Sovereign Power Increases Although Sovereigns Are Less Stable
651(10)
What Kind of Despotism Democratic Nations Have to Fear
661(5)
Continuation of the Preceding Chapters
666(7)
General View of the Subject
673(4)
Notes 677(28)
Sources Cited by to Cqueville 705(6)
Index 711

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