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Dental Radiography : Principles and Techniques,9780721615752

Dental Radiography : Principles and Techniques

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780721615752

ISBN10:
0721615759
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/5/2005
Publisher(s):
ELSEVIER SAUNDERS PUBLISHING
List Price: $72.95

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Summary

This popular text thoroughly prepares you for the safe and effective use of radiation in the dental office. It not only provides comprehensive coverage of the essential principles of radiation, but also includes complete technical instruction in a great student-friendly format.

Table of Contents

PART 1 RADIATION BASICS
Radiation History
2(7)
Dentistry and X-radiation
3(1)
Basic Terminology
3(1)
Importance of Dental Radiographs
3(1)
Discovery of X-radiation
3(2)
Roentgen and the Discovery of X-rays
3(1)
Earlier Experimentation
4(1)
Pioneers in Dental X-radiation
5(1)
History of Dental X-ray Equipment
5(1)
History of Dental X-ray Film
6(1)
History of Dental Radiographic Techniques
7(2)
Radiation Physics
9(19)
Fundamental Concepts
10(5)
Atomic and Molecular Structure
10(2)
Ionization, Radiation, and Radioactivity
12(1)
Ionizing Radiation
13(2)
X-radiation
15(1)
X-ray Machine
15(4)
Component Parts
15(2)
X-ray Tube
17(1)
X-ray Generating Apparatus
17(2)
Production of X-radiation
19(2)
Production of Dental X-rays
19(1)
Types of X-rays Produced
20(1)
Definitions of X-radiation
20(1)
Interactions of X-radiation
21(7)
No Interaction
21(1)
Absorption of Energy and Photoelectric Effect
21(1)
Compton Scatter
22(1)
Coherent Scatter
22(6)
Radiation Characteristics
28(10)
X-ray Beam Quality
29(2)
Voltage and Kilovoltage
29(1)
Kilovoltage Peak
29(1)
Film Density and Kilovoltage Peak
30(1)
Film Contrast and Kilovoltage Peak
30(1)
Exposure Time and Kilovoltage Peak
30(1)
X-ray Beam Quantity
31(1)
Amperage and Milliamperage
31(1)
Milliampere-Seconds
32(1)
Film Density and Milliamperage
32(1)
Exposure Time and Milliamperage
32(1)
X-ray Beam Intensity
32(6)
Kilovoltage Peak
33(1)
Milliamperage
33(1)
Exposure Time
33(1)
Distance
33(1)
Inverse Square Law
33(1)
Half-Value Layer
34(4)
Radiation Biology
38(13)
Radiation Injury
39(3)
Mechanisms of Injury
39(1)
Theories of Radiation Injury
40(1)
Dose-Response Curve
40(1)
Stochastic and Nonstochastic Radiation Effects
40(1)
Sequence of Radiation Injury
41(1)
Determining Factors for Radiation Injury
41(1)
Radiation Effects
42(1)
Short-Term and Long-Term Effects
42(1)
Somatic and Genetic Effects
42(1)
Radiation Effects on Cells
43(1)
Radiation Effects on Tissues and Organs
43(1)
Radiation Measurements
43(2)
Units of Measurement
43(1)
Exposure Measurement
43(1)
Dose Measurement
44(1)
Dose Equivalent Measurement
44(1)
Measurements Used in Dental Radiography
45(1)
Radiation Risks
45(6)
Sources of Radiation Exposure
45(1)
Risk and Risk Estimates
45(1)
Dental Radiation and Exposure Risks
46(1)
Patient Exposure and Dose
46(1)
Risk versus Benefit of Dental Radiographs
46(5)
Radiation Protection
51(15)
Patient Protection
52(7)
Before Exposure
52(1)
During Exposure
53(5)
After Exposure
58(1)
Operator Protection
59(1)
Protection Guidelines
59(1)
Radiation Monitoring
60(1)
Radiation Exposure Guidelines
60(1)
Radiation Safety Legislation
60(1)
Maximum Permissible Dose
61(1)
Maximum Accumulated Dose
61(1)
ALARA Concept
61(1)
Radiation Protection and Patient Education
61(5)
PART 2 EQUIPMENT, FILM, AND PROCESSING BASICS
Dental X-ray Equipment
66(8)
Dental X-ray Machines
67(2)
Performance Standards
67(1)
Types of Machines
67(1)
Component Parts
67(2)
Dental X-ray Film Holders and Beam Alignment Devices
69(5)
Types of Film Holders
69(1)
Types of Beam Alignment Devices
69(5)
Dental X-ray Film
74(15)
Dental X-ray Film Composition and Latent Image
75(2)
Film Composition
75(1)
Latent Image Formation
76(1)
Types of Dental X-ray film
77(8)
Intraoral Film
77(4)
Extraoral Film
81(3)
Duplicating Film
84(1)
Film Storage and Protection
85(4)
Dental X-ray Image Characteristics
89(12)
Dental X-ray Image Characteristics
90(1)
Visual Characteristics
90(4)
Density
91(1)
Contrast
92(2)
Geometric Characteristics
94(7)
Sharpness
94(1)
Magnification
95(1)
Distortion
96(5)
Dental X-ray Film Processing
101(27)
Film Processing
102(4)
Film Processing Fundamentals
102(2)
Film Processing Steps
104(1)
Film Processing Solutions
104(2)
The Darkroom
106(3)
Room Requirements
106(1)
Equipment Requirements
107(2)
Manual Film Processing
109(4)
Equipment Accessories
109(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
110(1)
Care and Maintenance
110(3)
Automatic Film Processing
113(2)
Component Parts of Automatic Processor
113(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
114(1)
Care and Maintenance
114(1)
Film Duplication
115(1)
Equipment Requirements
115(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
115(1)
Processing Problems and Solutions
116(12)
Time and Temperature
116(1)
Chemical Contamination
117(2)
Film Handling
119(3)
Lighting
122(6)
Quality Assurance in the Dental Office
128(12)
Quality Control Tests
129(5)
Equipment and Supplies
129(1)
Film Processing
130(4)
Quality Administration Procedures
134(1)
Operator Competence
135(5)
PART 3 DENTAL RADIOGRAPHER BASICS
Dental Radiographs and the Dental Radiographer
140(5)
Dental Radiographs
141(1)
Importance of Dental Radiographs
141(1)
Uses of Dental Radiographs
141(1)
Benefits of Dental Radiographs
141(1)
Information Found on Dental Radiographs
141(1)
The Dental Radiographer
142(3)
Knowledge and Skill Requirements
142(1)
Duties and Responsibilities
142(1)
Professional Goals
142(3)
Patient Relations and the Dental Radiographer
145(5)
Interpersonal Skills
146(1)
Communication Skills
146(1)
Facilitation Skills
147(1)
Patient Relations
147(3)
First Impressions and Patient Relations
147(1)
Chairside Manner and Patient Relations
148(1)
Attitude and Patient Relations
148(2)
Patient Education and the Dental Radiographer
150(6)
Importance of Patient Education
151(1)
Methods of Patient Education
151(1)
Common Questions and Answers
151(5)
Necessity Questions
152(1)
Exposure Questions
152(1)
Safety Questions
153(1)
Miscellaneous Questions
153(3)
Legal Issues and the Dental Radiographer
156(6)
Legal Issues and Dental Radiography
157(1)
Federal and State Regulations
157(1)
Licensure Requirements
157(1)
Legal Issues and the Dental Patient
157(5)
Risk Management
157(1)
Malpractice Issues
158(1)
Patient Records
159(1)
Patients Who Refuse Dental Radiographs
159(3)
Infection Control and the Dental Radiographer
162(14)
Infection Control Basics
163(1)
Rationale for Infection Control
163(1)
Infection Control Terminology
163(1)
Guidelines for Infection Control Practices
164(1)
Protective Attire and Barrier Techniques
164(1)
Handwashing and Care of Hands
165(1)
Sterilization or Disinfection of Instruments
165(1)
Cleaning and Disinfection of Dental Unit and Environmental Surfaces
165(1)
Infection Control in Dental Radiography
165(11)
Infection Control Procedures Used Before Exposure
166(2)
Infection Control Procedures Used During Exposure
168(1)
Infection Control Procedures Used After Exposure
168(1)
Infection Control Procedures Used for Processing
169(7)
PART 4 TECHNIQUE BASICS
Introduction to Radiographic Examinations
176(5)
Intraoral Radiographic Examination
177(1)
Types of Intraoral Radiographic Examinations
177(1)
Complete Mouth Radiographic Series
177(1)
Diagnostic Criteria for Intraoral Radiographs
178(1)
Extraoral Radiographic Examination
178(1)
Prescribing of Dental Radiographs
178(3)
Paralleling Technique
181(35)
Basic Concepts
182(4)
Terminology
182(1)
Principles of Paralleling Technique
183(1)
Film Holders
183(2)
Film for Paralleling Technique
185(1)
Rules for Paralleling Technique
185(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
186(7)
Patient Preparation
186(1)
Equipment Preparation
186(3)
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
189(1)
Film Placement for Paralleling Technique
190(3)
Modifications in Paralleling Technique
193(17)
Shallow Palate
193(1)
Bony Growths
193(15)
Mandibular Premolar Region
208(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages
210(6)
Advantages of Paralleling Technique
210(1)
Disadvantages of Paralleling Technique
210(6)
Bisecting Technique
216(37)
Basic Concepts
217(6)
Terminology
217(1)
Principles of Bisecting Technique
217(2)
Film Stabilization
219(1)
Film for Bisecting Technique
219(1)
Angulation of Position-Indicating Device
220(3)
Rules for Bisecting Technique
223(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
223(25)
Patient Preparation
224(1)
Equipment Preparation
224(1)
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
224(2)
Film Placement
226(22)
Advantages and Disadvantages
248(5)
Advantages of Bisecting Technique
248(1)
Disadvantages of Bisecting Technique
248(5)
Bite-Wing Technique
253(20)
Basic Concepts
254(5)
Terminology
254(1)
Principles of Bite-Wing Technique
255(1)
Film Holder and Bite-Wing Tab
255(1)
Film for Bite-Wing Technique
256(1)
Angulation of Position-Indicating Device
257(1)
Rules for Bite-Wing Technique
257(2)
Step-by-Step Procedures
259(1)
Patient Preparation
259(1)
Equipment Preparation
259(1)
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
259(1)
Film Placement for Bite-Wing Technique
260(1)
Vertical Bite-Wings
260(1)
Modifications of Bite-Wing Technique
260(13)
Edentulous Spaces
268(1)
Bony Growths
268(5)
Exposure and Technique Errors
273(14)
Film Exposure Errors
274(1)
Exposure Problems
274(1)
Time and Exposure Factor Problems
274(1)
Technique Errors (Periapical Films)
275(3)
Film Placement Problems
275(1)
Angulation Problems
276(1)
PID Alignment Problems
277(1)
Technique Errors (Bite-Wing Films)
278(3)
Film Placement Problems
278(1)
Angulation Problems
279(1)
PID Alignment Problems
280(1)
Miscellaneous Technique Errors
281(6)
Film Bending
281(1)
Film Creasing
281(1)
Phalangioma
282(1)
Double Exposure
282(1)
Movement
282(1)
Reversed Film
282(5)
Occlusal and Localization Techniques
287(17)
Occlusal Technique
288(7)
Basic Concepts
288(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
288(7)
Localization Techniques
295(9)
Basic Concepts
295(2)
Step-by-Step Procedures
297(7)
Panoramic Radiography
304(19)
Basic Concepts
305(5)
Purpose and Use
306(1)
Fundamentals
306(1)
Equipment
307(3)
Step-by-Step Procedures
310(3)
Equipment Preparation
311(1)
Patient Preparation
311(1)
Patient Positioning
311(2)
Common Errors
313(4)
Patient Preparation Errors
313(1)
Patient Positioning Errors
313(4)
Advantages and Disadvantages
317(6)
Advantages of Panoramic Radiography
317(2)
Disadvantages of Panoramic Radiography
319(4)
Extraoral Radiography
323(20)
Basic Concepts
324(2)
Purpose and Use
324(1)
Equipment
324(2)
Step-by-Step Procedures
326(1)
Equipment Preparation
326(1)
Patient Preparation
326(1)
Patient Positioning
326(1)
Extraoral Projection Techniques
327(16)
Lateral Jaw Radiography
327(1)
Skull Radiography
328(9)
Temporomandibular Joint Radiography
337(1)
Cone-Beam Technology
337(6)
Digital Radiography
343(14)
Basic Concepts
344(4)
Terminology
344(1)
Purpose and Use
344(1)
Fundamentals
345(1)
Radiation Exposure
346(1)
Equipment
347(1)
Types of Digital Imaging
348(2)
Direct Digital Imaging
350(1)
Indirect Digital Imaging
350(1)
Step-by-Step Procedures
350(1)
Sensor Preparation
350(1)
Sensor Placement
351(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages
351(6)
Advantages of Digital Radiography
351(2)
Disadvantages of Digital Radiography
353(4)
Radiography of Patients with Special Needs
357(11)
Patients with the Gag Reflex
358(1)
Patient Management
358(1)
Extreme Cases of Gag Reflex
359(1)
Patients with Disabilities
359(1)
Physical Disabilities
360(1)
Developmental Disabilities
360(1)
Patients with Specific Dental Needs
360(8)
Pediatric Patients
361(1)
Endodontic Patients
362(1)
Edentulous Patients
362(6)
PART 5 NORMAL ANATOMY AND FILM MOUNTING BASICS
Normal Anatomy: Intraoral Films
368(27)
Definitions of General Terms
369(4)
Types of Bone
369(1)
Prominences of Bone
370(1)
Spaces and Depressions in Bone
371(1)
Miscellaneous Terms
372(1)
Normal Anatomic Landmarks
373(15)
Bony Landmarks of the Maxilla
373(9)
Bony Landmarks of the Mandible
382(6)
Normal Tooth Anatomy
388(7)
Tooth Structure
388(1)
Supporting Structures
389(6)
Film Mounting and Viewing
395(13)
Film Mounting
396(7)
Basic Concepts
396(2)
Normal Anatomy and Film Mounting
398(1)
Film Mounting Methods
398(1)
Step-by-Step Procedure
399(4)
Film Viewing
403(5)
Basic Concepts
403(1)
Step-by-Step Procedure
404(4)
Normal Anatomy: Panoramic Films
408(14)
Normal Anatomic Landmarks
409(6)
Bony Landmarks of Maxilla and Surrounding Structures
409(3)
Bony Landmarks of Mandible and Surrounding Structures
412(3)
Air Space Images Seen on Panoramic Radiographs
415(1)
Soft Tissue Images Seen on Panoramic Radiographs
416(6)
PART 6 RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION BASICS
Introduction to Radiographic Interpretation
422(4)
Basic Concepts
423(1)
Interpretation Terminology
423(1)
Importance of Interpretation
423(1)
Guidelines
423(3)
Who Interprets Radiographs?
423(1)
Interpretation versus Diagnosis
423(1)
When and Where Are Radiographs Interpreted?
424(1)
Interpretation and Patient Education
424(2)
Descriptive Terminology
426(13)
Definition and Uses
427(1)
What Is Descriptive Terminology?
427(1)
Why Use Descriptive Terminology?
427(1)
Descriptive Terminology versus Diagnosis
427(1)
Review of Basic Terms
427(12)
Radiograph versus X-ray
427(1)
Radiolucent versus Radiopaque
427(1)
Terms Used to Describe Radiolucent Lesions
428(4)
Terms Used to Describe Radiopaque Lesions
432(7)
Identification of Restorations, Dental Materials, and Foreign Objects
439(18)
Identification of Restorations
440(6)
Amalgam Restorations
440(1)
Gold Restorations
441(1)
Stainless Steel and Chrome Crowns
442(1)
Post and Core Restorations
443(1)
Porcelain Restorations
443(2)
Composite Restorations
445(1)
Acrylic Restorations
445(1)
Identification of Materials Used in Dentistry
446(2)
Materials Used in Restorative Dentistry
446(1)
Materials Used in Endodontics
446(1)
Materials Used in Prosthodontics
446(2)
Materials Used in Orthodontics
448(1)
Materials Used in Oral Surgery
448(1)
Identification of Miscellaneous Objects
448(9)
Jewelry
448(4)
Eyeglasses and Napkin Chain
452(5)
Interpretation of Dental Caries
457(11)
Description of Caries
458(1)
Detection of Caries
458(1)
Clinical Examination
458(1)
Radiographic Examination
458(1)
Interpretation of Caries
459(1)
Interpretation Tips
459(1)
Factors Influencing Caries Interpretation
459(1)
Radiographic Classification of Caries
459(9)
Interproximal Caries
459(1)
Occlusal Caries
460(2)
Buccal and Lingual Caries
462(1)
Root Surface Caries
462(2)
Recurrent Caries
464(1)
Rampant Caries
464(4)
Interpretation of Periodontal Disease
468(13)
Description of the Periodontium
469(1)
Description of Periodontal Disease
470(1)
Detection of Periodontal Disease
470(1)
Clinical Examination
470(1)
Radiographic Examination
470(1)
Radiographic Interpretation of Periodontal Disease
471(10)
Bone Loss
471(2)
Classification of Periodontal Disease
473(2)
Predisposing Factors
475(6)
Interpretation of Trauma and Pulpal and Periapical Lesions
481(12)
Radiographic Changes Caused by Trauma
482(2)
Fractures
482(1)
Injuries
483(1)
Radiographic Changes Caused by Resorption
484(1)
External Resorption
484(1)
Internal Resorption
485(1)
Radiographic Features of Pulpal Lesions
485(2)
Pulpal Sclerosis
485(1)
Pulpal Obliteration
485(1)
Pulp Stones
485(2)
Radiographic Features of Periapical Lesions
487(6)
Periapical Radiolucencies
487(2)
Periapical Radiopacities
489(4)
Glossary 493


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