9780231068253

Describing Species: Practical Taxonomic Procedures for Biologists

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780231068253

  • ISBN10:

    0231068255

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-10-01
  • Publisher: COLUMBIA UNIV PRESS

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Summary

New species are discovered every day -- and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task world-wide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries -- and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrationsp. xiii
List of Tablesp. xvii
Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. 1
Introductionp. 3
Describing the Living Worldp. 3
Why Is Species Description Necessary?p. 4
How New Species Are Describedp. 8
Scope and Organization of This Bookp. 12
The Pleasures of Systematicsp. 14
Sourcesp. 15
Biological Nomenclaturep. 19
Humans as Taxonomistsp. 19
Biological Nomenclaturep. 21
Folk Taxonomyp. 23
Binomial Nomenclaturep. 25
Development of Codes of Nomenclaturep. 26
The Current Codes of Nomenclaturep. 30
Future of the Codesp. 36
Sourcesp. 39
Recognizing Speciesp. 41
Species and Their Discoveryp. 43
Species Conceptsp. 44
Processes Affecting Speciationp. 46
Taxonomic Charactersp. 53
Examples of Ways in Which Biologists Have Discovered New Speciesp. 55
Sourcesp. 65
Establishing Identity: The Literature Searchp. 71
Mistakes and Bad Examplesp. 71
Establishing Identityp. 73
Where to Find the Taxonomic Literaturep. 75
How to Read the Taxonomic Literaturep. 83
Species Descriptionsp. 83
Taxonomic Literature Searching on the Internetp. 87
Sourcesp. 88
Establishing Identity: Using Museum Collectionsp. 95
Collections, Museums, and Herbariap. 96
Locating Materialp. 97
Borrowing Materialp. 102
Type Materialp. 103
Visiting Collections: What to Expect and how to Behavep. 105
Cooperation with Systematistsp. 106
Sourcesp. 107
Writing Species Descriptionsp. 113
Species Descriptions in Taxonomyp. 115
Reasons for Writing Species Descriptionsp. 115
Different Kinds of Taxonomic Publicationsp. 116
Form of the Descriptive Paperp. 125
Headings and Synonymiesp. 129
Description Headingsp. 129
Synonymsp. 134
Synonymiesp. 135
New Speciesp. 136
Types of Synonymiesp. 137
Terms Used in Synonymiesp. 140
Different Kinds of Synonymiesp. 140
References in Headings and Synonymiesp. 144
Naming Species: Etymologyp. 147
Naming Speciesp. 147
Brief Review of Latin and Greekp. 149
Basic Rules of Species Namesp. 153
Descriptive Species Namesp. 156
Geographic Species Namesp. 164
Commemorative Species Namesp. 165
Nonsense Species Namesp. 169
The Etymology Sectionp. 169
Sourcesp. 171
Type and Voucher Materialp. 173
Rationale for Types and Vouchersp. 173
Rules of Nomenclature Regarding Typesp. 175
Selection of Types and Vouchersp. 175
Composition of Type Materialp. 177
Documentation of Type Materialp. 178
Deposition of Typesp. 179
Type Sectionp. 182
Sourcesp. 185
Diagnosisp. 189
What Is a Diagnosis?p. 189
Diagnosis in Zoological Taxonomyp. 191
Diagnosis in Botanical Taxonomyp. 191
What Is a Diagnostic Character?p. 192
The Diagnosis Section: Animalsp. 193
The Diagnosis Section: Plantsp. 197
Additional Uses for Diagnosesp. 198
Description Sectionp. 201
Descriptive Writingp. 201
Information Used in the Description Sectionp. 203
Writing the Descriptionp. 210
Telegraphic Stylep. 211
The Description Section: Animals (Examples of Styles for Different Groups)p. 214
The Description Section: Plants (Examples of Styles for Different Groups)p. 228
Illustrating Taxonomic Descriptionsp. 231
Sourcesp. 238
Taxonomic Discussion Sectionp. 241
Purpose of the Discussion Sectionp. 241
Discussion in Descriptions of New Speciesp. 242
Evidence to Includep. 247
Composite Papersp. 254
The Discussion Section in Other Species Descriptionsp. 256
Taxonomic Ethicsp. 257
The Ecology Sectionp. 261
Ecology in Species Descriptionsp. 261
Analysis of Ecological Variationp. 265
Field Records: Getting the Most from Field Workp. 265
Ecological Information from Museum Specimensp. 268
The Ecology Sectionp. 269
Sourcesp. 273
Occurrence and Distributionp. 277
Distributional Information in Species Descriptionsp. 277
Parameters of Species Distributionsp. 278
The Distribution Sectionp. 281
Distribution Papersp. 289
Sourcesp. 290
Material Examinedp. 293
Practical Valuep. 293
In Original Descriptionsp. 294
In Other Descriptionsp. 295
Material Examined Sectionp. 297
Material Examined: Botanical Taxonomyp. 300
The Material Examined Paperp. 301
Sourcesp. 302
Publicationp. 303
Criteria of Publication: Zoologyp. 303
Criteria of Publication: Botanyp. 306
Preparation of the Manuscriptp. 307
Submission of the Manuscriptp. 311
Final Revision and Publicationp. 312
Journals That Publish Taxonomic Papersp. 314
Beyond Species Descriptionp. 321
Subspeciesp. 323
Why Are Subspecies Important?p. 323
Infraspecific Variationp. 324
Rules of Infraspecific Nomenclature: Zoologyp. 327
Rules of Infraspecific Nomenclature: Botanyp. 329
Deciding When to Name an Infraspecific Taxonp. 330
Writing Infraspecific Descriptionsp. 332
Sourcesp. 334
Genus-Level Description and Revisionp. 337
The Genus Conceptp. 337
When to Describe a New Genusp. 341
Generic Namesp. 341
Publication of Generic Namesp. 346
Generic Typesp. 346
Examples of Generic-Level Descriptionp. 349
Problems Caused by Generic Revisionp. 358
Infrageneric Categories and Namesp. 360
Sourcesp. 363
Keysp. 367
Keys in Taxonomyp. 367
Key Charactersp. 370
Single-Access (Analytical or Sequential) Keysp. 371
Multiaccess Keys (Polyclaves)p. 375
Interactive Identificationp. 378
Key Constructionp. 378
Computerized Key Constructionp. 379
Sourcesp. 380
Description of Higher Taxap. 383
Family Concepts and Their Use in Taxonomyp. 384
Practical Significance in Biologyp. 385
Describing Familiesp. 386
Family-Level Descriptions: Examplesp. 389
Redescriptions of Family-Level Taxap. 394
Descriptions of Taxa Above the Family Levelp. 396
Problems with Nomenclature of Higher Taxap. 405
Sourcesp. 405
Common Problemsp. 407
Missing Typesp. 407
Lectotypesp. 411
Neotypesp. 416
Necessary Name Changesp. 422
Replacement Names: Homonymyp. 424
Conservation of a Namep. 425
Emendationsp. 427
New Combinationsp. 428
Lack of Informationp. 431
Further Studies in Systematicsp. 433
Evolutionary Systematicsp. 434
Pheneticsp. 438
Cladisticsp. 439
Molecular Systematicsp. 446
Biogeographyp. 450
Comparative Biologyp. 451
Sourcesp. 451
Literature Citedp. 455
Subject Indexp. 489
Author Indexp. 503
Taxon Indexp. 513
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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