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The Ethnographer's Toolkit series begins with this primer, which introduces novice and expert practitioners alike to the process of ethnographic research, including who should and can do ethnography, when it is used most fruitfully, and how research projects are carried out from conceptualization through to the uses of research results. Written in practical, straightforward language, this new edition defines the qualitative research enterprise, links research strategies to theoretical paradigms, and outlines the ways in which an ethnographic study can be designed. Use Designing and Conducting Ethnographic Research as a guide to the entire Toolkit or as a stand-alone introduction to ethnographic research.
Margaret D. LeCompte is professor of education and sociology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Jean J. Schensul is senior scientist at and founding director of the Institute for Community Research, adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of Connecticut, and research affiliate at Yale.
Table of Contents
|List of Tables and Figures||p. ix|
|List of Examples||p. xi|
|What Is Ethnography?||p. 1|
|Ethnography as Science||p. 1|
|The Historical Evolution of Ethnographic Methods||p. 5|
|Ethnography for Problem Identification and Solving||p. 8|
|Characteristics of Ethnography||p. 12|
|What Is Culture? Differentiating the Individual from the Cultural||p. 24|
|A Note on Ethnicity, Culture, and Race||p. 27|
|Power, Situatedness, and Positionality||p. 30|
|The Impact of Cultural Politics on Identity and Research||p. 32|
|When, Where, and By Whom Should Ethnography Be Used?||p. 35|
|Situations Requiring Ethnographic Research||p. 35|
|Settings Appropriate for Ethnographic Research||p. 41|
|Who Should Do Ethnographic Research?||p. 45|
|Important Personality and Stylistic Requisites for Ethnographers||p. 46|
|Paradigms for Framing the Conduct of Ethnographic Research||p. 55|
|Multiple Perspectives: A Cultural Way of Doing Research||p. 56|
|What Are Research Paradigms?||p. 57|
|The Positivist Paradigm||p. 58|
|The Critical Paradigm||p. 62|
|Interpretive Paradigms: Meaning-Making in Interactional Contexts||p. 67|
|The Ecological Paradigm||p. 71|
|The Social Network Paradigm||p. 73|
|A Paradigmatic Synthesis||p. 76|
|An Overview of Research Design||p. 87|
|Research Design: A Blueprint for Action||p. 87|
|Research Designs in Social Science Research||p. 95|
|Quantitative Designs||p. 95|
|Qualitative Designs||p. 112|
|Rapid or Compressed Research||p. 122|
|Mixing Designs: Integrating Quantitative and Experimental with Qualitative Research Designs||p. 126|
|Choosing and Designing an Ethnographic Research Project||p. 129|
|Where Do Research Questions Come From?||p. 130|
|Deciding What to Investigate: Transforming Research Purposes into the Elements of a Research Design||p. 134|
|Putting Together the Elements of a Research Design||p. 135|
|Elaborating Research Questions||p. 137|
|What Are Data?||p. 143|
|The Processes of Operationalization and Research Modeling||p. 147|
|Conceptualizing Research Models and Conceptual Modeling||p. 150|
|Identifying Populations and Study Sites||p. 154|
|Strategies for Selection of Sampling and Units for Study||p. 169|
|Collecting Ethnographic Data||p. 173|
|Techniques for Collecting Multiple Types of Data||p. 173|
|Resources and Logistics: How Ethnographers Allocate Time, Money, and Staff||p. 183|
|Creating Planning Documents and Timelines||p. 187|
|Data Analysis: How Ethnographers Make Sense of Their Data||p. 195|
|Analysis as Both a Cognitive Process and a Technical Procedure||p. 195|
|"Chunking" Data into Large Conceptual Categories or "Bins"||p. 199|
|Defining Terms: Operational and Conceptual Levels of Analysis||p. 204|
|Finding Initial Themes or Regularities||p. 210|
|The Item Level of Analysis: Isolating Empirical "Bits" from Streams of Data||p. 213|
|The Pattern Level of Analysis: Aggregating Similar or Related Items into Groups||p. 215|
|The Structural Level of Analysis: Assembling Multiple Patterns into Structures or Local Theories Informed by Conceptual Domains||p. 217|
|Seeking Complex Relationships across Domains and Structures by Using Multiple Levels and Sources of Data||p. 220|
|Interpreting the Results: Figuring Out What the Story Means||p. 220|
|Levels of Theory||p. 222|
|Identifying and Building Research Teams and Research Partnerships||p. 227|
|Building and Conducting Ethnographic Team Research||p. 231|
|Building Interdisciplinary Community Research Partnerships||p. 243|
|Challenges and Rewards in Ethnographic Teamwork and Interdisciplinary Intersectoral Collaborations||p. 249|
|Applying Ethnography||p. 251|
|Introduction to Applying Ethnography||p. 251|
|Products of Ethnography||p. 252|
|Informing Public Audiences: Dissemination||p. 254|
|Developing Interventions: Formative Research||p. 262|
|Improving Quantitative Instruments||p. 265|
|Influencing Teacher/Educator Practice||p. 267|
|Democratizing Ethnography through Participatory Action Research||p. 270|
|Improving Process and Outcome Evaluations||p. 272|
|Influencing Policy||p. 277|
|Supporting Advocacy||p. 279|
|Contributing to Science||p. 281|
|Protection of Risk to Human Subjects and the Ethics of Ethnographic Fieldwork||p. 285|
|A Brief History of Concern for the Ethical Treatment of Research Participants||p. 286|
|Ethics and the Individual Researcher||p. 303|
|Ethics and Institutional Issues||p. 306|
|The Special Concerns and Ethical Responsibilities of Ethnographers||p. 309|
|About the Authors||p. 353|
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