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Developmental Biology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780878932436

ISBN10:
0878932437
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Sinauer Associates Inc
List Price: $97.95
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Summary

Introductory textbook emphasizing a core of developmental biology paradigms and principles. Includes color illustrations, chapter-end summaries, and a CD-ROM that complements the text. Also, the text is linked to a website which is keyed to the text's chapters. System requirements: Windows 95/98/NT+ or Mac OS 8.5+, 64MB RAM, and 20MB free space. Previous edition: c1997.

Table of Contents

part 1 Principles of development in biology
Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition
3(22)
The Questions of Developmental Biology
4(1)
Anatomical Approaches to Developmental Biology
4(1)
Comparative Embryology
5(9)
Epigenesis and Preformation
6(2)
Naming the Parts: The Primary Germ Layers and Early Organs
8(1)
The Four Principles of Karl Ernst von Baer
9(1)
Fate Mapping the Embryo
10(3)
Cell Migration
13(1)
Evolutionary Embryology
14(3)
Embryonic Homologies
15(2)
Medical Embryology and Teratology
17(1)
Mathematical Modeling of Development
18(4)
The Mathematics of Organismal Growth
18(1)
The Mathematics of Patterning
19(3)
Principles of Development: Developmental Anatomy
22(1)
Literature Cited
23(2)
Life cycles and the evolution of developmental patterns
25(24)
The Circle of Life: The Stages of Animal Development
25(2)
The Frog Life Cycle
27(4)
The Evolution of Developmental Patterns in Unicellular Protists
31(4)
Control of Developmental Morphogenesis: The Role of the Nucleus
31(1)
Unicellular Protists and the Origins of Sexual Reproduction
32(3)
Multicellularity: The Evolution of Differentiation
35(9)
The Volvocaceans
35(1)
Sex and Individuality in Volvox
36(3)
Differentiation and Morphogenesis in Dictyostelium: Cell Adhesion
39(4)
Evidence and Antibodies
43(1)
Developmental Patterns among the Metazoa
44(3)
Diploblasts
44(1)
Protostomes and Deuterostomes
44(3)
Principles of Development: Life Cycles and Developmental Patterns
47(1)
Literature Cited
47(2)
Principles of experimental embryology
49(30)
Environmental Developmental Biology
49(5)
Environmental Sex Determination
50(1)
Adaptation of Embryos and Larvae to Their Environments
50(4)
The Developmental Mechanics of Cell Specification
54(12)
Autonomous Specification
54(2)
Conditional Specification
56(10)
Syncytial Specification
66(1)
Morphogenesis and Cell Adhesion
66(9)
Differential Cell Affinity
67(2)
The Thermodynamic Model of Cell Interactions
69(2)
Cadherins and Cell Adhesion
71(4)
Principles of Development: Experimental Embryology
75(1)
Literature Cited
75(4)
Genes and development: Techniques and ethical issues
79(30)
The Embryological Origins of the Gene Theory
79(4)
Nucleus or Cytoplasm: Which Controls Heredity?
79(2)
The Split between Embryology and Genetics
81(1)
Early Attempts at Developmental Genetics
82(1)
Evidence for Genomic Equivalence
83(8)
Metaplasia
83(1)
Amphibian Cloning: The Restriction of Nuclear Potency
83(2)
Amphibian Cloning: The Pluripotency of Somatic Cells
85(2)
Cloning Mammals
87(1)
Why Clone Mammals?
88(2)
The Exception to the Rule: Immunoglobin Genes
90(1)
Differential Gene Expression
91(1)
RNA Localization Techniques
92(5)
Northern Blotting
92(1)
In Situ Hybridization
93(1)
Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization
94(1)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
95(2)
Determining the Function of Genes during Development
97(6)
Transgenic Cells and Organisms
97(3)
Human Germ Line Gene Therapy
100(2)
Determining the Function of a Message: Antisense RNA
102(1)
Identifying the Genes for Human Developmental Anomalies
103(2)
Principles of Development: Genes and Development
105(1)
Literature Cited
105(4)
The genetic core of development: Differential gene expression
109(34)
Differential Gene Transcription
109(16)
Anatomy of the Gene: Exons and Introns
109(4)
Anatomy of the Gene: Promoters and Enhancers
113(3)
Transcription Factors
116(3)
Studying DNA Regulatory Elements
119(3)
Silencers
122(1)
Locus Control Regions in Globin Genes
123(2)
Methylation Pattern and the Control of Transcription
125(1)
DNA Methylation and Gene Activity
125(1)
Possible Mechanisms by which Methylation Represses Gene Transcription
125(1)
Genomic Imprinting
126(1)
Transcriptional Regulation of An Entire Chromosome: Dosage Compensation
126(4)
The Mechanisms of X Chromosome Inactivation
128(2)
Differential RNA Processing
130(4)
Control of Early Development by Nuclear RNA Selection
130(1)
Creating Families of Proteins through Differential nRNA Splicing
131(2)
Differential nRNA Processing and Drosophila Sex Determination
133(1)
Control of Gene Expression at the Level of Translation
134(2)
Differential mRNA Longevity
134(1)
Selective Inhibition of mRNA Translation
134(2)
Control of RNA Expression by Cytoplasmic Localization
136(1)
Epilogue: Posttranslational Gene Regulation
136(1)
Principles of Development: Developmental Genetics
137(1)
Literature Cited
138(5)
Cell-cell communication in development
143(42)
Induction and Competence
143(6)
Cascades of Induction: Reciprocal and Sequential Inductive Events
145(1)
Instructive and Permissive Interactions
146(2)
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions
148(1)
Paracrine Factors
149(4)
The Fibroblast Growth Factors
150(1)
The Hedgehog Family
151(1)
The Wnt Family
152(1)
The TGF-β Superfamily
152(1)
Other Paracrine Factors
153(1)
Cell Surface Receptors and Their Signal Transduction Pathways
153(12)
The RTK Pathway
154(2)
The RTK Pathway and Cell-to-Cell Induction
156(2)
The Smad Pathway
158(1)
The JAK-STAT Pathway
159(2)
The Wnt Pathway
161(1)
The Hedgehog Pathway
162(1)
The Nature of Human Syndromes
163(2)
The Cell Death Pathways
165(2)
Juxtacrine Signaling
167(7)
The Notch Pathway: Juxtaposed Ligands and Receptors
167(2)
Cell-Cell Interactions and Chance in the Determination of Cell Types
169(1)
The Extracellular Matrix as a Source of Critical Developmental Signals
170(3)
Direct Transmission of Signals through Gap Junctions
173(1)
Cross-Talk between Pathways
174(1)
Coda
175(1)
Principles of Development: Cell-Cell Communication
176(1)
Literature Cited
177(8)
part 2 Early embryonic development
Fertilization: Beginning a new organism
185(38)
Structure of the Gametes
185(6)
Sperm
185(3)
The Egg
188(3)
Recognition of Egg and Sperm
191(8)
Sperm Attraction: Action at a Distance
191(2)
The Acrosomal Reaction in Sea Urchins
193(1)
Action at a Distance: Mammalian Gametes
194(2)
Species-Specific Recognition in Sea Urchins
196(2)
Gamete Binding and Recognition in Mammals
198(1)
Gamete Fusion and the Prevention of Polyspermy
199(7)
Fusion of the Egg and Sperm Plasma Membranes
199(1)
The Prevention of Polyspermy
200(6)
The Activation of Egg Metabolism
206(4)
Early Responses
206(2)
The Activation of Gamete Metabolism
208(2)
Late Responses
210(1)
Fusion of the Genetic Material
210(4)
Fusion of Genetic Material in Sea Urchins
210(2)
Fusion of Genetic Material in Mammals
212(1)
The Nonequivalence of Mammalian Pronuclei
213(1)
Rearrangement of the Egg Cytoplasm
214(2)
Preparation for Cleavage
215(1)
Snapshot Summary
216(1)
Literature Cited
217(6)
Early development in selected invertebrates
223(40)
An Introduction to Early Developmental Processes
223(1)
Cleavage
223(5)
From Fertilization to Cleavage
224(1)
The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms of Mitosis
225(1)
Patterns of Embryonic Cleavage
226(2)
Gastrulation
228(1)
Axis Formation
229(1)
The Early Development of Sea Urchins
229(1)
Cleavage in Sea Urchins
229(5)
Blastula Formation
230(1)
Fate Maps and the Determination of Sea Urchin Blastomeres
231(3)
Sea Urchin Gastrulation
234(7)
Ingression of Primary Mesenchyme
235(3)
First Stage of Archenteron Invagination
238(1)
Second and Third Stages of Archenteron Invagination
239(2)
The Early Development of Snails
241(1)
Cleavage in Snail Eggs
241(6)
Adaptation by Modifying Embryonic Cleavage
243(1)
The Polar Lobe: Cell Determination and Axis Formation
244(2)
Fate Map of Ilyanassa obsoleta
246(1)
Gastrulation in Snails
247(1)
Early Development in Tunicates
247(1)
Tunicate Cleavage
247(4)
The Tunicate Fate Map
248(1)
Autonomous and Conditional Specification of Tunicate Blastomeres
249(1)
Specification of the Embryonic Axes
250(1)
Gastrulation in Tunicates
251(1)
Early Development of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
251(1)
Why C. elegans?
251(2)
Cleavage and Axis Formation in C. elegans
253(4)
Rotational Cleavage of the C. elegans Egg
253(1)
Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation
253(1)
Formation of the Dorsal-Ventral and Right-Left Axes
253(1)
Control of Blastomere Identity
253(1)
Autonomous Specification
254(1)
Conditional Specification
255(2)
Gastrulation in C. elegans
257(1)
Coda
257(1)
Snapshot Summary
257(1)
Literature Cited
258(5)
The genetics of axis specification in Drosophila
263(40)
Early Drosophila Development
263(1)
Cleavage
264(2)
The Midblastula Transition
265(1)
Gastrulation
266(3)
The Origins of Anterior-Posterior Polarity
269(1)
The Maternal Effect Genes
270(8)
Embryological Evidence of Polarity Regulation by Oocyte Cytoplasm
270(1)
The Molecular Model: Protein Gradients in the Early Embryo
270(1)
Evidence that the Bicoid Gradient Constitutes the Anterior Organizing Center
271(5)
The Posterior Organizing Center: Localizing and Activating Nanos
276(1)
The Terminal Gene Group
277(1)
The Segmentation Genes
278(7)
The Gap Genes
279(1)
The Pair-Rule Genes
280(2)
The Segment Polarity Genes
282(3)
The Homeotic Selector Genes
285(5)
Patterns of Homeotic Gene Expression
285(1)
Initiating the Patterns of Homeotic Gene Expression
286(1)
Maintaining the Patterns of Homeotic Gene Expression
287(1)
Realisator Genes
287(2)
The Homeodomain Proteins
289(1)
The Generation of Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
290(1)
The Morphogenetic Agent for Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
290(1)
The Translocation of Dorsal Protein
290(6)
The Signal Cascade
291(3)
Establishing the Dorsal Protein Gradient
294(2)
Axes and Organ Primordia: The Cartesian Coordinate Model
296(1)
Coda
297(1)
Snapshot Summary
297(1)
Literature Cited
298(5)
Early development and axis formation in amphibians
303(36)
Early Amphibian Development
303(1)
Cleavage in Amphibians
303(2)
Amphibian Gastrulation
305(9)
The Fate Map of Xenopus
305(1)
Cell Movements during Amphibian Gastrulation
306(2)
The Midblastula Transition: Preparing for Gastrulation
308(1)
Positioning the Blastopore
308(1)
Invagination and Involution
309(2)
The Convergent Extension of the Dorsal Mesoderm
311(1)
Migration of the Involuting Mesoderm
312(1)
Epiboly of the Ectoderm
312(1)
Fibronectin and the Pathways for Mesodermal Migration
313(1)
Axis Formation In Amphibians: The Phenomenon of the Organizer
314(1)
The Progressive Determination of the Amphibian Axes
314(3)
Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold: Primary Embryonic Induction
317(1)
The Mechanisms of Axis Formation in Amphibians
318(4)
The Origin of the Nieukoop Center
319(1)
The Molecular Biology of the Nieuwkoop Center
319(3)
The Functions of the Organizer
322(9)
The Diffusible Proteins of the Organizer I: The BMP Inhibitors
324(3)
BMP4 and Geoffroy's Lobster
327(1)
The Diffusible Proteins of the Organizer II: The Wnt Inhibitors
328(1)
Conversion of the Ectoderm into Neural Plate Cells
329(1)
Competence, Bias, and Neurulation
330(1)
The Regional Specificity of Induction
331(3)
The Determination of Regional Differences
331(1)
Molecular Correlates of Neural Caudalization
331(2)
Specifying the Left-Right Axis
333(1)
Snapshot Summary
334(1)
Literature Cited
335(4)
The early development of vertebrates: Fish, birds, and mammals
339(40)
Early Development in Fish
339(1)
Cleavage in Fish Eggs
339(2)
Gastrulation in Fish Embryos
341(2)
The Formation of Germ Layers
341(2)
Axis Formation in Fish Embryos
343(2)
Dorsal-Ventral Axis Formation: The Embryonic Shield
343(2)
Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation: Two Signaling Centers
345(1)
Left-Right Axis Formation
345(1)
Early Development In Birds
345(1)
Cleavage in Bird Eggs
345(2)
Gastrulation of the Avian Embryo
347(3)
The Hypoblast
347(1)
The Primitive Streak
348(2)
Epiboly of the Ectoderm
350(1)
Axis Formation in the Chick Embryo
350(4)
The Role of pH in Forming the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
350(1)
The Role of Gravity in Forming the Anterior-Posterior Axis
351(2)
Left-Right Axis Formation
353(1)
Early Mammalian Development
354(1)
Cleavage in Mammals
354(3)
The Unique Nature of Mammalian Cleavage
354(2)
Compaction
356(1)
Escape from the Zona Pellucida
357(1)
Gastrulation in Mammals
358(6)
Modifications for Development within Another Organism
358(3)
Formation of Extraembryonic Membranes
361(1)
Twins
362(2)
Mammalian Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation
364(5)
Two Signaling Centers
364(1)
Patterning the Anterior-Posterior Axis: The Hox Code Hypothesis
365(2)
Expression of Hox Genes along the Dorsal Axis
367(1)
Experimental Analysis of the Hox Code
367(2)
The Dorsal-Ventral and Left-Right Axes in Mammals
369(3)
The Dorsal-Ventral Axis
369(1)
The Left-Right Axis
370(2)
Snapshot Summary
372(1)
Literature Cited
373(6)
part 3 Later embryonic development
The central nervous system and the epidermis
379(32)
Formation of the Neural Tube
379(7)
Primary Neurulation
380(5)
Secondary Neurulation
385(1)
Differentiation of the Neural Tube
386
The Anterior-Posterior Axis
387(1)
The Dorsal-Ventral Axis
388
Tissue Architecture of the Central Nervous System
378(17)
Spinal Cord and Medulla Organization
390(1)
Cerebellar Organization
390(2)
Cerebral Organization
392(2)
Adult Neural Stem Cells
394(1)
Neuronal Types
395(4)
Homologous Specification of Neural Tissue between Vertebrates and Arthropods
398(1)
Development of the Vertebrate Eye
399(4)
The Dynamics of Optic Development
400(1)
Neural Retina Differentiation
401(1)
Lens and Cornea Differentiation
401(2)
The Epidermis and the Origin of Cutaneous Structures
403(3)
The Origin of Epidermal Cells
403(1)
Cutaneous Appendages
404(1)
Patterning of Cutaneous Appendages
404(2)
Snapshot Summary
406(1)
Literature Cited
407(4)
Neural crest cells and axonal specificity
411(36)
The Neural Crest
411(2)
The Trunk Neural Crest
413(4)
Migration Pathways of Trunk Neural Crest Cells
413(1)
The Mechanisms of Trunk Neural Crest Migration
414(1)
Trunk Neural Crest Cell Differentiation
415(2)
The Cranial Neural Crest
417(5)
Tooth Development
420(2)
The Cardiac Neural Crest
422(1)
Neuronal Specification and Axonal Specificity
422(1)
The Generation of Neuronal Diversity
423(2)
Pattern Generation in the Nervous System
425(14)
Cell Adhesion and Contact Guidance: Attractive and Permissive Molecules
426(1)
Guidance by Axon-Specific Migratory Cues: The Labeled Pathways Hypothesis
426(1)
Contact Guidance by Specific Growth Cone Repulsion
427(1)
Guidance By Diffusible Molecules
428(3)
Target Selection
431(2)
Address Selection: Activity-Dependent Development
433(1)
Differential Survival after Innervation: Neurotrophic Factors
434(1)
Paths to Glory: Migration of the Retinal Ganglion Axons
435(3)
Fetal Neurons in Adult Hosts
438(1)
The Development of Behaviors: Constancy and Plasticity
439(1)
Snapshot Summary
439(1)
Literature Cited
440(7)
Paraxial and intermediate mesoderm
447(24)
Paraxial Mesoderm: The Somites and Their Derivatives
447(6)
The Initiation of Somite Formation
448(3)
Specification and Commitment of Somitic Cell Types
451(1)
Determining Somitic Cell Fates
452(1)
Myogenesis: The Development of Muscle
453(1)
Specification and Differentiation by the Myogenic bHLH Proteins
453(1)
Muscle Cell Fusion
453(1)
Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
454(6)
Intramembranous Ossification
455(1)
Endochondral Ossification
456(2)
Control of Cartilage Maturation at the Growth Plate
458(1)
Osteoclasts
459(1)
Intermediate Mesoderm
460(6)
Progression of Kidney Types
460(1)
Reciprocal Interaction of Kidney Tissues
461(1)
The Mechanisms of Reciprocal Induction
461(5)
Snapshot Summary
466(1)
Literature Cited
467(4)
Lateral plate mesoderm and endoderm
471(32)
Lateral Plate Mesoderm
471(1)
The Heart
471(9)
Specification of Heart Tissue and Fusion of Heart Rudiments
472(3)
Looping and Formation of Heart Chambers
475(2)
Redirecting Blood Flow in the Newborn Mammal
477(3)
Formation of Blood Vessels
480(5)
Constraints on How Blood Vessels May Be Constructed
480(1)
Vasculogenesis: Formation of Blood Vessels from Blood Islands
481(2)
Angiogenesis: Sprouting of Blood Vessels and Remodeling of Vascular Beds
483(2)
The Development of Blood Cells
485(5)
The Stem Cell Concept
485(1)
Pluripotential Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Microenvironments
485(3)
Sites of Hematopoiesis
488(2)
Endoderm
490(1)
The Pharynx
490(1)
The Digestive Tube and Its Derivatives
491(4)
Specification of the Gut Tissue
492(1)
Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
493(1)
The Specification of Liver and Pancreas
494(1)
The Respiratory Tube
495(1)
The Extraembryonic Membranes
495(2)
The Amnion and Chorion
496(1)
The Allantois and Yolk Sac
497(1)
Snapshot Summary
497(1)
Literature Cited
498(5)
Development of the tetrapod limb
503(20)
Formation of the Limb Bud
504(4)
Specification of the Limb Fields: Hox Genes and Retinoic Acid
504(1)
Induction of the Early Limb Bud: Fibroblast Growth Factors
504(1)
Specification of Forelimb or Hindlimb: Tbx4 and Tbx5
505(1)
Induction of the Apical Ectodermal Ridge
506(2)
Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb
508(5)
The Apical Ectodermal Ridge: The Ectodermal Component
508(1)
The Progress Zone: The Mesodermal Component
509(2)
Hox Genes and the Specification of the Proximal-Distal Axis
511(2)
Hox Genes and the Evolution of the Tetrapod Limb
513(1)
Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Limb Axis
513(2)
The Zone of Polarizing Activity
513(1)
Sonic Hedgehog Defines the ZPA
514(1)
The Generation of the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
515(1)
Coordination among the Three Axes
516(1)
Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints
517(2)
Sculpting the Autopod
517(1)
Forming the Joints
517(2)
Snapshot Summary
519(1)
Literature Cited
519(4)
Sex determination
523(24)
Chromosomal Sex Determination in Mammals
524(12)
Primary and Secondary Sex Determination
524(1)
The Developing Gonads
525(2)
The Mechanisms of Mammalian Primary Sex Determination
527(4)
Secondary Sex Determination: Hormonal Regulation of the Sexual Phenotype
531(3)
Sex Determination and Behaviors
534(2)
Chromosomal Sex Determination in Drosophila
536(4)
The Sexual Development Pathway
536(1)
The Sex-lethal Gene as the Pivot for Sex Determination
537(2)
The Transformer Genes
539(1)
Doublesex: The Switch Gene of Sex Determination
540(1)
Environmental Sex Determination
540(2)
Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Reptiles
540(1)
Location-Dependent Sex Determination in Bonellia and Crepidula
541(1)
Snapshot Summary
542(1)
Literature Cited
543(4)
Metamorphosis, regeneration, and aging
547(38)
Metamorphosis: The Hormonal Reactivation of Development
547(1)
Amphibian Metamorphosis
548(8)
Morphological Changes Associated with Metamorphosis
548(1)
Biochemical Changes Associated with Metamorphosis
549(1)
Hormonal Control of Amphibian Metamorphosis
549(3)
Raising Tadpoles
552(1)
Molecular Responses to Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis
552(2)
Heterochrony
554(2)
Metamorphosis In Insects
556(9)
Types of Insect Metamorphosis
556(1)
Eversion and Differentiation of the Imaginal Discs
557(2)
Determination of the Wing Imaginal Discs
559(3)
Hormonal Control of Insect Metamorphosis
562(1)
The Molecular Biology of Hydroxyecdysone Activity
563(2)
Regeneration
565(1)
Epimorphic Regeneration of Salamander Limbs
566(4)
Formation of the Apical Ectodermal Cap and Regeneration Blastema
566(2)
Proliferation of the Blastema Cells: The Requirement for Nerves
568(1)
Pattern Formation In the Regeneration Blastema
568(2)
Compensatory Regeneration in the Mammalian Liver
570(1)
Morphallactic Regeneration in Hydras
570(4)
Medical Advances in Regeneration
573(1)
Aging: The Biology of Senescence
574(1)
Maximum Life Span and Life Expectancy
574(1)
Causes of Aging
575(2)
Oxidative Damage
575(1)
General Wear-and-Tear and Genetic Instability
576(1)
Snapshot Summary
577(1)
Literature Cited
578(7)
The saga of the germ line
585(36)
Germ Plasm and the Determination of the Primordial Germ Cells
585(4)
Germ Cell Determination in Nematodes
586(1)
Germ Cell Determination in Insects
587(1)
Germ Cell Determination in Amphibians
588(1)
Germ Cell Migration
589(6)
Germ Cell Migration in Amphibians
589(1)
Germ Cell Migration in Mammals
590(2)
EG Cells, ES Cells, and Teratocarcinomas
592(1)
Germ Cell Migration in Birds and Reptiles
593(1)
Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila
593(2)
Meiosis
595(4)
Big Decisions: Mitosis or Meiosis? Sperm or Egg?
597(2)
Spermatogenesis
599(3)
Oogenesis
602(11)
Oogenic Meiosis
602(1)
Maturation of the Oocyte in Amphibians
603(2)
Completion of Amphibian Meiosis: Progesterone and Fertilization
605(1)
Gene Transcription in Oocytes
606(2)
Meroistic Oogenesis in Insects
608(2)
Oogenesis in Mammals
610(3)
Snapshot Summary
613(1)
Literature Cited
614(7)
part 4 Ramifications of developmental biology
An overview of plant development
621(28)
Plant Life Cycles
622(2)
Gamete Production in Angiosperms
624(3)
Pollen
624(2)
The Ovary
626(1)
Pollination
627(2)
Fertilization
629(1)
Embryonic Development
629(4)
Experimental Studies
629(1)
Embryogenesis
630(3)
Dormancy
633(1)
Germination
634(1)
Vegetative Growth
635(4)
Meristems
635(1)
Root Development
636(1)
Shoot Development
637(1)
Leaf Development
638(1)
The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Transition
639(6)
Senescence
645(1)
Snapshot Summary
645(1)
Literature Cited
646(3)
Environmental regulation of animal development
649(30)
Environmental Regulation of Normal Development
649(1)
Environmental Cues and Normal Development
649(3)
Larval Settlement
649(1)
Blood Meals
650(1)
Developmental Symbiosis
650(2)
Predictable Environmental Differences as Cues for Development
652(1)
Seasonality and Sex in Aphids
652(1)
Diapause
653(1)
Gravity and Pressure
653(1)
Phenotypic Plasticity: Polyphenism and Reaction Norms
653(5)
Seasonal Polyphenism in Butterflies
655(1)
Nutritional Polyphenism
655(1)
Environment-Dependent Sex Determination
656(1)
Polyphenisms for Alternative Conditions
657(1)
Predator-Induced Defenses
658(2)
Mammalian Immunity as a Predator-Induced Response
660(2)
Genetic Assimilation
661(1)
Learning: An Environmentally Adaptive Nervous System
662(2)
Environmental Disruption of Normal Development
664(1)
Teratogenic Agents
665(8)
Retinoic Acid as a Teratogen
666(1)
Alcohol as a Teratogen
667(1)
Other Teratogenic Agents
668(1)
Endocrine Disruptors
669(4)
Genetic-Environmental Interactions
673(1)
Coda
673(1)
Snapshot Summary
674(1)
Literature Cited
674(5)
Developmental mechanisms of evolutionary change
679(31)
``Unity of Type'' and ``Conditions of Existence''
679(4)
Charles Darwin's Synthesis
679(1)
E. B. Wilson and F. R. Lillie
680(1)
``Life's Splendid Drama''
680(2)
The Search for the Urbilaterian Ancestor
682(1)
Hox Genes: Descent with Modification
683(7)
Changes in Hox-Responsive Elements of Downstream Genes
684(1)
Changes in Hox Gene Transcription Patterns within a Body Portion
684(2)
Changes in Hox Gene Expression between Body Segments
686(2)
Changes in Hox Gene Number
688(1)
Assessing Homologies through Regulatory Gene Expression Patterns
689(1)
Homologous Pathways of Development
690(3)
Instructions for Forming the Central Nervous System
690(2)
Limb Formation
692(1)
Modularity: The Prerequisite for Evolution through Development
693(3)
Dissociation: Heterochrony and Allometry
694(1)
Duplication and Divergence
695(1)
Co-option
696(1)
Developmental Correlation
697(2)
Correlated Progression
697(1)
Coevolution of Ligand and Receptor
698(1)
Developmental Constraints
699(3)
Physical Constraints
699(1)
Morphogenetic Constraints
700(1)
Phyletic Constraints
700(2)
Canalization and the Release of Developmental Constraints
702(1)
A New Evolutionary Synthesis
702(3)
Snapshot Summary
705(1)
Literature Cited
706(4)
Appendix I: A Partial List of Genes Active in Human Development 710(2)
Sources for Chapter-Opening Quotations 712(1)
Author Index 713(12)
Subject Index 725


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