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Developmental Biology (Book with CD-ROM),9780878932580
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Developmental Biology (Book with CD-ROM)

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780878932580

ISBN10:
0878932585
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/1/2003
Publisher(s):
SINAUER ASSOC INC
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Summary

Explores the organismal, cellular, and molecular aspects of animal development. Includes new material on vertebrate limb cell specification and the developmental origins of feathers, jaws, and teeth during evolution. Includes a new chapter on the medical implications of developmental biology, such as the identification of genetic defects that affect development. Previous ed: c2000.

Table of Contents

part 1 Principles of developmental biology
Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition
3(22)
The Questions of Developmental Biology
4(1)
Approaches to Developmental Biology
5(1)
The Anatomical Approach
5(9)
Comparative embryology
5(1)
Epigenesis and preformation
6(2)
Naming the parts: The primary germ layers and early organs
8(1)
The four principles of Karl Ernst von Baer
8(2)
Fate mapping the embryo
10(3)
Cell migration
13(1)
Evolutionary Embryology
14(2)
Embryonic homologies
15(1)
Medical Embryology and Teratology
16(2)
Mathematical Modeling of Development
18(7)
The mathematics of organismal growth
18(1)
The mathematics of patterning
19(6)
Life cycles and the evolution of developmental patterns
25(26)
The Circle of Life: The Stages of Animal Development
25(1)
The Frog Life Cycle
26(4)
The Evolution of Developmental Patterns in Unicellular Protists
30(3)
Control of developmental morphogenesis: The role of the nucleus
30(2)
Unicellular protists and the origins of sexual reproduction
32(1)
Multicellularity: The Evolution of Differentiation
33(11)
The Volvocaceans
34(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: Sex and Individuality in Volvox
36(3)
Differentiation and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium: Cell adhesion
39(3)
Sidelights & Speculations: Rules of Evidence I
42(1)
Differentiation in Dictyostelium
43(1)
Developmental Patterns among the Metazoa
44(7)
The diploblasts
46(1)
Protostomes and deuterostomes
46(5)
Principles of experimental embryology
51(30)
Environmental Developmental Biology
51(5)
Environmental sex determination
52(1)
Adaptation of embryos and larvae to their environments
52(4)
The Developmental Dynamics of Cell Specification
56(13)
Autonomous specification
56(2)
Conditional specification
58(9)
Sidelights & Speculations: Rules of Evidence II
67(1)
Stem cells and commitment
68(1)
Syncytial specification
69(1)
Morphogenesis and Cell Adhesion
69(12)
Differential cell affinity
70(1)
The thermodynamic model of cell interactions
71(3)
Cadherins and cell adhesion
74(7)
The genetic core of development
81(26)
The Embryological Origins of the Gene Theory
81(4)
Nucleus or cytoplasm: Which controls heredity?
81(2)
The split between embryology and genetics
83(1)
Early attempts at developmental genetics
84(1)
Evidence for Genomic Equivalence
85(7)
Amphibian cloning: The restriction of nuclear potency
85(1)
Amphibian cloning: The totipotency of somatic cells
86(1)
Cloning mammals
87(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: Why Clone Mammals?
89(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Exception to the Rule: Immunoglobulin Genes
90(2)
Differential Gene Expression
92(1)
RNA Localization Techniques
93(5)
Northern blotting
93(1)
Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
93(3)
Microarrays and macroarrays
96(1)
In situ hybridization
97(1)
Determining the Function of Genes During Development
98(6)
Transgenic cells and organisms
98(3)
Determining the function of a message: Antisense RNA
101(3)
Coda
104(3)
The paradigm of differential gene expression
107(36)
Differential Gene Transcription
107(14)
Anatomy of the gene: Exons and introns
107(4)
Anatomy of the gene: Promoters and enhancers
111(3)
Transcription factors
114(3)
Transcription factor cascades
117(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Studying DNA Regulatory Elements
118(2)
Silencers
120(1)
Methylation Pattern and the Control of Transcription
121(6)
DNA methylation and gene activity
121(1)
Chromatin modification
122(1)
Insulators
123(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Genomic Imprinting
123(1)
Transcriptional regulation of an entire chromosome: Dosage compensation
124(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Mechanisms of X Chromosome Inactivation
126(1)
Differential RNA Processing
127(5)
Control of early development by nuclear RNA selection
128(1)
Creating families of proteins through differential nRNA splicing
129(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: Differential nRNA Processing and Drosophila Sex Determination
131(1)
Control of Gene Expression at the Level of Translation
132(11)
Differential mRNA longevity
132(1)
Selective inhibition of mRNA translation
132(2)
Control of RNA expression by cytoplasmic localization
134(1)
Posttranslational regulation of gene expression
135(8)
Cell-cell communication in development
143(40)
Induction and Competence
143(6)
Cascades of induction: Reciprocal and sequential inductive events
145(1)
Instructive and permissive interactions
145(2)
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
147(2)
Paracrine Factors
149(5)
The fibroblast growth factors
150(1)
The Hedgehog family
151(1)
The Wnt family
152(1)
The TGF-β superfamily
153(1)
Other paracrine factors
153(1)
Cell Surface Receptors and Their Signal Transduction Pathways
154(10)
The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway
154(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: The RTK Pathway and Cell-to-Cell Induction
155(4)
The Smad pathway
159(1)
The JAK-STAT pathway
159(2)
The Wnt pathway
161(1)
The Hedgehog pathway
161(3)
Cell Death Pathways
164(2)
Juxtacrine Signaling
166(6)
The Notch pathway: Juxtaposed ligands and receptors
166(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Cell-Cell Interactions and Chance in the Determination of Cell Types
167(1)
The extracellular matrix as a source of critical developmental signals
168(3)
Direct transmission of signals through gap junctions
171(1)
Cross-Talk between Pathways
172(1)
Maintenance of the Differentiated State
173(1)
Coda
174(9)
part 2 Early embryonic development
Fertilization: Beginning a new organism
183(38)
Structure of the Gametes
183(6)
Sperm
183(3)
The egg
186(3)
Recognition of Egg and Sperm
189(8)
Sperm attraction: Action at a distance
189(2)
The acrosome reaction in sea urchins
191(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Action at a Distance: Mammalian Gametes
192(2)
Species-specific recognition in sea urchins
194(1)
Gamete binding and recognition in mammals
195(2)
Gamete Fusion and the Prevention of Polyspermy
197(6)
Fusion of the egg and sperm cell membranes
197(1)
The prevention of polyspermy
198(5)
The Activation of Egg Metabolism
203(6)
Early responses
204(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Activation of Gamete Metabolism
206(2)
Late responses
208(1)
Fusion of the Genetic Material
209(1)
Fusion of genetic material in sea urchins
209(1)
Fusion of genetic material in mammals
209(1)
Rearrangement of the Egg Cytoplasm
210(11)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Nonequivalence of Mammalian Pronuclei
212(9)
Early development in selected invertebrates
221(42)
An Introduction To Early Developmental Processes
221(1)
Cleavage
221(5)
From fertilization to cleavage
222(1)
The cytoskeletal mechanisms of mitosis
223(1)
Patterns of embryonic cleavage
224(2)
Specification of cell fates during cleavage
226(1)
Gastrulation
226(1)
Cell Specification and Axis Formation
226(1)
The Early Development Of Sea Urchins
227(1)
Cleavage in Sea Urchins
227(6)
Blastula formation
227(1)
Fate maps and the determination of sea urchin blastomeres
228(5)
Sea Urchin Gastrulation
233(6)
Ingression of primary mesenchyme
233(3)
First stage of archenteron invagination
236(1)
Second and third stages of archenteron invagination
237(2)
The Early Development Of Snails
239(1)
Cleavage in Snail Embryos
239(6)
Fate map of Ilyanassa obsoleta
241(1)
The polar lobe: Cell determination and axis formation
242(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Adaptation by Modifying Embryonic Cleavage
242(3)
Gastrulation in Snails
245(1)
Early Development In Tunicates
246(1)
Tunicate Cleavage
246(4)
The tunicate fate map
246(1)
Autonomous and conditional specification of tunicate blastomeres
247(2)
Specification of the embryonic axes
249(1)
Gastrulation in Tunicates
250(1)
Early Development Of The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans
251(1)
Why C. elegans?
251(1)
Cleavage and Axis Formation in C. elegans
251(6)
Rotational cleavage of the C. elegans egg
251(2)
Anterior-posterior axis formation
253(1)
Formation of the dorsal-ventral and right-left axes
253(1)
Control of blastomere identity
254(3)
Integration of autonomous and conditional specification: The differentiation of the C. elegans pharynx
257(1)
Gastrulation in C. elegans
257(1)
Coda
258(5)
The genetics of axis specification in Drosophila
263(42)
Early Drosophila Development
263(1)
Cleavage
264(2)
The mid-blastula transition
265(1)
Gastrulation
266(2)
The Origins Of Anterior-Posterior Polarity
268(2)
The Maternal Effect Genes
270(8)
Embryological evidence of polarity regulation by oocyte cytoplasm
270(1)
The molecular model: Protein gradients in the early embryo
270(3)
The anterior organizing center: The Bicoid gradient
273(3)
The posterior organizing center: Localizing and activating nanos
276(1)
The terminal gene group
277(1)
The Segmentation Genes
278(7)
The gap genes
279(2)
The pair-rule genes
281(2)
The segment polarity genes
283(2)
The Homeotic Selector Genes
285(5)
Patterns of homeotic gene expression
285(1)
Initiating the patterns of homeotic gene expression
286(2)
Maintaining the patterns of homeotic gene expression
288(1)
Realisator genes
288(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Homeodomain Proteins
289(1)
The Generation Of Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
290(1)
Dorsal: The Morphogenetic Agent for Dorsal-Ventral Polarity
291(6)
Translocation of Dorsal to the nucleus
291(2)
The signal cascade
293(1)
Establishing the dorsal patterning gradient
294(3)
Axes and Organ Primordia: The Cartesian Coordinate Model
297(1)
Coda
297(8)
Early development and axis formation in amphibians
305(40)
Early Amphibian Development
305(1)
Cleavage in Amphibians
305(2)
Amphibian Gastrulation
307(10)
The Xenopus fate map
308(1)
Cell movements during amphibian gastrulation
309(1)
The mid-blastula transition: Preparing for gastrulation
310(1)
Positioning the blastopore
311(1)
Invagination and involution
312(1)
The convergent extension of the dorsal mesoderm
313(2)
Migration of the involuting mesoderm
315(1)
Epiboly of the ectoderm
315(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Fibronectin and the Pathways for Mesodermal Migration
316(1)
Axis Formation In Amphibians: The Phenomenon Of The Organizer
317(1)
The Progressive Determination of the Amphibian Axes
317(3)
Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold: Primary Embryonic Induction
320(1)
Mechanisms of Axis Determination in Amphibians
321(4)
The origin of the Nieuwkoop center
321(1)
The molecular biology of the Nieuwkoop center
322(3)
The Functions of the Organizer
325(9)
The diffusible proteins of the organizer I: The BMP inhibitors
327(3)
The diffusible proteins of the organizer II: The Wnt inhibitors
330(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: BMP4 and Geoffroy's Lobster
330(2)
Conversion of the ectoderm into neural plate cells
332(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Competence, Bias, and Neurulation
333(1)
The Regional Specificity of Induction
334(3)
The determination of regional differences
334(1)
The posterior transforming proteins: Wnt signals and retinoic acid
334(2)
The anterior transforming proteins: Insulin-like growth factors
336(1)
Specifying the Left-Right Axis
337(8)
The early development of vertebrates: Fish, birds, and mammals
345(44)
Early Development In Fish
345(2)
Cleavage in Fish Eggs
347(2)
Gastrulation in Fish Embryos
349(2)
The formation of germ layers
349(2)
Axis Formation in Fish Embryos
351(3)
Dorsal-ventral axis formation: The embryonic shield
351(1)
The fish Nieuwkoop center
352(1)
Anterior-posterior patterning
353(1)
Early Development In Birds
354(1)
Cleavage in Bird Eggs
354(2)
Gastrulation of the Avian Embryo
356(4)
The hypoblast
356(1)
The primitive streak
356(2)
Epiboly of the ectoderm
358(2)
Axis Formation in the Chick Embryo
360(3)
The role of pH in forming the dorsal-ventral axis
360(1)
The role of gravity in forming the anterior-posterior axis
360(3)
Left-Right Axis Formation
363(1)
Early Mammalian Development
363(1)
Cleavage in Mammals
363(5)
The unique nature of mammalian cleavage
364(2)
Compaction
366(2)
Escape from the zona pellucida
368(1)
Gastrulation in Mammals
368(7)
Modifications for development within another organism
368(2)
Formation of extraembryonic membranes
370(3)
Sidelights & Speculations: Twins and Embryonic Stem Cells
373(2)
Mammalian Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation
375(5)
Two signaling centers
375(2)
Patterning the anterior-posterior axis: The Hox code hypothesis
377(1)
Expression of Hox genes along the dorsal axis
377(1)
Experimental analysis of the Hox code
377(3)
The Dorsal-Ventral and Right-Left Axes in Mice
380(9)
The dorsal-ventral axis
380(1)
The left-right axis
381(8)
part 3 Later embryonic development
The emergence of the ectoderm: The central nervous system and the epidermis
389(38)
Establishing the Neural Cells
391(2)
Formation of the Neural Tube
393(5)
Primary neurulation
393(5)
Secondary neurulation
398(1)
Differentiation of the Neural Tube
398(4)
The anterior-posterior axis
398(3)
The dorsal-ventral axis
401(1)
Tissue Architecture of the Central Nervous System
402(8)
Spinal cord and medulla organization
403(1)
Cerebellar organization
404(1)
Cerebral organization
405(3)
Sidelights & Speculations: The Unique Development of the Human Brain
408(1)
Adult neural stem cells
409(1)
Differentiation of Neurons
410(3)
Development of the Vertebrate Eye
413(3)
The dynamics of optic development
413(1)
Neural retina differentiation
414(1)
Lens and cornea differentiation
414(2)
The Epidermis and the Origin of Cutaneous Structures
416(11)
The origin of epidermal cells
416(2)
Cutaneous appendages
418(1)
Developmental genetics of hair formation
419(8)
Neural crest cells and axonal specificity
427(38)
The Neural Crest
427(1)
Specification and Regionalization of the Neural Crest
427(2)
The Trunk Neural Crest
429(5)
Migration pathways of trunk neural crest cells
429(2)
The mechanisms of trunk neural crest migration
431(1)
Trunk neural crest cell differentiation
432(2)
The Cranial Neural Crest
434(7)
Cranial neural crest cell migration and specification: The first wave
436(1)
Intramembranous ossification
437(1)
Innervation of the placodes: The second wave of cranial neural crest migration
438(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Tooth Development
439(2)
The Cardiac Neural Crest
441(1)
Neuronal Specification And Axonal Specificity
442(1)
The Generation of Neuronal Diversity
442(2)
Pattern Generation in the Nervous System
444(13)
Cell adhesion and contact guidance by attractive and permissive molecules
445(1)
Guidance by specific growth cone repulsion
445(1)
Guidance by diffusible molecules
446(4)
Target selection
450(1)
Forming the synapse: Activity-dependent development
451(1)
Differential survival after innervation: Neurotrophic factors
451(2)
Paths to glory: Migration of the retinal ganglion axons
453(4)
The Development of Behaviors: Constancy and Plasticity
457(8)
Paraxial and intermediate mesoderm
465(26)
Paraxial Mesoderm: The Somites And Their Derivatives
466(1)
The Formation of Somites
467(6)
The periodicity of somite formation
467(1)
The separation of somites from the unsegmented mesoderm
468(1)
The epithelialization of the somite
469(2)
Specification of the somite along the anterior-posterior axis
471(1)
The derivatives of the somite
471(1)
Determination of the sclerotome and dermatome
472(1)
Determination of the myotome
473(1)
Myogenesis: The Development of Muscle
473(1)
Specification and differentiation by the myogenic bHLH proteins
473(1)
Muscle cell fusion
474(1)
Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
474(3)
Endochondral ossification
475(2)
Osteoclasts
477(1)
Intermediate Mesoderm: The Urogenital System
477(1)
The Specification of the Intermediate Mesoderm
478(1)
Progression of Kidney Types
479(1)
Reciprocal Interactions of Developing Kidney Tissues
480(11)
The mechanisms of reciprocal induction
481(10)
Lateral plate mesoderm and endoderm
491(32)
Lateral Plate Mesoderm
491(1)
The Heart
492(8)
Specification of heart tissue and fusion of heart rudiments
492(6)
Sidelights & Speculations: Redirecting Blood Flow in the Newborn Mammal
498(2)
Formation of Blood Vessels
500(4)
Constraints on the construction of blood vessels
500(1)
Vasculogenesis: The initial formation of blood vessels
501(2)
Angiogenesis: Sprouting of blood vessels and remodeling of vascular beds
503(1)
Mechanisms of Arterial and Venous Differentiation
504(1)
The Development of Blood Cells
505(5)
The stem cell concept
505(1)
Sites of hematopoiesis
506(3)
Committed stem cells and their fates
509(1)
Hematopoietic inductive microenvironments
509(1)
Endoderm
510(1)
The Pharynx
511(1)
The Digestive Tube and Its Derivatives
511(4)
Specification of the gut tissue
512(1)
Liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
512(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Blood and Guts: The Specification of Liver and Pancreas
513(2)
The Respiratory Tube
515(2)
The Extraembryonic Membranes
517(6)
The amnion and chorion
517(1)
The allantois and yolk sac
517(6)
Development of the tetrapod limb
523(24)
Formation of the Limb Bud
524(5)
Specification of the limb fields: Hox genes and retinoic acid
524(1)
Induction of the early limb bud: Wnt proteins and fibroblast growth factors
525(1)
Specification of forelimb or hindlimb: Tbx4 and Tbx5
526(3)
Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb
529(5)
The apical ectodermal ridge
529(1)
FGFs in the induction and maintenance of the AER
530(1)
Specifying the limb mesoderm: Determining the proximal-distal polarity of the limb
531(1)
Hox genes, meis genes, and the specification of the proximal-distal axis
532(2)
Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Limb Axis
534(3)
The zone of polarizing activity
534(1)
Sonic hedgehog defines the ZPA
535(1)
Specification of the ZPA
535(1)
Specifying digit identity through cell interactions initiated by Sonic hedgehog
536(1)
Generation of the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
537(1)
Coordinating the Three Axes
537(1)
Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints
538(2)
Sculpting the autopod
538(1)
Forming the joints
539(1)
Continued Limb Growth: Epiphyseal Plates
540(7)
Sidelights & Speculations: Control of Cartilage Maturation at the Growth Plate
541(6)
Sex determination
547(28)
Chromosomal Sex Determination In Mammals
548(1)
Primary and Secondary Sex Determination in Mammals
548(1)
The Developing Gonads
549(2)
The Mechanisms of Mammalian Primary Sex Determination
551(5)
SRY: The Y chromosome sex determinant
551(1)
SOX9: An autosomal testis-determining gene
552(1)
Fibroblast growth factor 9
553(1)
SF1: The link between SRY and the male developmental pathways
554(1)
DAX1: A potential testis-suppressing gene on the X chromosome
554(2)
WNT4: A potential ovary-determining gene on an autosome
556(1)
Secondary Sex Determination: Hormonal Regulation of the Sexual Phenotype
556(5)
Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone
557(1)
Anti-Mullerian duct hormone
558(1)
Estrogen
559(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Sex Determination and Behaviors
559(2)
Chromosomal Sex Determination In Drosophila
561(1)
The Sexual Development Pathway
561(1)
Mechanisms of Sex Determination
562(5)
The sex-lethal gene as the pivot for sex determination
562(1)
The transformer genes
563(1)
Doublesex: The switch gene of sex determination
564(3)
Environmental Sex Determination
567(1)
Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Reptiles
567(1)
Aromatase and the production of estrogens
567(1)
Sex reversal, aromatase, and conservation biology
568(1)
Location-Dependent Sex Determination in Bonellia and Crepidula
568(7)
Metamorphosis regeneration, and aging
575(38)
Metamorphosis: The Hormonal Reactivation of Development
575(1)
Amphibian Metamorphosis
576(7)
Morphological changes associated with metamorphosis
576(1)
Biochemical changes associated with metamorphosis
577(1)
Hormonal control of amphibian metamorphosis
578(2)
Regionally specific developmental programs
580(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Variations on the Theme of Amphibian Metamorphosis
581(2)
Metamorphosis in Insects
583(9)
Types of insect metamorphosis
583(1)
Imaginal discs
584(3)
Determination of the wing imaginal discs
587(1)
Hormonal control of insect metamorphosis
588(2)
The molecular biology of 20-hydroxyecdysone activity
590(2)
Regeneration
592(1)
Epimorphic Regeneration of Salamander Limbs
592(5)
Formation of the apical ectodermal cap and regeneration blastema
593(1)
Proliferation of the blastema cells: The requirement for nerves
594(1)
Proliferation of the blastema cells: The requirement for FGF10
595(1)
Pattern formation in the regeneration blastema
595(2)
Morphallactic Regeneration in Hydra
597(4)
The head activation gradient
597(1)
The head inhibition gradient
598(1)
The hypostome as an ``organizer''
598(2)
The basal disc activation and inhibition gradients
600(1)
Compensatory Regeneration in the Mammalian Liver
601(1)
Aging: The Biology of Senescence
601(12)
Maximum life span and life expectancy
601(1)
Causes of aging
602(1)
Genetically programmed aging
603(10)
The saga of the germ line
613(36)
Germ Plasm and the Determination of the Primordial Germ Cells
613(4)
Germ cell determination in nematodes
614(1)
Germ cell determination in insects
615(1)
Germ cell determination in amphibians
616(1)
The inert genome hypothesis
617(1)
Germ Cell Migration
617(7)
Germ cell migration in amphibians
617(1)
Germ cell formation and migration in mammals
618(3)
Sidelights & Speculations: EG Cells, ES Cells, and Teratocarcinomas
621(1)
Germ cell migration in birds and reptiles
622(1)
Germ cell migration in Drosophila
622(2)
Meiosis
624(4)
Sidelights & Speculations: Big Decisions: Mitosis or Meiosis? Sperm or Egg?
627(1)
Spermatogenesis
628(3)
Forming the haploid spermatid
628(2)
Spermiogenesis: The differentiation of the sperm
630(1)
Oogenesis
631(18)
Oogenic meiosis
631(1)
Maturation of the oocyte in amphibians
632(1)
Completion of amphibian meiosis: Progesterone and fertilization
633(1)
Gene transcription in oocytes
634(3)
Meroistic oogenesis in insects
637(1)
Maturation of the mammalian oocyte
638(11)
part 4 Ramifications of developmental biology
An overview of plant development
649(34)
Plant Life Cycles
651(3)
Gamete Production in Angiosperms
654(4)
Pollen
654(1)
The ovary
655(1)
Pollination
655(3)
Fertilization
658(1)
Embryonic Development
659(5)
Experimental studies
659(1)
Embryogenesis
659(5)
Dormancy
664(1)
Germination
664(1)
Vegetative Growth
665(6)
Meristems
665(2)
Root development
667(1)
Shoot development
667(1)
Leaf development
668(3)
The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Transition
671(7)
Control of the reproductive transition
672(2)
Inflorescence meristems
674(1)
Floral meristem identity genes
675(1)
Organ identity genes: The ABC model
676(2)
Senescence
678(5)
Medical implications of developmental biology
683(38)
Infertility
683(1)
Diagnosing Infertility
683(1)
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
684(2)
The IVF procedure
684(1)
Variations on IVF
685(1)
Success rates and complications of IVF
685(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Ethical Issues and Assisted Reproductive Technology
686(1)
Genetic Errors Of Human Development
686(1)
Identifying the Genes for Human Developmental Anomalies
687(2)
The Nature of Human Syndromes
689(2)
Pleiotropy
689(1)
Genetic heterogeneity
690(1)
Phenotypic variability
690(1)
Mechanisms of dominance
691(1)
Gene Expression and Human Disease
691(2)
Inborn errors in transcriptional regulation
691(1)
Inborn errors of nuclear RNA processing
692(1)
Inborn errors of translation
692(1)
Preimplantation Genetics
693(1)
Amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and preimplantation genetics
693(1)
Sperm separation and sex selection
694(1)
Teratogenesis: Environmental Assaults On Human Development
694(1)
Teratogenic Agents
695(8)
Retinoic acid as a teratogen
696(1)
Alcohol as a teratogen
697(1)
Endocrine disruptors
698(2)
Other teratogenic agents
700(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: The DES Story: Is It Happening Again?
701(2)
Developmental Biology And The Future Of Medicine
703(1)
Developmental Cancer Therapies
703(2)
Cancer as a disease of altered development
703(1)
Differentiation therapy
703(1)
Angiogenesis inhibition
704(1)
Gene Therapy
705(3)
Somatic cell gene therapy
707(1)
Germ line gene therapy
707(1)
Stem Cells and Therapeutic Cloning
708(13)
Cloning
708(1)
Embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning
708(1)
Adult stem cells
709(2)
Transgenic stem cells
711(1)
Regeneration therapy
712(9)
Environmental regulation of animal development
721(30)
The Environment as Part of Normal Development
721(6)
Gravity and pressure
722(1)
Developmental symbiosis
722(3)
Larval settlement
725(1)
Sex in its season
726(1)
Diapause: Suspended development
727(1)
Phenotypic Plasticity: Control of Development by Environmental Conditions
727(10)
Polyphenism and reaction norms
727(1)
Seasonal polyphenism in butterflies
728(2)
Nutritional polyphenism
730(1)
Environment-dependent sex determination
731(1)
Polyphenisms for alternative environmental conditions
732(1)
Sidelights & Speculations: Genetic Assimilation
733(1)
Predator-induced polyphenisms
734(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: Mammalian Immunity as a Predator-Induced Response
736(1)
Learning: An Environmentally Adaptive Nervous System
737(2)
The formation of new neurons
737(1)
Experiential changes in mammalian visual pathways
737(2)
Endocrine Disruptors
739(4)
Environmental estrogens
740(2)
Environmental thyroid hormone disruptors
742(1)
Chains of causation
742(1)
Developmental Biology Meets the Real World
743(8)
Sidelights & Speculations: Deformed Frogs
744(7)
Developmental mechanisms of evolutionary change
751(34)
``Unity of Type'' and ``Conditions of Existence''
751(3)
Charles Darwin's synthesis
751(1)
``Life's splendid drama''
752(1)
The search for the Urbilaterian ancestor
753(1)
Hox Genes: Descent with Modification
754(9)
Sidelights & Speculations: How the Chordates Got a Head
761(2)
Homologous Pathways of Development
763(3)
Instructions for forming the central nervous system
763(1)
Instructions for appendage formation
764(2)
Modularity: The Prerequisite for Evolution through Development
766(3)
Dissociation: Heterochrony and allometry
766(2)
Duplication and divergence
768(1)
Co-option
768(1)
Generating Evolutionary Novelty
769(4)
Developmental Constraints
773(4)
Physical constraints
773(1)
Morphogenetic constraints
774(1)
Phyletic constraints
774(2)
Sidelights & Speculations: Canalization and the Release of Developmental Constraints
776(1)
A New Evolutionary Synthesis
777(8)
Sources for Chapter-Opening Quotations 785(2)
Author Index 787(18)
Subject Index 805


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