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Deviant Behavior,9780205454785
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Deviant Behavior

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205454785

ISBN10:
020545478X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $93.60
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Summary

This best-selling book offers comprehensive coverage of all aspects of deviance and is noted for its blend of style and substance.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Author xix
PART ONE Perspectives and Theories
1(56)
What Is Deviant Behavior?
3(15)
Conflicting Definitions
4(1)
The Positivist Perspective
5(3)
Absolutism: Deviance as Absolutely Real
5(1)
Objectivism: Deviance as an Observable Object
6(1)
Determinism: Deviance as Determined Behavior
7(1)
The Constructionist Perspective
8(3)
Relativism: Deviance as a Label
9(1)
Subjectivism: Deviance as a Subjective Experience
9(1)
Voluntarism: Deviance as a Voluntary Act
10(1)
An Integrated View
11(3)
A Word about Deviance and Crime
14(1)
Summary
15(1)
Further Reading
16(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
17(1)
Positivist Theories
18(18)
Anomie-Strain Theory
19(7)
Merton: The Goal--Means Gap
19(3)
Cohen: Status Frustration
22(1)
Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Illegitimate Opportunity
23(1)
Recent Developments
24(1)
Evaluating Anomie-Strain Theory
25(1)
Social Learning Theory
26(3)
Sutherland: Differential Association
26(1)
Glaser: Differential Identification
27(1)
Burgess and Akers: Differential Reinforcement
27(1)
Evaluating Social Learning Theory
28(1)
Control Theory
29(4)
Hirschi: Social Bond and Self-Control
29(1)
Braithwaite: Reintegrative Shaming
30(1)
The Deterrence Doctrine
31(1)
Evaluating Control Theory
32(1)
Summary
33(1)
Further Reading
34(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
35(1)
Constructionist Theories
36(21)
Labeling Theory
37(4)
A Version of Symbolic Interactionism
37(1)
Who Labels Whom?
38(1)
Consequences of Labeling
38(2)
Evaluating Labeling Theory
40(1)
Phenomenological Theory
41(3)
Critique of Positivism
41(1)
Subjectivism as the Key to Deviant Reality
42(1)
Ethnography: An Application of Phenomenology
42(2)
Evaluating Phenomenological Theory
44(1)
Conflict Theory
44(10)
Legal Reality Theory
45(1)
Social Reality Theory
46(2)
Marxist Theory
48(1)
Feminist Theory
49(1)
Power Theory
50(1)
Postmodernist Theory
51(1)
Evaluating Conflict Theory
52(2)
Summary
54(1)
Further Reading
54(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
55(2)
PART TWO Interpersonal Violence
57(86)
Physical Violence
59(31)
Assault and Aggravated Assault
60(1)
Who Is More Likely to Kill?
60(4)
Class and Race
61(1)
Regions, Large Cities, and Rural Areas
61(1)
Gender and Age
62(2)
Patterns of Killing
64(2)
Time of Killing
64(1)
Place of Killing
65(1)
Method of Killing
65(1)
Characteristics of Homicide
66(4)
Warm-Blooded Murder
66(1)
Doing the Victim a Favor
67(1)
Winning a Trivial Argument
68(1)
An Adjunct to Suicide
69(1)
Mass and Serial Murder
70(3)
Social Profile: Serial Killers
72(1)
Global Perspective: Homicide
72(1)
School Violence
73(1)
Stalking and Cyberstalking
74(2)
Hate Killing
76(1)
Genocide
77(1)
Terrorism
78(3)
The September 11 Attacks
78(1)
Terrorism in Cyberspace
79(1)
The War on Terrorism
80(1)
Why Do People Kill?
81(2)
External Restraint Theory
81(1)
Subculture of Violence Theory
82(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?
83(4)
Summary
87(1)
Further Reading
88(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
89(1)
Rape and Child Molestation
90(30)
Patterns of Rape
91(7)
Racial, Age, and Situational Factors
91(1)
Planning and Execution
92(1)
Gang Rape
93(1)
Acquaintance Rape
94(2)
Campus Rape
96(1)
The Myth of Victim Precipitation
97(1)
Consequences of Rape
98(3)
The Rape Survivor's Response
98(1)
The Feeling of Being Raped Again
99(2)
The Culture of Rape
101(5)
Treating Women Like Men's Property
101(2)
Using Women in Men's Masculinity Contests
103(2)
The Myth That Women Ask for It
105(1)
Socializing Girls to Be Victims
106(1)
Why Men Rape Women
106(4)
Global Perspective: Wartime Rape
107(1)
Psychological Theory: Sexual Inadequacy
107(1)
Social Psychological Theory: Sexual Permissiveness
108(1)
Feminist Theory: Gender Inequality
109(1)
Males as Victims
110(4)
Inside the Prison
110(1)
Outside the Prison
111(2)
Can Women Rape Men?
113(1)
Child Molestation
114(3)
Some Basic Facts
114(1)
Social Profile: Child Molesters
114(1)
Molesting Boys
115(1)
The Scandal of Pedophile Priests
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Further Reading
118(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
119(1)
Family Violence
120(23)
Myths about Family Violence
121(1)
Myth 1: Family Violence Hits the Poor Only
121(1)
Myth 2: Violence and Love Cannot Happen Together
121(1)
Myth 3: Most Abused Children Grow Up to Be Abusive Parents
122(1)
Myth 4: Alcohol and Drugs Are Involved in Most Family Violence
122(1)
The Extent of Family Violence
122(1)
Marital Rape
123(2)
The Nature of Marital Rape
123(1)
Causes of Marital Rape
124(1)
Wife Beating
125(2)
The Nature of Wife Beating
125(1)
Why Don't Some Battered Wives Leave?
126(1)
Causes of Wife Beating
127(1)
Child Abuse
127(4)
The Nature of Child Abuse
128(1)
Causes of Child Abuse
129(1)
Global Perspective: Female Genital Mutilation
130(1)
Elder Abuse
131(3)
The Nature of Elder Abuse
132(1)
Causes of Elder Abuse
132(2)
Social Profile: Family Abusers
134(1)
Theories of Family Violence
134(1)
Social Learning Theory
135(1)
Stress Theory
135(1)
Exchange Theory
135(1)
Social Responses to Family Violence
135(3)
Protecting Women
136(1)
Protecting Children
136(1)
Protecting Elders
137(1)
Summary
138(2)
Further Reading
140(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
141(2)
PART THREE Self-Targeted Deviance
143(68)
Suicide
145(30)
Varieties of Suicidal Experiences
146(4)
Threatening Suicide
146(1)
Attempting Suicide
147(1)
Committing Suicide
148(2)
Groups with Higher Suicide Rates
150(7)
Residents in Rural, Wide-Open Areas
151(1)
Whites
151(1)
The Less Religious
152(1)
Males
153(1)
The Divorced
154(1)
Older People
154(2)
The Relatively Well-Off
156(1)
Social Profile: Suicide Bombers
157(1)
Situational Factors in Suicide
157(4)
Going through Adolescence
158(1)
Going to College
159(1)
Being in Prison
159(1)
Being Stricken with AIDS
160(1)
Under Media Influence
161(1)
Social Responses to Suicide
161(5)
Survivors' Reactions
162(1)
Advocating Suicide
163(1)
Preventing Suicide
164(1)
Global Perspective: Suicide
165(1)
Sociological Theories of Suicide
166(5)
Classical Durkheimian Theory
166(2)
A Modern Durkheimian Theory
168(1)
Phenomenological Theories
169(2)
Summary
171(2)
Further Reading
173(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
174(1)
Mental Disorder
175(36)
Popular Myths
176(1)
Types of Mental Disorder
177(6)
Traditional Classification
178(3)
DSM-IV Classification
181(2)
Social Factors in Mental Disorder
183(7)
Social Class
183(1)
Gender
184(1)
Young Age
185(1)
Social Profile: Depressed Teens
186(1)
Race and Ethnicity
186(1)
Urban Environment
187(1)
September 11
188(1)
Global Perspective: Mental Disorder
189(1)
Societal Responses to Mental Disorder
190(8)
Historical Background
190(2)
The Public
192(1)
The Court
193(2)
The Mental Hospital
195(2)
The Community Mental Health Center
197(1)
Perspectives on Mental Disorder
198(8)
The Medical Model
199(1)
The Psychosocial Model
200(2)
The Labeling Model
202(4)
Summary
206(2)
Further Reading
208(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
209(2)
PART FOUR Diverse Lifestyles
211(70)
Heterosexual Deviance
213(35)
Teen Sex
214(1)
Extramarital Sex
215(3)
Seductive Myths
215(1)
Cultural Variations
216(1)
Social Factors
217(1)
Pornography
218(2)
The Porn Industry
218(1)
The Effects of Pornography
219(1)
Sexual Deviance in Cyberspace
220(4)
Cybersex
221(1)
Cyberporn
222(1)
Social Profile: Cyberporn Surfers
223(1)
Phone Sex
224(1)
Nude Dancing
224(1)
Sexual Harassment
225(1)
The World of Prostitution
226(15)
Myths about Prostitution
227(1)
Types of Prostitutes
228(4)
Social and Sexual Backgrounds
232(1)
Reasons for Becoming Prostitutes
232(1)
The Threat of AIDS from Customers
233(1)
The Subculture of Prostitution
234(1)
Other Participants in Prostitution
235(3)
Societal Reaction to Prostitution
238(2)
Global Perspective: Prostitution
240(1)
Theories of Prostitution
241(3)
Functionalist Theory
241(1)
Feminist Theory
242(1)
Social Psychological Theory
243(1)
Summary
244(2)
Further Reading
246(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
247(1)
Gays and Other Victims of Stigma
248(33)
Myths about Homosexuality
249(1)
Gays and Lesbians
250(11)
How Many Are There?
251(1)
What Are Gays Like?
252(1)
What Are Lesbians Like?
253(1)
Coming Out
254(2)
Gay and Lesbian Lifestyles
256(2)
Theories of Homosexuality
258(3)
Same-Sex Practices among Straights and Bisexuals
261(3)
Trades
261(1)
Street Hustlers
261(1)
Situationals
262(1)
Bisexuals
263(1)
Homophobia
264(7)
The Homophobic View of Homosexuality
264(1)
The Nature and Extent of Homophobia
265(1)
The Impact of Homophobia
266(1)
Social Profile: Homophobes
267(1)
AIDS, Gays, and Straights
267(1)
Fighting Homophobia
268(2)
Global Perspective: Homophobia
270(1)
Other Victims of Social Stigma
271(6)
Transgenderists: Transsexuals, Intersexuals, and Transvestites
271(1)
People with Physical Disabilities
272(2)
The Obese
274(1)
The Tattooed
275(2)
Summary
277(1)
Further Reading
278(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
279(2)
PART FIVE Substance Use and Abuse
281(66)
Legal and Illegal Drug Use
283(34)
Drug Use in Perspective
284(1)
Illegal Drugs: Their Effects and Users
285(9)
Marijuana
285(2)
Heroin
287(2)
Cocaine and Crack
289(2)
Meth and Roofies
291(1)
Ecstasy
292(2)
Social Dimensions of Drug Use
294(4)
The Extent of Drug Use
294(1)
Moral Panic: Societal Reaction to Drug Use
294(2)
Drugs and AIDS
296(1)
Drugs and Crime
296(1)
Drugs and Socioeconomic Status
297(1)
Becoming a Drug User
298(3)
Social Profile: Illegal Drug Users
300(1)
What Causes Illegal Drug Use?
301(3)
Economic Deprivation Theory
301(1)
Cognitive Association Theory
302(1)
Social Psychological Theory
303(1)
The War on Drugs
304(5)
Historical Pattern
304(2)
Punitive Strategy: Law Enforcement
306(1)
Debate over Legalizing Drugs
306(1)
Supportive Strategy: Prevention and Treatment
307(2)
Abusing Prescription Drugs, Particularly OxyContin
309(2)
Smoking Cigarettes
311(2)
Global Perspective: Smoking
312(1)
Summary
313(2)
Further Reading
315(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
316(1)
Drinking and Alcoholism
317(30)
The Extent of Drinking and Alcoholism
318(1)
Myths about Alcohol Abuse
318(1)
What Alcohol Does to Its Users
319(4)
Mental and Physical Impact
320(1)
Health Effects
321(1)
Social Consequences
322(1)
Social Factors in Drinking
323(6)
Gender and Age
323(1)
Racial and Ethnic Background
324(2)
Religious Affiliation
326(1)
Socioeconomic Status
326(1)
Regional Location
327(1)
Global Perspective: Drinking
328(1)
What Is Alcoholism?
329(1)
Becoming an Alcoholic
330(2)
Social Drinker
330(1)
Psychologically Addicted
331(1)
Physically Addicted
331(1)
Hitting Bottom
331(1)
College Students and Alcohol
332(2)
Binge Drinking in College
332(1)
Social Profile: College Binge Drinkers
333(1)
Women and Alcohol
334(2)
Why More Women Drink Today
334(1)
Alcoholism among Women
335(1)
What Causes Alcoholism?
336(4)
A Biological Predisposition
336(1)
The Alcoholic Personality
337(1)
Social and Cultural Forces
338(2)
Controlling Alcohol Use and Abuse
340(4)
Legal Measures
340(1)
Therapeutic Approaches
341(3)
Summary
344(1)
Further Reading
345(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
346(1)
PART SIX Inequality in Deviance
347(56)
Privileged Deviance
349(31)
What Is White-Collar Deviance?
350(1)
Corporate Deviance
351(7)
Deviance against Employees
351(1)
Deviance against Customers
352(4)
Deviance against the Government
356(1)
Deviance against the Environment
356(1)
Social Profile: Corporate Crooks
357(1)
Occupational Deviance
358(7)
Employee Theft
359(1)
Embezzlement
360(1)
Financial Frauds
361(1)
Profitable Computer Crimes
361(1)
Deviance in the Professions
362(3)
What Makes White-Collar Deviance Unique?
365(2)
The Deviant's Respectable Self-Image
365(1)
The Victim's Unwitting Cooperation
366(1)
Society's Relative Indifference
366(1)
Causes of White-Collar Deviance
367(2)
Deviant Motivation: Fear of Loss and Greed for Gain
367(1)
Deviant Opportunity: The Benefit of High Position and Power
368(1)
Weak Social Control: Lax Law Enforcement
369(1)
Governmental Deviance
369(4)
Political Corruption
370(1)
Election Improprieties
371(1)
Official Violence
372(1)
Global Perspective: Official Corruption
372(1)
Official Ways of Neutralizing Deviance
373(2)
Denying the Obvious
373(1)
Ignoring the Deviance
374(1)
Accusing the Accuser
374(1)
Promising to Take Action
374(1)
Justifying the Deviance
375(1)
Causes of Governmental Deviance
375(2)
Superabundance of Ambiguous Laws
375(1)
Governmental Complexity and Power
376(1)
Summary
377(1)
Further Reading
378(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
379(1)
Underprivileged Deviance
380(23)
Robbery
381(6)
Robbery as a Property Crime
381(1)
Robbery as a Violent Crime
382(1)
Patterns of Robbery
383(2)
Amateur and Professional Robbers
385(1)
Causes of Robbery
386(1)
Auto Theft and Carjacking
387(2)
Characteristics and Trends
388(1)
Causes
388(1)
Burglary
389(2)
Modus Operandi
389(1)
Causes of Burglary
390(1)
Shoplifting
391(1)
Social Profile: Shoplifters
391(1)
Causes of Shoplifting
392(1)
Organized Crime
392(7)
Organizational Structure
393(1)
Organized Crime Activities
393(2)
Ethnicity and Organized Crime
395(2)
The War on Organized Crime in the United States
397(1)
Global Perspective: Organized Crime
398(1)
Summary
399(2)
Further Reading
401(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
401(2)
References 403(32)
Name Index 435(10)
Subject Index 445


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