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Deviant Behavior



Pub. Date:
Allyn & Bacon
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This best-selling text offers comprehensive coverage of all aspects of deviance and is noted for its blend of style and substance. Deviant Behaviorcovers a wide spectrum of theories of deviance, and analyzes numerous specific deviant behaviors. The author uses an abundance of research data, including many that debunk our common assumptions about deviant behavior. Students are exposed to the full range of theories and data about deviance, and are challenged to think about and evaluate their own biases and preconceptions.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
About the Authorp. xvii
Perspectives and Theoriesp. 1
What Is Deviant Behavior?p. 3
Conflicting Definitionsp. 4
The Positivist Perspectivep. 5
Absolutism: Deviance as Absolutely Realp. 5
Objectivism: Deviance as an Observable Objectp. 6
Determinism: Deviance as Determined Behaviorp. 7
The Constructionist Perspectivep. 8
Relativism: Deviance as a Labelp. 8
Subjectivism: Deviance as a Subjective Experiencep. 9
Voluntarism: Deviance as a Voluntary Actp. 10
An Integrated Viewp. 11
A Word about Deviance and Crimep. 13
Summaryp. 14
Further Readingp. 15
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 15
Positivist Theoriesp. 16
Anomie-Strain Theoryp. 17
Merton: The Goal-Means Gapp. 17
Cohen: Status Frustrationp. 20
Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Illegitimate Opportunityp. 21
Recent Developmentsp. 22
Evaluating Anomie-Strain Theoryp. 23
Social Learning Theoryp. 23
Sutherland: Differential Associationp. 24
Glaser: Differential Identificationp. 24
Burgess and Akers: Differential Reinforcementp. 25
Evaluating Social Learning Theoryp. 25
Control Theoryp. 26
Hirschi, Gottfredson, and Tittle: Social Bond, Self-Control, and Control Balancep. 27
Braithwaite: Reintegrative Shamingp. 27
The Deterrence Doctrinep. 28
Evaluating Control Theoryp. 29
Summaryp. 30
Further Readingp. 31
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 32
Constructionist Theoriesp. 33
Labeling Theoryp. 34
A Version of Symbolic Interactionismp. 34
Who Labels Whom?p. 35
Consequences of Labelingp. 35
Evaluating Labeling Theoryp. 37
Phenomenological Theoryp. 37
Critique of Positivismp. 38
Subjectivism as the Key to Deviant Realityp. 38
Ethnography: An Application of Phenomenologyp. 39
Evaluating Phenomenological Theoryp. 40
Conflict Theoryp. 41
Legal Reality Theoryp. 41
Social Reality Theoryp. 42
Marxist Theoryp. 44
Feminist Theoryp. 45
Power Theoryp. 46
Postmodernist Theoryp. 47
Evaluating Conflict Theoryp. 48
Summaryp. 49
Further Readingp. 50
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 51
Interpersonal Violencep. 53
Physical Violencep. 55
Assault and Aggravated Assaultp. 57
Who Is More Likely to Kill?p. 57
Class and Racep. 58
Regions, Large Cities, and Rural Areasp. 58
Gender and Agep. 59
Patterns of Killingp. 60
Time of Killingp. 61
Place of Killingp. 61
Method of Killingp. 62
Characteristics of Homicidep. 63
Warm-Blooded Murderp. 63
Doing the Victim a Favorp. 64
Winning a Trivial Argumentp. 64
An Adjunct to Suicidep. 66
Mass and Serial Murderp. 67
A Social Profile of Serial Killersp. 68
A Global Perspective on Homicidep. 69
School Violencep. 69
Stalkingp. 70
Hate Killingp. 71
Genocidep. 72
Terrorismp. 73
The September 11 Attacksp. 73
The War on Terrorismp. 74
Why Do People Kill?p. 75
External Restraint Theoryp. 76
Subculture of Violence Theoryp. 77
Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder?p. 77
Summaryp. 81
Further Readingp. 82
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 83
Rape and Child Molestationp. 84
Patterns of Rapep. 86
Racial, Age, and Situational Factorsp. 86
Planning and Executionp. 87
Gang Rapep. 88
Acquaintance Rapep. 89
Campus Rapep. 90
The Myth of Victim Precipitationp. 91
Consequences of Rapep. 92
The Rape Survivor's Responsep. 93
The Feeling of Being Raped Againp. 94
The Culture of Rapep. 95
Treating Women Like Men's Propertyp. 95
Using Women in Men's Masculinity Contestsp. 97
The Myth That Women Ask for Itp. 98
Socializing Girls to Be Victimsp. 99
A Global Perspective on Wartime Rapep. 100
Why Men Rape Womenp. 101
Psychological Theory: Sexual Inadequacyp. 101
Social Psychological Theory: Sexual Permissivenessp. 102
Feminist Theory: Gender Inequalityp. 103
Males as Victimsp. 103
Inside the Prisonp. 103
Outside the Prisonp. 105
Can Women Rape Men?p. 105
Child Molestationp. 107
Some Basic Factsp. 107
A Social Profile of Child Molestersp. 107
Molesting Boysp. 108
The Scandal of Pedophile Priestsp. 108
Summaryp. 110
Further Readingp. 111
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 111
Family Violencep. 112
Myths about Family Violencep. 114
Family Violence Hits the Poor Onlyp. 114
Violence and Love Cannot Happen Togetherp. 114
Most Abused Children Grow Up to Be Abusive Parentsp. 115
Alcohol and Drugs Are Involved in Most Family Violencep. 115
The Extent of Family Violencep. 115
Marital Rapep. 116
The Nature of Marital Rapep. 116
Causes of Marital Rapep. 117
Wife Beatingp. 118
The Nature of Wife Beatingp. 118
Why Don't Some Battered Wives Leave?p. 119
Causes of Wife Beatingp. 120
Child Abusep. 120
The Nature of Child Abusep. 120
Causes of Child Abusep. 122
Female Genital Mutilationp. 123
Elder Abusep. 124
The Nature of Elder Abusep. 124
Causes of Elder Abusep. 125
A Social Profile of Family Abusersp. 126
A Global Perspective on Family Violencep. 127
Theories of Family Violencep. 128
Social Learning Theoryp. 128
Stress Theoryp. 128
Exchange Theoryp. 128
Social Responses to Family Violencep. 129
Protecting Womenp. 129
Protecting Childrenp. 130
Protecting Eldersp. 130
Summaryp. 131
Further Readingp. 133
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 134
Self-Destructive Deviancep. 135
Suicidep. 137
Varieties of Suicidal Experiencesp. 140
Threatening Suicidep. 140
Attempting Suicidep. 140
Committing Suicidep. 141
Groups with Higher Suicide Ratesp. 143
Residents in Rural, Wide-Open Areasp. 144
Whitesp. 145
The Less Religiousp. 145
Malesp. 146
The Divorced or Singlep. 147
Older Peoplep. 147
The Relatively Well-Offp. 148
A Social Profile of Suicide Bombersp. 149
Situational Factors in Suicidep. 150
Going through Adolescencep. 150
Going to Collegep. 151
Being in Prisonp. 152
Being Stricken with AIDSp. 152
Under Media Influencep. 153
A Global Perspective on Suicidep. 154
Social Responses to Suicidep. 155
Survivors' Reactionsp. 155
Advocating Suicidep. 156
Preventing Suicidep. 157
Sociological Theories of Suicidep. 158
Classical Durkheimian Theoryp. 158
A Modern Durkheimian Theoryp. 160
Phenomenological Theoriesp. 161
Summaryp. 163
Further Readingp. 164
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 165
Mental Disorderp. 166
Popular Beliefsp. 168
Types of Mental Disorderp. 169
Traditional Classificationp. 170
DSM-IV Classificationp. 173
Social Factors in Mental Disorderp. 175
Social Classp. 175
Genderp. 176
Young Agep. 176
A Social Profile of Depressed Teensp. 177
Race and Ethnicityp. 178
Urban Environmentp. 179
September 11p. 179
A Global Perspective on Mental Disorderp. 180
Societal Responses to Mental Disorderp. 181
Historical Backgroundp. 181
The Publicp. 183
The Courtp. 184
The Mental Hospitalp. 186
The Community Mental Health Centerp. 188
Perspectives on Mental Disorderp. 189
The Medical Modelp. 189
The Psychosocial Modelp. 190
The Labeling Modelp. 192
Summaryp. 196
Further Readingp. 197
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 198
Diverse Lifestylesp. 199
Heterosexual Deviancep. 201
Teen Sexp. 203
Extramarital Sexp. 204
Seductive Mythsp. 204
Cultural Variationsp. 205
Social Factorsp. 205
A Social Profile of Swingersp. 206
Pornographyp. 208
The Porn Industryp. 208
The Effects of Pornographyp. 209
Phone Sexp. 211
Nude Dancingp. 211
Sexual Harassmentp. 212
The World of Prostitutionp. 213
Myths about Prostitutionp. 214
Types of Prostitutesp. 214
Social and Sexual Backgroundsp. 218
Reasons for Becoming Prostitutesp. 219
The Threat of AIDS from Customersp. 219
The Subculture of Prostitutionp. 220
Other Participants in Prostitutionp. 222
Societal Reaction to Prostitutionp. 224
A Global Perspective on Prostitutionp. 226
Theories of Prostitutionp. 226
Functionalist Theoryp. 227
Feminist Theoryp. 227
Social Psychological Theoryp. 228
Summaryp. 229
Further Readingp. 231
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 232
Gays and Other Victims of Stigmap. 233
Myths about Homosexualityp. 235
Gays and Lesbiansp. 236
How Many Are There?p. 237
What Are Gays Like?p. 238
What Are Lesbians Like?p. 239
Coming Outp. 240
Gay and Lesbian Lifestylesp. 241
Theories of Homosexualityp. 244
Same-Sex Practices among Straights and Bisexualsp. 246
Tradesp. 246
Street Hustlersp. 246
Situationalsp. 247
Bisexualsp. 248
Homophobiap. 248
The Homophobic View of Homosexualityp. 249
The Nature and Extent of Homophobiap. 250
A Social Profile of Homophobesp. 250
The Impact of Homophobiap. 251
AIDS, Gays, and Straightsp. 252
Fighting Homophobiap. 253
A Global Perspective on Homophobiap. 254
Other Victims of Social Stigmap. 255
Transgenderists: Transsexuals, Intersexuals, and Transvestitesp. 255
People with Physical Disabilitiesp. 256
The Obesep. 258
The Tattooedp. 259
Summaryp. 261
Further Readingp. 262
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 263
Substance Use and Abusep. 265
Drug Usep. 267
Drug Use in Perspectivep. 269
Illegal Drugs: Their Effects and Usersp. 270
Marijuanap. 270
Heroinp. 272
Cocaine and Crackp. 274
Meth and Roofiesp. 276
Ecstasyp. 277
Social Dimensions of Drug Usep. 278
The Extent of Drug Usep. 278
Moral Panic: Societal Reaction to Drug Usep. 279
Drugs and AIDSp. 280
Drugs and Crimep. 280
Drugs and Socioeconomic Statusp. 281
Becoming a Drug Userp. 282
A Social Profile of Illegal Drug Usersp. 284
What Causes Illegal Drug Use?p. 284
Economic Deprivation Theoryp. 285
Cognitive Association Theoryp. 286
Social Psychological Theoryp. 286
The War on Drugsp. 287
Historical Patternp. 288
Punitive Strategy: Law Enforcementp. 289
Debate over Legalizing Drugsp. 289
Supportive Strategy: Prevention and Treatmentp. 290
Abusing Prescription Drugs, Particularly OxyContinp. 292
Smoking Cigarettesp. 294
A Global Perspective on Smokingp. 295
Summaryp. 296
Further Readingp. 297
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 298
Drinking and Alcoholismp. 299
The Extent of Drinking and Alcoholismp. 301
Myths about Alcohol Abusep. 301
What Alcohol Does to Its Usersp. 302
Mental and Physical Impactp. 303
Health Effectsp. 304
Social Consequencesp. 304
Social Factors in Drinkingp. 306
Gender and Agep. 306
Racial and Ethnic Backgroundp. 306
Religious Affiliationp. 308
Socioeconomic Statusp. 309
Regional Locationp. 309
A Global Perspective on Drinkingp. 310
What Is Alcoholism?p. 311
Becoming an Alcoholicp. 312
Social Drinkerp. 312
Psychologically Addictedp. 313
Physically Addictedp. 313
Hitting Bottomp. 313
College Students and Alcoholp. 314
Binge Drinking in Collegep. 314
A Social Profile of College Binge Drinkersp. 315
Women and Alcoholp. 315
Why More Women Drink Todayp. 316
Alcoholism among Womenp. 316
What Causes Alcoholism?p. 317
A Biological Predispositionp. 317
The Alcoholic Personalityp. 318
Social and Cultural Forcesp. 319
Controlling Alcohol Use and Abusep. 321
Legal Measuresp. 321
Therapeutic Approachesp. 323
Summaryp. 325
Further Readingp. 326
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 327
Inequality in Deviancep. 329
Privileged Deviancep. 331
What Is White-Collar Deviance?p. 333
Corporate Deviancep. 334
Deviance against Employeesp. 334
Deviance against Customersp. 335
Deviance against the Governmentp. 338
Deviance against the Environmentp. 339
A Social Profile of Corporate Crooksp. 340
Occupational Deviancep. 341
Employee Theftp. 341
Embezzlementp. 342
Financial Fraudsp. 343
Deviance in the Professionsp. 344
What Makes White-Collar Deviance Unique?p. 346
The Deviant's Respectable Self-imagep. 346
The Victim's Unwitting Cooperationp. 346
Society's Relative Indifferencep. 347
Causes of White-Collar Deviancep. 348
Deviant Motivation: Fear of Loss and Greed for Gainp. 348
Deviant Opportunity: The Benefit of High Position and Powerp. 349
Weak Social Control: Lax Law Enforcementp. 349
Governmental Deviancep. 350
Political Corruptionp. 351
Election Improprietiesp. 352
Official Violencep. 352
A Global Perspective on Official Corruptionp. 353
Official Ways of Neutralizing Deviancep. 354
Denying the Obviousp. 354
Ignoring the Deviancep. 354
Accusing the Accuserp. 355
Promising to Take Actionp. 355
Justifying the Deviancep. 356
Causes of Governmental Deviancep. 356
Superabundance of Ambiguous Lawsp. 356
Governmental Complexity and Powerp. 357
Summaryp. 357
Further Readingp. 359
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 360
Underprivileged Deviancep. 361
Robberyp. 363
Robbery as a Property Crimep. 363
Robbery as a Violent Crimep. 364
Patterns of Robberyp. 365
Amateur and Professional Robbersp. 366
Causes of Robberyp. 368
Auto Theft and Carjackingp. 369
Characteristics and Trendsp. 369
Causesp. 370
Burglaryp. 370
Modus Operandip. 370
Causes of Burglaryp. 371
Shopliftingp. 372
A Social Profile of Shopliftersp. 372
Causes of Shopliftingp. 372
Organized Crimep. 373
Organizational Structurep. 373
Organized Crime Activitiesp. 374
Ethnicity and Organized Crimep. 376
The War on Organized Crime in the United Statesp. 377
A Global Perspective on Organized Crimep. 378
Summaryp. 379
Further Readingp. 381
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 382
Cyberspace: Wild Frontierp. 383
Internet Deviancep. 385
Seeking Easy Money Onlinep. 387
Online Identity Theftp. 387
Internet Gamblingp. 388
Searching Cyberspace for Sexp. 390
Cybersexp. 390
Internet Pornographyp. 391
A Social Profile of Cyberporn Surfersp. 392
Online Affairsp. 393
Expressing Hate Onlinep. 394
Prejudice and Discrimination in Cyberspacep. 394
Stalking through Cyberspacep. 395
Disrupting Computer Networksp. 396
Computer Hackingp. 396
Terrorism in Cyberspacep. 398
A Global Perspective on Cyberdeviancep. 399
Summaryp. 400
Further Readingp. 402
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 402
Referencesp. 403
Name Indexp. 438
Subject Indexp. 448
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