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Diagnosis and Correction in Reading Instruction,9780205293520
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Diagnosis and Correction in Reading Instruction

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205293520

ISBN10:
0205293522
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This great introduction to diagnosing and correcting reading problems has been revised and updated based on the latest tests and research. Using numerous examples and scenarios to illustrate concepts and techniques, this book is based on the premise that if diagnosis and correction are practiced as an integral part of daily reading instruction, there will be much less need for remediation. For pre-service and inservice educators, especially at the elementary school level.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
PART I. Setting the Stage for a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program 1(86)
Introduction to a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
3(14)
Introductory Scenario
3(2)
Chapter Objectives
5(1)
What Is a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program?
5(1)
What is Diagnosis?
5(1)
Principles of Diagnosis
6(1)
Defining Reading
7(2)
Reading as a Total Integrative Process
7(2)
Metacognition
9(1)
Diagnosis and the Definition of Reading
9(1)
What Is a Developmental Reading Program?
10(1)
What Is Remedial Reading?
11(1)
What Is Reading Recovery?
11(1)
Balanced Reading and a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
12(1)
Confusion Surrounding Balanced Reading
12(1)
Balanced Reading: A Scenario
12(1)
Whole School Reform
13(1)
Reading Theory and Terminology: A Special Note
13(1)
A Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program: A Point of View
14(1)
Summary
15(1)
Chapter 1 Key Concepts
15(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
16(1)
Internet Activities
16(1)
Selected Bibliography
16(1)
The Teacher's Role in the Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
17(21)
Introductory Scenario
17(2)
Chapter Objectives
19(1)
The Teacher in a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
19(1)
The Teacher as the Key to a Good Reading Program
20(1)
Teacher Evaluation
21(1)
Some Important Characteristics and Practices of Good Reading Teachers
21(2)
Teacher Standards
23(1)
Teaching in the Twenty-First Century
24(1)
Scenario of a New Teacher
24(1)
Teacher Planning
25(1)
Time Spent in Reading
25(2)
Teacher Instruction
27(1)
Direct Reading Instruction
28(2)
What Is Direct Instruction?
28(1)
Modeling Strategy
29(1)
Scenario: A Sample Modeling Lesson
29(1)
Interactive Instruction
30(1)
The Teacher as a Good Organizer and Classroom Manager
30(2)
Scenario: Mr. Mills---A Good Classroom Manager
31(1)
Teacher Expectations
32(1)
Another Look at Lisa and Rachael---Extremes Don't Work!
33(1)
Teaching: A Point of View
34(1)
Summary
35(1)
Chapter 2 Key Concepts
36(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
36(1)
Internet Activities
37(1)
Selected Bibliography
37(1)
What a Teacher Should Know about Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation
38(25)
Introductory Scenario
39(1)
Chapter Objectives
39(1)
Evaluation, Tests, and Measurement
40(1)
Assessment: A Special Note
40(1)
Criteria for a Good Test
41(2)
Accountability in the Twenty-First Century
43(4)
Some Terms Prominent in Accountability
45(2)
Standardized Tests
47(4)
Norm-Referenced Tests
47(1)
Classification of Standardized Tests
48(1)
Selection of Standardized Tests by Teachers
48(1)
Interpretation of Some Achievement Test Score Terms
49(2)
Teacher-Made Tests
51(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
51(2)
Group and Individual Tests
53(1)
Reading Tests
54(2)
What Are Diagnostic Reading Tests?
56(1)
Test Makers and Assessment
56(1)
Authentic Assessment
57(3)
Performance-Based Assessment
58(2)
Assessment in the Twenty-First Century---A Point of View
60(1)
Summary
60(1)
Chapter 3 Key Concepts
61(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
61(1)
Internet Activities
62(1)
Selected Bibliography
62(1)
Who Is Underachieving in Reading?
63(24)
Introductory Scenario
63(1)
Chapter Objectives
64(1)
What Is a Diagnostic Pattern?
64(1)
Who Is a Disabled Reader?
65(1)
Intelligence
66(1)
Differences between Individual and Group Intelligence (Aptitude) Tests
67(2)
Individual Intelligence (Aptitude) Tests
69(3)
Group-Administered Measures of Intelligence (Aptitude)
72(1)
Mental Age Span in the Regular Classroom
72(2)
Reading Expectancy Formulas
74(5)
Who Is a Candidate for Further Testing?
79(3)
Listening Capacity Test
82(1)
Underachieving in School: A Point of View
82(1)
Summary
83(1)
Chapter 4 Key Concepts
84(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
84(1)
Internet Activities
85(1)
Selected Bibliography
85(2)
PART II. The Nature and Interrelatedness of Factors That Affect Reading Performance 87(74)
Some of the Factors That Affect Reading Performance
89(35)
Introductory Scenario
90(1)
Chapter Objectives
91(1)
Differentiating between Noneducational and Educational Factors
92(1)
Concept Development and Its Relationship to Language and Reading
93(1)
What Is a Concept?
94(1)
Piaget and Concept Development
95(1)
Concept Assessment
96(5)
Instructional Implications and Concept Development
97(4)
Home Environment
101(2)
Dialect and Language Differences
103(2)
Second-Language Learners
105(4)
Learning Another Language
106(1)
Teachers Can Help Children Learn Another Language
107(1)
Some Language Difference Interferences
108(1)
English as a Second Language (ESL) Lessons
109(2)
Research in Relation to Bilingual Children
111(1)
Attitudes Toward Nonstandard English
111(1)
Intelligence and Reading
112(1)
Gender Differences
113(5)
Gender Differences and Reading
114(4)
Gender Differences and Single-Gender Classes
118(1)
Physical Health
118(1)
Educational Factors
119(1)
Standard English, an Important Factor for School Success: A Point of View
120(1)
Summary
121(1)
Chapter 5 Key Concepts
122(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
122(1)
Internet Activities
123(1)
Selected Bibliography
123(1)
Visual and Auditory Factors and Their Effect on Reading
124(37)
Introductory Scenario
124(1)
Chapter Objectives
125(1)
Perceptual Factors
126(1)
Visual Perception
126(6)
Binocular Vision
128(1)
Eye Movements
129(1)
Visual Discrimination
129(1)
Laterality and Reading
130(2)
The Development of Listening
132(1)
Listening as Decoding
133(1)
Phonemic Awareness
133(1)
Auditory Discrimination and Memory Span
134(1)
Different Levels of Listening
135(4)
Factors Influencing Hearing---The Lowest Level
136(2)
Factors Influencing Listening---The Middle Level
138(1)
Factors Influencing Auding---The Highest Level
138(1)
Listening and Reading
139(3)
The Effect of a Rich Oral Program in Developing Reading Skills
142(1)
Reading a Story Aloud to Young Children
143(2)
Oral Reading Assessment
145(1)
Oral Reading: Its Role in the Reading Lesson
146(1)
Guided or Directed Oral Reading
146(1)
Question Asking: A Key to Active Listening
146(2)
Student Questioning
147(1)
The Directed Listening/Thinking Approach
148(1)
Classroom Teachers' Assessment of Listening Comprehension Skills
149(1)
Standardized Listening Tests
150(4)
Modality Preferences and Instruction: A Special Note
154(3)
Diagnostic Checklist for Listening
155(2)
Hearing Is Important to Reading: A Point of View
157(1)
Summary
158(1)
Chapter 6 Key Concepts
159(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
160(1)
Internet Activities
160(1)
Selected Bibliography
160(1)
PART III. Instruments and Techniques for the Assessment and Diagnosis of Reading Performance 161(108)
Standardized Reading Achievement Tests: Survey Type
163(16)
Introductory Scenario
164(1)
Chapter Objectives
164(1)
Standardized Achievement Survey Test Batteries (Multiple-Subject-Matter Tests) and Standardized Reading Survey Tests (Single-Subject-Matter Tests)
165(4)
Example of a Standardized Reading Survey Test (Single-Subject-Matter Test)
166(1)
Examples of Standardized Achievement Survey Test Batteries (Multiple Subject-Matter Tests)
167(1)
The Instructional Level on Some Standardized Reading Achievement Tests
168(1)
Locator Tests
169(1)
Practice Tests
169(1)
High-Stake Tests
169(1)
Test Coaching
170(1)
Emergent Literacy
171(1)
Relation to Reading Readiness
171(1)
Pre-Reading Assessment
172(3)
Examples of Pre-Reading Tests
173(1)
Uses of Pre-Reading Assessment
174(1)
A Final Word
175(1)
Assessment: A Point of View
176(1)
Summary
177(1)
Chapter 7 Key Concepts
177(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
178(1)
Internet Activities
178(1)
Selected Bibliography
178(1)
Diagnostic Reading Tests and Techniques I: An Emphasis on the Informal Reading Inventory
179(47)
Introductory Scenario
179(2)
Chapter Objectives
181(1)
Oral Reading
181(2)
Oral Reading as a Diagnostic Tool
182(1)
What Are the Purposes of an Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)?
183(1)
An Overview of the Informal Reading Inventory
184(1)
Determining Reading Levels
185(5)
Independent Level
186(1)
Instructional Level
187(1)
Frustration Level
187(1)
Listening Capacity level
188(1)
The Buffer Zone of the IRI
188(1)
Reporting Students' Reading Levels
188(2)
Constructing Your Own Informal Reading Inventory
190(10)
Graded Word Lists
190(1)
Graded Oral and Silent Reading Passages
191(1)
The Comprehension Questions
192(2)
Code for Marking Oral Reading Errors
194(2)
Scoring Oral Reading Errors
196(1)
Sample Markings of Oral IRI Passages
196(1)
Word Recognition Formula for Percent Correct
197(1)
Word Recognition Formulas for Allowable Errors
198(1)
Diagnostic Checklist for Oral and Silent Reading
198(2)
Administering the IRI
200(12)
Establishing Rapport
200(1)
The Word Recognition Inventory
200(2)
Oral and Silent Reading Passages
202(1)
The Listening Capacity Test
203(1)
When Is a Listening Capacity Test Given?
203(9)
Published (Commercially Produced) IRIs Versus Teacher-Made IRIs
212(1)
Who Should Be Given an IRI?
213(3)
Examples of Candidates for the IRI
215(1)
Modified IRI Approaches: A Caution
216(1)
Miscue Analysis
217(1)
Points of Caution Concerning IRIs
218(4)
Criteria for Estimating Reading Levels
219(1)
How Should Oral Reading Errors Be Scored?
220(1)
A Special Look at Repetitions
221(1)
Oral and Silent Reading Comprehension
221(1)
Balance in Reading: A Point of View
222(2)
Summary
224(1)
Chapter 8 Key Concepts
224(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
224(1)
Internet Activities
225(1)
Selected Bibliography
225(1)
Diagnostic Reading Tests and Techniques II
226(20)
Introduction
226(1)
Chapter Objectives
227(1)
Standardized Diagnostic Oral Reading Tests
227(2)
Standardized Diagnostic Reading Tests
229(3)
Standardized Criterion-Referenced Reading Tests
232(1)
Teacher-Made (Informal) Diagnostic Reading Tests
233(6)
Cloze Procedure
239(4)
Scoring the Cloze Test
240(1)
Variations of the Traditional Cloze Procedure: An Emphasis on Diagnosis
240(3)
Knowledge of Results and Cloze Procedure
243(1)
Dyslexia and Diagnosis: A Point of View
243(1)
Summary
244(1)
Chapter 9 Key Concepts
244(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
245(1)
Internet Activities
245(1)
Selected Bibliography
245(1)
Observation and Other Child Study Procedures as Diagnostic Techniques: Performance-based Assessment
246(23)
Introduction
247(1)
Chapter Objectives
247(1)
Authentic Assessment in Diagnosis
248(1)
Portfolios and Portfolio Assessment
248(2)
Commercially Produced Portfolio Assessment
249(1)
The Uses of Observation
250(1)
Making Observations Objective
250(1)
Anecdotal Records
251(2)
Determining the Information to Be Recorded
251(2)
Checklists
253(3)
Group and Individual Checklists
253(3)
Checklists and Rating Scales
256(1)
Other Helpful Child Study Techniques
256(9)
Informal Interviews
257(1)
Interest Inventories
258(3)
Projective Techniques
261(2)
Reading Autobiography
263(2)
Portfolios: A Point of View
265(1)
Summary
266(1)
Chapter 10 Key Concepts
266(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
267(1)
Internet Activities
267(1)
Selected Bibliography
267(2)
PART IV The Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program in Action 269(208)
Helping Children Overcome Reading Difficulties
271(23)
Introduction
272(1)
Chapter Objectives
272(1)
What Is Diagnostic Teaching?
272(1)
Student Involvement
273(1)
Case Studies
274(6)
Record Keeping
280(1)
Students as Record Keepers
281(1)
Individualized Instruction
281(2)
Teacher-Made (Informal) Programs
281(1)
Commercially Produced or Published Programs
282(1)
Some Common Characteristics of Commercially Produced and Teacher-Made Individualized Programs
282(1)
For Whom Does Individualized Instruction Work?
282(1)
Some Common Sense about Individualized Programs
282(1)
Learning Centers in the Classroom
283(2)
Designing a Learning Center
283(2)
Multimedia in Learning Centers
285(1)
Group Instruction
285(1)
Computers and Reading in a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
286(3)
Peer Instruction
289(1)
A Final Word: Ms. Mills---A Master Teacher
290(1)
Computers in the Twenty-First Century: A Point of View
291(1)
Summary
292(1)
Chapter 11 Key Concepts
292(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
293(1)
Internet Activities
293(1)
Selected Bibliography
293(1)
Word Recognition Skills and Vocabulary Expansion: An Emphasis on Diagnosis and Correction
294(53)
Introduction
295(3)
Chapter Objectives
298(1)
Word Recognition Strategies
299(5)
Word Recognition Strategies for Pronunciation
299(3)
Word Recognition Strategies for Word Meaning
302(2)
The Importance of Decoding in Reading
304(1)
Phonemic Awareness in Decoding
305(1)
Beginning Reading Research
305(1)
Phonics
306(2)
Explicit Versus Implicit Phonics Instruction
307(1)
A Developmental-Diagnostic and Correction Sequence of Phonics
308(22)
Vocabulary Expansion
330(9)
Word Walls
331(1)
Vocabulary Expansion: A Scenario
331(1)
Defining Word Part Terms
332(1)
Primary-Grade Children
332(3)
Intermediate-Grade Children
335(4)
Vocabulary Expansion in Content Areas
339(1)
Diagnostic Checklist for Word Recognition Skills
339(2)
Diagnostic Checklist for Vocabulary Development (Primary Grades)
341(1)
Diagnostic Checklist for Vocabulary Development (Intermediate Grades)
342(1)
Phonics: A Point of View
343(1)
Summary
344(1)
Chapter 12 Key Concepts
344(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
345(1)
Internet Activities
346(1)
Selected Bibliography
346(1)
Reading Comprehension and Literature: An Emphasis on Diagnosis and Correction
347(59)
Introduction
348(1)
Chapter Objectives
348(1)
Comprehension
349(1)
Reading Comprehension
349(2)
Reading Comprehension Taxonomies
351(1)
Categorizing Reading Comprehension
351(2)
Reading Instruction
353(4)
The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
354(1)
Modeling (Thinking Out Loud) Strategy
355(1)
Repeated Reading
355(1)
Reciprocal Reading Instruction
355(1)
Literature Webbing with Predictable Books in the Early Grades
356(1)
What Is the Role of Pictures in Comprehension?
357(1)
Helping Children Acquire Comprehension Skills: An Emphasis on Questioning Strategies
357(6)
Metacognition and Questioning
360(1)
Questioning as a Diagnostic Technique
361(2)
Some Important Comprehension Skills: A Diagnostic and Corrective Approach
363(30)
Context Clues
363(7)
Main Idea of a Paragraph
370(6)
Finding the Central Idea of a Group of Paragraphs
376(3)
Visual Representations and Main Idea
379(1)
Drawing Inferences
380(4)
Categorizing
384(5)
Completing Analogies (Word Relationships)
389(4)
The Newspaper and Critical Thinking in a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
393(2)
Diagnosis and Correction in Content Areas
395(1)
Questioning Strategies in Content Areas
396(1)
Literature in the Classroom
396(5)
Attitudes and Reading
396(2)
Instilling a Love for Reading in the Early Grades with Big Books
398(1)
Children's Literature as a Bridge to Better Understanding in a Multicultural Classroom
399(2)
Diagnostic Checklist for Selected Reading Comprehension Skills
401(1)
Reading Instruction: A Point of View
402(1)
Summary
403(1)
Chapter 13 Key Concepts
403(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
404(1)
Internet Activities
405(1)
Selected Bibliography
405(1)
Learning Strategies and Study Skills in a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
406(30)
Introduction
407(1)
Chapter Objectives
407(1)
What Are Some Good Study Procedures?
408(1)
Building Good Study Habits
408(1)
How to Study
409(2)
Knowing Your Textbook
411(3)
Concentration
414(2)
Following Directions
416(2)
Skimming
418(1)
Asking Questions
418(2)
Reading and Writing as Modes of Learning
420(3)
Notetaking for Studying
420(3)
Summaries as a Mode of Learning
423(1)
Test Taking
423(1)
The School Library and Library Skills
424(4)
Primary Grades
425(1)
Intermediate and Upper-Elementary Grades
426(2)
Diagnostic Checklist for Reading and Study Skills
428(4)
Concentration and Studying: A Point of View
432(2)
Summary
434(1)
Chapter 14 Key Concepts
434(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
434(1)
Internet Activities
435(1)
Selected Bibliography
435(1)
Helping Special Children in a Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
436(21)
Introduction
437(1)
Chapter Objectives
437(1)
Diversity in the Regular Education Classroom
438(1)
Public Laws 94-142 and 101-476
438(1)
The ``Average'' Child
439(1)
The Slow Learner
439(2)
Providing Instruction
440(1)
Reading Instruction
440(1)
The Gifted Child
441(3)
Characteristics
442(1)
Instructional Provisions
442(1)
Reading Instruction
443(1)
The Educationally At-Risk Child
444(1)
The Creative Child
445(2)
Defining Creativity
446(1)
Reading and Creativity
446(1)
Multiple Intelligences (MI)
447(1)
Mainstreaming and Full Inclusion
447(2)
Integrating the Child with Disabilities into the Regular Education Classroom
448(1)
Learning Disability
449(1)
Learning Disability: A Special Caveat
450(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and without Hyperactivity (ADD)
450(2)
Attention Deficit Disorder---Relationship to Learning Disability
451(1)
Identification Biases toward Children Labeled Mildly Mentally Retarded
452(1)
Early Intervention and Educationally At-Risk Children: A Point of View
453(2)
Summary
455(1)
Chapter 15 Key Concepts
455(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
456(1)
Internet Activities
456(1)
Selected Bibliography
456(1)
Teachers and Parents as Partners in the Diagnostic-Reading and Correction Program
457(20)
Introduction
457(1)
Chapter Objectives
458(1)
Parental Involvement in the Schools
459(1)
Some Possible Causes for a Change in Attitude toward Parental Involvement
459(1)
Emergent Literacy and Parents
460(2)
Research on Parental Involvement in Their Children's Education
462(2)
Goals 2000: Educate America Act and Parental Involvement in Schools
464(1)
Parental Involvement in School Programs
465(1)
Parental Involvement in Regular School Reading Programs
466(2)
Parental Involvement in Preschool Programs
468(1)
How Successful Are Parental Involvement Programs?
469(1)
Grandparents Should Be Involved, Too
469(2)
Television, Computers, Parents, Children, and Reading
471(1)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
472(1)
A Final Word
473(1)
Parental Involvement: A Point of View
473(1)
Summary
474(1)
Chapter 16 Key Concepts
475(1)
Suggestions for Thought Questions and Activities
475(1)
Internet Activities
475(1)
Selected Bibliography
476(1)
Appendix A Informal Reading Inventory 477(47)
Appendix B Fry Readability Formula 524(2)
Appendix C Some Phonological and Grammatical Interferences Between Standard English and Ebonics (Black English) That May Affect Reading 526(2)
Appendix D A Sample of the Kinds of Problems Spanish-speaking Children Might Have When Attempting to Learn Standard English 528(1)
Appendix E A Sample of Some of the Difficulties That Chinese Students Might Encounter When Attempting to Learn Standard English 529(2)
Appendix F NCATE 2000 Unit Standards 531(2)
Glossary 533(10)
Index 543


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