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Diesel Engine and Fuel System Repair,9780130929815
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Diesel Engine and Fuel System Repair

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130929815

ISBN10:
0130929816
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/28/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $200.40

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    Diesel Engine and Fuel System Repair




Summary

One of the only references of its kind to devote chapters to the intricacies of electrical equipment in diesel engine and fuel system repair, this cutting-edge manual incorporates the latest in diesel engine technology, giving users a solid introduction to the technology, operation, and overhaul of heavy duty diesel engines and their respective fuel and electronics systems.The reference covers all aspects of technician professionalism and image, diesel engine operating fundamentals, understanding horsepower, combustion systems, engine diagnosis, cylinder blocks and liners, crankshaft, main bearings, vibration damper, pulleys, flywheels and flywheel housings, camshafts, followers/lifters, pushrods, rocker arms, and timing gear train, lubrication systems, cooling systems, air inlet/exhaust systems, general types of fuel systems, mechanical and electronic governor operations, several types of fuel systems, electrical fundamentals, alternator charging systems and electric starting motors.For automotive and diesel technicians.

Author Biography

Robert N. (Bob) Brady has been involved in the automotive, heavy-duty truck/bus, and equipment field since 1959, having served a recognized indentured apprenticeship as both an automotive and heavy-duty truck/bus and equipment technician. He is a certified automotive, commercial transport, and heavy-duty equipment technician. A graduate of Stow College of Engineering, where he majored in the Thermodynamics of Heat Engines, he holds a degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology. He also holds a degree in Adult Education.

His experience includes positions as a shop foreman and service manager for a number of major heavy truck companies and OEMs, as well as a Fleet Maintenance Superintendent with a large North American truck fleet. Other experience includes positions as Manager of National Technical Training, Canada; Sales Application Engineer; Field Service Engineer for Detroit Diesel Corporation; Diesel Engineering and Diesel Mechanic /Technician college instructor; and Department Head of the program at Vancouver Community College, where he also served a two-year term as President of the Faculty Association.

He is a full member of SAE International (Society of Automotive Engineers), for which he has served as the chair of the British Columbia Section. Under his leadership in 1989-90, the section received an SAE Award of Merit for outstanding technical meetings. At the International level of SAE, he served three years on the worldwide Sections Board as Vice-Chair and then Chair. Other activities in SAE at the Sections Board level included chairing the Executive Committee, the Administrative Committee, the Brazil Ad Hoc Committee, and the International Sections and Affiliates Committee. He has also served as a member of the Sections Evaluation and Awards Committee. He served as a Regional Coordinator, where he worked with the B.C., Alberta, and Manitoba Sections in Canada, and was an acting RC for the NW /Spokane-Intermountain, Washington, and Oregon sections. He also served as a member of SAE's Total Quality Committee. He was elected to SAE's worldwide International Board of Directors, serving from 1994 through 1996, and was one of two SAE board of directors appointed to the Ad Hoc Committee that in March 1996 initiated the development and organization of the STS (Service Technicians Society), an affiliate of SAE International.

In 1987 he established his own company, HiTech Consulting Ltd., which specializes in technical training program design/implementation aimed specifically at heavy-duty, on- and off-highway equipment. He has delivered specialized training courses for engineers, service technicians, and maintenance personnel at a number of companies and corporations. Other functions include fleet maintenance and failure analysis programs as well as equipment specing. He has appeared as an expert witness in a number of cases involving patent infringement and engine/ equipment failure.

He is the author of fourteen textbooks for Prentice Hall dealing with automotive fuel injection and electronics/computers, diesel, and heavy-duty trucks. A member of the TWNA (Truck Writers of North America), he writes monthly technical/maintenance articles for two of Canada's major newspaper/magazines: Trucknews, Canada's National Trucking Newspaper and Equipment Buyer's Guide, and Grainews, a national farmer's monthly newspaper distributed in both Canada and the United States, where his monthly articles deal with truck and equipment maintenance.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(9)
Technician Professionalism and Image
1(2)
Career Advancement
3(1)
ASE Certification
3(1)
ASE Diesel Engines Task List
4(4)
Service Technicians Society
8(2)
Diesel Engine Operating Fundamentals
10(16)
Diesel Engine Classifications
10(1)
Four-Stroke-Cycle Operation
10(5)
Two-Stroke-Cycle Operation
15(3)
Comparison of Two- and Four-Stroke-Cycle Designs
18(3)
Engine Firing Orders
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Self-Test Questions
22(4)
Understanding Horsepower and Related Terms
26(24)
Understanding Power Terms
26(21)
Heating Value Equivalents
47(1)
ISO Standards
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Self-Test Questions
48(2)
Combustion Systems
50(13)
ASE Certification
50(1)
The Combustion Process
50(1)
Types of Combustion Chambers
50(3)
Combustion Dynamics
53(3)
Fuel Injection Timing
56(2)
Retarded versus Advanced Timing
58(1)
Exhaust Emissions Limits
58(1)
Summary
59(3)
Self-Test Questions
62(1)
Engine Disassembly Considerations
63(16)
Engine Cleaning Procedures
75(1)
Safe Work Habits When Cleaning
75(2)
Quality Assurance
77(1)
Summary
77(1)
Self-Test Questions
78(1)
The Cylinder Block and Liners
79(40)
ASE Test Specifications
79(1)
ASE Cylinder Block Specialist
80(2)
Cylinder Block Structure
82(2)
Diesel Engine Cylinder Blocks
84(4)
Disassembly, Inspection, and Cleaning of the Cylinder Block
88(1)
Block Flowchart Inspection
89(4)
Systematic Overview of Engine Block Checks
93(3)
Final Inspection, Testing, Reconditioning, and Assembly
96(9)
Cylinder Hones
105(11)
Summary
116(1)
Self-Test Questions
116(3)
Crankshafts, Main Bearings, Vibration Dampers/Pulleys, Flywheels, and Flywheel Housings
119(42)
ASE T2 Test Specifications
119(1)
ASE M2 and M3 Test Specifications
119(1)
Crankshaft Structure and Function
120(3)
Crankshaft Cleaning and Inspection
123(3)
Repair or Replacement of Crankshaft Main Bearings
126(1)
Main Bearing Defects and Remedies
126(8)
Spun Main Bearings
134(1)
Main Bearing Specifications and Crankshaft Tolerances
135(1)
Main Bearing and Crankshaft Installation
136(4)
Crankshaft Seals
140(2)
Vibration Dampers
142(6)
Flywheels
148(1)
Purposes of Flywheels
148(1)
Flywheel Designs and SAE Size
149(1)
Flywheel Timing Marks
149(1)
Removing and Inspecting the Flywheel
149(3)
Ring Gear Replacement
152(2)
Pilot Bearing Replacement
154(1)
Flywheel Installation
154(1)
Flywheel Runout
155(1)
Flywheel Housing
156(1)
Summary
157(1)
Self-Test Questions
158(3)
Pistons, Piston Rings, and Connecting Rod Assembly
161(35)
ASE Diesel Engines Test
161(1)
ASE Engine Machinist Tests
161(1)
ASE Assembly Specialist Tests
162(1)
Piston Structure and Function
162(2)
Two-Piece Piston Designs
164(4)
Piston Crown Shapes
168(1)
Piston Operating Temperatures
169(4)
Piston Removal from the Block
173(1)
Pistons and Piston Rings
174(3)
Piston Scuffing Identification
177(3)
Piston Rings Inspection Details
180(2)
Inspecting the Connecting Rods
182(1)
Checking Rod Bore Ovality
183(2)
Piston Pin Inspection
185(1)
Final Assembly of Pistons, Piston Rings, and Connecting Rods
185(8)
Summary
193(1)
Self-Test Questions
193(3)
The Cylinder Head and Components
196(33)
ASE Certification
196(2)
Cylinder Head Structure and Function
198(3)
Service Recommendations
201(26)
Summary
227(1)
Self-Test Questions
227(2)
Camshaft, Cam Followers, Pushrods, Rocker Arms, and Timing Gear Train
229(21)
ASE Certification
230(1)
System Structure and Function
231(6)
Camshaft Cleaning and Inspection
237(3)
Cam Follower Inspection
240(1)
Pushrod Inspection
240(2)
Rocker Arm Inspection
242(1)
Valve Adjustment
243(2)
Inspection, Replacement, and Assembly of the Timing Gear Train
245(4)
Summary
249(1)
Self-Test Questions
249(1)
Lubrication Systems and Lube Oil
250(22)
ASE Certification
250(1)
Lubrication System Function
250(2)
System Components
252(6)
Engine Lube Oil
258(4)
Waste Oil Disposal
262(1)
Lube Oil Dilution
262(1)
Oil Analysis
263(1)
Inspection and Overhaul of Components
263(4)
System Testing
267(1)
Testing and Troubleshooting the Lube System
267(1)
Engine Prelubrication
268(2)
Starter Motor Prelube Systems
270(1)
Summary
270(1)
Self-Test Questions
270(2)
Cooling Systems
272(32)
ASE Certification
272(1)
Cooling System Function
273(1)
Engine Heat Loads
274(3)
Coolant Flow Determination
277(1)
Radiators
278(2)
Radiator Shutters
280(1)
Fan Clutches
280(3)
Thermostats
283(4)
Coolant
287(1)
Cylinder Liner Pitting
288(1)
Fill-For-Life Coolant
289(1)
Antifreeze
289(2)
Testing the Coolant
291(1)
Scale Buildup
292(1)
Coolant Filters
292(1)
Flushing the System
292(1)
Pressure Caps
293(2)
Pressure Checking the Cooling System
295(1)
Expansion Tanks and Heat Exchangers
296(3)
Raw Water Pumps
299(1)
Keel Cooling Systems
300(1)
Summary
301(1)
Self-Test Questions
302(2)
Air Inlet and Exhaust Systems
304(61)
ASE Certification
304(1)
The Air Supply
305(1)
Intake and Exhaust System Flow
306(1)
Air Cleaners
307(9)
Air Ducting Inspection
316(1)
Aftercoolers
317(4)
Turbochargers
321(13)
Exhaust Mufflers and Particulate Traps
334(1)
Gear-Driven Blowers
335(3)
Marine Engine Applications
338(1)
Troubleshooting Using Manometers
339(4)
Exhaust Brake Devices
343(1)
Exhaust Brakes
344(1)
Williams Exhaust Brake
344(2)
Engine Compression Brakes
346(12)
Electric Retarder
358(1)
Use of Starting Fluids
359(2)
Summary
361(1)
Self-Test Questions
361(4)
Diesel Fuel, Filters, and Fuel/Water Separators
365(14)
ASE Certification
365(1)
Diesel Fuel Oil Grades
365(1)
Specific Gravity of a Fuel
366(1)
Heat Value of a Fuel
366(2)
Fuel Filtration
368(1)
Fuel Filters
369(2)
Fuel Filter/Water Separators
371(5)
Fuel Heaters
376(1)
Summary
377(1)
Self-Test Questions
377(2)
Types of Fuel Systems
379(20)
ASE or TQ Certification
379(1)
Basic Fuel Injection System
379(3)
Distributor Pump System
382(3)
Stanadyne DS Pump
385(3)
Delphi Automotive Systems
388(1)
Delphi Distributor Pumps Overview
389(3)
DP200
392(1)
DPC
392(1)
DPCN
393(1)
EPIC
394(2)
DCR (Delphi Diesel Common Rail System)
396(1)
EUI (Electronic Unit Injector)
397(1)
Summary
398(1)
Self-Test Questions
398(1)
Mechanical and Electronic Governor Operation
399(20)
Governor Function
400(1)
Why a Governor Is Required
400(1)
Mechanical Governor Operation
401(4)
Governor Terms
405(2)
Types of Governors
407(1)
Zero-Droop Governors
407(1)
Adjustable-Droop Governors
408(6)
Electronic Governors
414(2)
Summary
416(1)
Self-Test Questions
416(3)
Injection Nozzles
419(20)
ASE Certification
419(2)
Injectors
421(1)
Nozzles
422(1)
Nozzle Structure and Function
423(2)
Nozzle Flow
425(1)
Nozzle Components
425(1)
Bosch Nozzles
426(1)
Injector Nozzle Sac Volume
427(1)
Nozzle Problems
427(1)
Nozzle Removal
427(2)
Testing Nozzles for Performance
429(3)
Nozzle Disassembly and Cleaning
432(4)
Injection Nozzle Reassembly
436(2)
Nozzle Installation
438(1)
Summary
438(1)
Self-Test Questions
438(1)
Theory of Electronic Fuel Systems
439(49)
ASE L2 Test
439(3)
Electronic Fuel System Background
442(1)
Advantages of Electronic Engines
443(1)
Fuel System Structure and Function
444(6)
ECM Serial Data/Sensor Communications
450(10)
Engine Protection System
460(4)
Electronic Unit Injectors
464(5)
Electronic Control Modules
469(5)
Troubleshooting Options
474(4)
Diagnostic Tooling
478(7)
Summary
485(1)
Self-Test Questions
485(3)
Robert Bosch Corporation Fuel Systems
488(76)
ASE Certification
488(1)
Company Background
489(1)
Overview
490(1)
Product Overview
491(2)
Pump Features
493(4)
Inline Pump Fuel System
497(1)
Fuel Supply Pump Operation
498(1)
Injection Pump Operation
499(1)
Fuel Metering (Measurement)
499(3)
Helix Shapes and Delivery Valves
502(2)
Inline Pump-to-Engine Timing
504(2)
Overview: Static Spill Timing
506(3)
Air-in-the-Fuel System
509(1)
Cummins C Model Timing Check
510(4)
Timing PF Jerk Pumps
514(1)
Automatic Timing Advance Device
515(1)
Basic Fuel System Troubleshooting
516(4)
Robert Bosch Governors
520(9)
Aneroid/Boost Compensator Control
529(1)
Altitude Pressure Compensator
530(1)
Robert Bosch Electronic Diesel Control
531(1)
Distributor Pumps
532(3)
Robert Bosch Model VE Injection Pump
535(12)
Checking Injection Pump Static Timing
547(1)
Robert Bosch VE Injection Pump Troubleshooting
548(2)
Electronic Distributor Pump
550(2)
Testing/Setting Injection Pumps
552(3)
Bosch Common-Rail Fuel Systems
555(4)
Summary
559(1)
Self-Test Questions
559(5)
Mack Electronic Fuel Systems
564(5)
VMAC System Troubleshooting
565(2)
Summary
567(1)
Self-Test Questions
568(1)
Detroit Diesel Corporation Fuel Systems
569(51)
ASE Certification
569(1)
Engine Labels
569(1)
Basic Fuel System Functions
570(1)
Mechanical Fuel System Components
570(1)
Fuel Pump
570(4)
Minimum Fuel-Line Sizes versus Restriction
574(1)
Priming the Fuel System
575(1)
Filter Replacement
575(1)
Engine Runs Out of Fuel
576(1)
Fuel Injectors-MUI
577(2)
Fuel System Troubleshooting
579(4)
DDC Two-Stroke-Cycle Engine Tune-Up: Non-DDEC Engines
583(1)
Tune-Up Sequence
583(10)
Detroit Diesel Series 50/60 Four-Stroke-Cycle Engines-Tune-Up
593(1)
Model 790 Jake Brakes-Flatbrake
594(2)
Detroit Diesel Electronic Systems
596(13)
Diagnostic Tooling
609(5)
Optimized Idle
614(1)
Electronic Unit Pump System
615(1)
Summary
616(1)
Self-Test Questions
616(4)
Cummins Fuel Systems
620(74)
ASE Certification
620(1)
Company Background
620(1)
PT Fuel System
621(4)
PT Fuel Pumps
625(4)
AFC Pumps
629(1)
Manual Fuel Shutoff
630(1)
PT Pump Checks and Adjustments
630(1)
Engine-to-Injector Timing
631(6)
Step Timing Control System
637(6)
Cummins Celect System
643(11)
Diagnostic Fault Codes
654(9)
ISB Engine Electronic Fuel System
663(2)
Bosch VP44 Distributor Pump
665(3)
Cummins---ISC Engines
668(1)
CAPS Fuel System
669(10)
Cummins ISX / Signature Series Engines
679(11)
Summary
690(1)
Self-Test Questions
690(4)
Caterpillar Fuel Systems
694(44)
ASE Certification
694(1)
Company Background
694(1)
System Structure and Function
694(1)
New Scroll Fuel System: 3306 and 3406 Engines
695(3)
Fuel Transfer Pump
698(1)
Governor
699(1)
Automatic Timing Advance Unit
700(2)
Static Engine Timing
702(2)
Dynamic Engine Timing
704(1)
Fuel Injection Pump: 3406B Engine
705(1)
Valve Adjustment: 3406 Engine
706(1)
New Adjustment Procedure for Jake Brake (Models 340/340A/340B) Slave Piston Lash
707(1)
Caterpillar Electronic Fuel Systems
708(9)
Caterpillar Electronic Diagnostic Tooling
717(10)
HEUI Fuel System
727(2)
Operation-Engine Start Up
729(1)
High-Pressure Oil System
729(6)
Summary
735(1)
Self-Test Questions
735(3)
Engine Run-In and Dyno Testing
738(13)
ASE Certification
738(1)
General Information
738(1)
Engine Dynamometers
739(3)
Dyno Run-In Procedures
742(3)
Chassis Dyno Run-In Procedures
745(3)
On-Highway Engine Run-In Procedures
748(1)
Off-Highway Equipment Run-In Procedures
749(1)
Marine Engine Run-In Procedures
749(1)
Summary
749(1)
Self-Test Questions
749(2)
Engine Troubleshooting
751(42)
ASE Certification
751(1)
Getting Started
751(2)
Troubleshooting Tips
753(2)
Engine Idling
755(1)
Sequential Troubleshooting Steps
755(1)
General Procedure for Checking Engine and Vehicle
756(2)
Exhaust Smoke Color
758(3)
Exhaust Smoke Detection
761(4)
Checking the Fuel System
765(2)
Primary Engine Checks
767(2)
Troubleshooting Charts
769(21)
Summary
790(1)
Self-Test Questions
790(3)
Batteries, Alternators, and Starter Motors
793(32)
Part A: Batteries
793(1)
Batteries
793(7)
Self-Test Questions-Batteries
800(1)
Part B: Alternator Charging Systems
801(1)
Alternator Function
801(1)
Electrical System Loads
802(1)
Types of Alternators
802(1)
Heavy-Duty Alternator Test: On Vehicle
803(2)
On-Vehicle Alternator Output Test
805(1)
Troubleshooting Leece-Neville Alternators
806(2)
Self-Test Questions-Alternator Charging Systems
808(1)
Part C: Starter Motors
809(1)
Starter Motor Function
809(1)
Electric Starter System Structure
809(1)
12 and 24 Volt Circuits
810(2)
Electric Starter Motor Components
812(2)
Solenoid Switch Components and Operating Principles
814(1)
Electric Starter Troubleshooting
814(8)
Air Starter System
822(1)
Summary
823(1)
Self-Test Questions-Starter Motors
823(2)
Index 825

Excerpts

In the United States, a recently conducted detailed study of over a hundred highly skilled professions by the GAO (General Accounting Office) determined that the needed skill levels of both automotive and diesel technicians were on a par with X-ray technicians and computer programmers! To be successful, they projected that a minimum of a high school diploma with emphasis on math, science, physics, English, and computer literacy accompanied by a preferred one to two years of college training in their specific technical field be viewed as prerequisites. The technological advancements in internal combustion engines and equipment, with their high degree of electronics controls, demand that tomorrow''s technicians be vigilant to lifelong learning techniques and the continual absorption of new knowledge. In this, the fifth edition of Diesel Engine and Fuel System Repair,Prentice Hall and I have contacted a number of readers and instructors to review the suggested new material to solicit their views, thoughts, and ideas of what a revised textbook in this subject area should offer. It is never an easy task to incorporate all of the required preferences that individuals would like to see, due to the size and cost limitations of the finished product. The major key elements and subject matter finally chosen were based upon the necessity to offer and comply with both the ASE (Automotive Service Excellence) and TQ (Trade Qualification) test areas. As a base, I have incorporated information that is relevant to ASE''s medium/heavy truck and diesel engines testing areas. Consequently, detailed subject material not included in ASE testing areas such as mechanical diesel fuel injection and governor major overhaul, phasing, and calibrating was not deemed necessary, although we do describe the function, operation, and troubleshooting of these specific systems. The various fuel injection shops and technicians who are members of ADS (Association of Diesel Specialists), and who are tested and certified in this highly specialized area, are the best personnel to handle this type of repair. Each chapter was reviewed, updated, and added to where appropriate to reflect the latest technology. A wide range of new illustrations and photographs in two-color format was chosen to accentuate the technical descriptions, and also to improve the visual interpretation aspects under discussion. The new material added highlights the latest technology currently in use by all of the major diesel engine OEMs worldwide, particularly the new designs of engine component parts, electronic fuel injection systems, and electronic governor controls. Several new chapters dealing with engine run-in and dyno testing, engine diagnosis and troubleshooting, and an excellent simplified chapter description/coverage of the basic theory, operation, and diagnosis of diesel electronic fuel injection systems will prepare the reader to successfully challenge those specific areas of ASE and/or TQ testing. To support technician professionalism, ASE-type task lists, test specs content areas, and ASE-type review questions facilitate your study habits, and provide a structured guide for both technician trainees and technical instructors. Liberal use of suggested repair or replacement flowcharts throughout the book chapters will promote decision making as to the most effective and efficient method to follow when conducting repairs. The incorporation of appropriate website addresses offers a library of additional knowledge quickly available to the reader and instructor to expand and support their study habits and to obtain specific repair instructions and diagnostic/troubleshooting tips and advice. Appropriate sidebars, technical tips, and diagnostic examples accompanied by frequently asked questions support and encourage the readers'' understanding of the text under discussion. No textbook of this type can truly reflect all of the wishes and needs of everyone within the diesel industry, but through the support, encouragement, and assistance I received from many of my colleagues, I trust that the finished product is reflective of their commitment to the highest standards of excellence, and that you, the reader, are pleased with the approach and material contained in this new edition. I wish you well in your pursuit of new knowledge, since your study of this book, coupled with hands-on tasks, will enhance your ability to understand, service, and diagnose the latest electronically controlled diesel engines, equipment, and systems. These skills will make you a valuable employee, and will provide you with a rewarding, challenging, and fulfilling career for many years to come. Many of you will become tomorrow''s supervisors, shop foremen, lead-hands, service managers, fleet maintenance directors, business owners, OEM field service representatives, and service engineers. Take advantage of the material contained within this publication and whet your appetite for new knowledge by accessing in-house employer training programs, OEM training, local community college courses, and information/data readily available on the web. Exchange ideas and technical knowledge with your colleagues in broadening your skills library, and treat others with respect. Remember, we were all rookies at one time or another in our careers. The difference between a great technician and a good technician is one who is always open to new ideas and suggestions, and is willing to exchange thoughts, ideas, and tips with colleagues. A great technician is also hungry for knowledge and respects customers and their equipment concerns. Finally, your thoughts, ideas, and constructive criticism about the material presented in this textbook is a valuable resource to me and other users. We gladly solicit and listen to your comments in attempting to improve the quality of the information and data that we deliver. You can write to me through the publisher''s address contained at the front of the book. Thank you for your interest! R. N. (Bob) Brady


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