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For introductory courses in Differential Equations. This text provides the conceptual development and geometric visualization of a modern differential equations course while maintaining the solid foundation of algebraic techniques that are still essential to science and engineering students. It reflects the new excitement in differential equations as the availability of technical computing environments likeMaple, Mathematica, and MATLAB reshape the role and applications of the discipline. New technology has motivated a shift in emphasis from traditional, manual methods to both qualitative and computer-based methods that render accessible a wider range of realistic applications. With this in mind, the text augments core skills with conceptual perspectives that students will need for the effective use of differential equations in their subsequent work and study.
Table of Contents
1. First-Order Differential Equations.
Differential Equations and Mathematical Models. Integrals as General and Particular Solutions. Direction Fields and Solutions Curves. Separable Equations and Applications. Linear First-Order Equations. Substitution Methods and Exact Equations.
2. Mathematical Models and Numerical Methods.
Population Models. Equilibrium Solutions and Stability. Acceleration-Velocity Models. Numerical Approximation: Euler's Method. A Closer Look at the Euler Method. The Runge-Kutta Method.
3. Linear Equations of Higher Order.
Introduction: Second-Order Linear Equations. General Solutions of Linear Equations. Homogeneous Equations with Constant Coefficients. Mechanical Vibrations. Nonhomogeneous Equations and the Method of Undetermined Coefficients. Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Electrical Circuits. Endpoint Problems and Eigenvalues.
4. Introduction to Systems of Differential Equations.
First-Order Systems and Applications. The Method of Elimination. Numerical Methods for Systems.
5. Linear Systems of Differential Equations.
Linear Systems and Matrices. The Eigenvalue Method for Homogeneous Systems. Second Order Systems and Mechanical Applications. Multiple Eignvalue Solutions. Matrix Exponentials and Linear Systems. Nonhomogeneous Linear Systems.
6. Nonlinear Systems and Phenomena.
Stability and the Phase Plane. Linear and Almost Linear Systems. Ecological Models: Predators and Competitors. Nonlinear Mechanical Systems. Chaos in Dynamical Systems.
7. Laplace Transform Methods.
Laplace Transforms and Inverse Transforms. Transformation of Initial Value Problems. Translation and Partial Fractions. Derivatives, Integrals, and Products of Transforms. Periodic and Piecewise Continuous Forcing Functions. Impulses and Delta Functions.
8. Power Series Methods.
Introduction and Review of Power Series. Series Solutions Near Ordinary Points. Regular Singular Points. Method of Frobenius: The Exceptional Cases. Bessel's Equation. Applications of Bessel Functions.
9. Fourier Series Methods.
Periodic Functions and Trigonometric Series. General Fourier Series and Convergence. Fourier Sine and Cosine Series. Applications of Fourier Series. Heat Conduction and Separation of Variables. Vibrating Strings and the One-Dimensional Wave Equation. Steady-State Temperature and Laplace's Equation.
10. Eigenvalues and Boundary Value Problems.
Strum-Liouville Problems and Eigenfunction Expansions. Applications of Eigenfunction Series. Steady Periodic Solutions and Natural Frequencies. Cylindrical Coordinate Problems. Higher-Dimensional Phenomena.