For junior- to senior-level introductory communication systems courses for undergraduates, or an introductory graduate course. A useful resource for electrical engineers. This revision of Couch's authoritative text provides the latest treatment of digital communication systems. The author balances coverage of both digital and analog communication systems, with an emphasis on design. Readers will gain a working knowledge of both classical mathematical and personal computer methods to analyze, design, and simulate modern communication systems. MATLAB is integrated throughout.

**Preface**

**List of Symbols**

**Chapter 1. ** **INTRODUCTION**

1—1 Historical Perspective

1—2 Digital and Analog Sources and Systems

1—3 Deterministic and Random Waveforms

1—4 Organization of the Book

1—5 Use of a Personal Computer and MATLAB

1—6 Block Diagram of a Communication System

1—7 Frequency Allocations

1—8 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

1—9 Information Measure

1—10 Channel Capacity and Ideal Communication Systems

1—11 Coding

*Block Codes, *

*Convolutional Codes, *

*Code Interleaving, *

*Code Performance, *

*Trellis-Coded Modulation, *

1—12 Preview

1—13 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

¿

**Chapter 2. ** **SIGNALS AND SPECTRA**

2—1 Properties of Signals and Noise

*Physically Realizable Waveforms*

*Time Average Operator*

*DC Value*

*Power*

*RMS Value and Normalized Power*

*Energy and Power Waveforms*

*Decibel*

*Phasors*

2—2 Fourier Transform and Spectra

*Definition*

*Properties of Fourier Transforms*

*Parseval’s Theorem and Energy Spectral Density*

*Dirac Delta Function and Unit Step Function*

*Rectangular and Triangular Pulses*

*Convolution*

2—3 Power Spectral Density and Autocorrelation Function

*Power Spectral Density*

*Autocorrelation Function*

2—4 Orthogonal Series Representation of Signals and Noise

*Orthogonal Functions*

*Orthogonal Series*

2—5 Fourier Series

*Complex Fourier Series*

*Quadrature Fourier Series*

*Polar Fourier Series*

*Line Spectra for Periodic Waveforms*

*Power Spectral Density for Periodic Waveforms*

2—6 Review of Linear Systems

*Linear Time-Invariant Systems*

*Impulse Response*

*Transfer Function*

*Distortionless Transmission*

*Distortion of Audio, Video, and Data Signals*

2—7 Bandlimited Signals and Noise

*Bandlimited Waveforms*

*Sampling Theorem*

*Impulse Sampling and Digital Signal Processing (DSP)*

*Dimensionality Theorem*

2—8 Discrete Fourier Transform

*Using the DFT to Compute the Continuous Fourier Transform*

*Using the DFT to Compute the Fourier Series0*

2—9 Bandwidth of Signals

2—10 Summary

2—11 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

** **

Chapter 3 **BASEBAND PULSE AND DIGITAL SIGNALING** **¿** 3—1 Introduction

3—2 Pulse Amplitude Modulation

*Natural Sampling (Gating)*

*Instantaneous Sampling (Flat-Top PAM)*

3—3 Pulse Code Modulation

*Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding*

*Practical PCM Circuits*

*Bandwidth of PCM Signals*

*Effects of Noise*

*Nonuniform Quantizing: *_*-Law and A-Law Companding*

*V.90 56-kb/s PCM Computer Modem*

3—4 Digital Signaling

*Vector Representation*

*Bandwidth Estimation*

*Binary Signaling*

*Multilevel Signaling*

3—5 Line Codes and Spectra

*Binary Line Coding*

*Power Spectra for Binary Line Codes*

*Differential Coding*

*Eye Patterns*

*Regenerative Repeaters*

*Bit Synchronization*

*Power Spectra for Multilevel Polar NRZ Signals*

*Spectral Efficiency*

3—6 Intersymbol Interference

*Nyquist’s First Method (Zero ISI)*

*Raised Cosine-Rolloff Nyquist Filtering*

*Nyquist’s Second and Third Methods for Control of ISI*

3—7 Differential Pulse Code Modulation

3—8 Delta Modulation

*Granular Noise and Slope Overload Noise*

*Adaptive Delta Modulation and Continuously Variable Slope*

*Delta Modulation*

*Speech Coding*

3—9 Time-Division Multiplexing

*Frame Synchronization*

*Synchronous and Asynchronous Lines*

*TDM Hierarchy*

*The T1 PCM System*

3—10 Packet Transmission System

3—11 Pulse Time Modulation: Pulse Width Modulation and Pulse Position Modulation

3—12 Summary

3—13 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

¿

**Chapter 4 ** **BANDPASS SIGNALING PRINCIPLES AND CIRCUITS**

4—1 Complex Envelope Representation of Bandpass Waveforms

*Definitions: Baseband, Bandpass, and Modulation*

*Complex Envelope Representation*

4—2 Representation of Modulated Signals

4—3 Spectrum of Bandpass Signals

4—4 Evaluation of Power

4—5 Bandpass Filtering and Linear Distortion

*Equivalent Low-Pass Filter*

*Linear Distortion*

4—6 Bandpass Sampling Theorem

4—7 Received Signal Plus Noise

4—8 Classification of Filters and Amplifiers

*Filters*

*Amplifiers*

4—9 Nonlinear Distortion

4—10 Limiters

4—11 Mixers, Up Converters, and Down Converters

4—12 Frequency Multipliers

4—13 Detector Circuits

*Envelope Detector*

*Product Detector*

*Frequency Modulation Detector*

4—14 Phase-Locked Loops and Frequency Synthesizers

4—15 Direct Digital Synthesis

4—16 Transmitters and Receivers

*Generalized Transmitters*

*Generalized Receiver: The Superheterodyne Receiver*

*Zero-IF Receivers*

*Interference*

4—17 Software Radios

4—18 Summary

4—19 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

**Chapter 5 ** **AM, FM, AND DIGITAL MODULATED SYSTEMS**

5—1 Amplitude Modulation

5—2 AM Broadcast Technical Standards

*Digital AM Braodcasting*

5—3 Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier

5—4 Costas Loop and Squaring Loop

5—5 Asymmetric Sideband Signals

*Single Sideband*

*Vestigial Sideband*

5—6 Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation

*Representation of PM and FM Signals*

*Spectra of Angle-Modulated Signals*

*Narrowband Angle Modulation*

*Wideband Frequency Modulation*

*Preemphasis and Deemphasis in Angle-Modulated Systems*

5—7 Frequency-Division Multiplexing and FM Stereo

5—8 FM Broadcast Technical Standards

*Digital FM Braodcasting*

5—9 Binary Modulated Bandpass Signaling

*On-Off Keying (OOK)*

*Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK)*

*Differential Phase-Shift Keying (DPSK)*

*Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)*

5—10 Multilevel Modulated Bandpass Signaling

*Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) and M-ary Phase-Shift Keying (MPSK)*

*Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)*

*OQPSK and _/4 QPSK*

*PSD for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK, and _/4 QPSK*

*Spectral Efficiency for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK, and _/4 QPSK*

*with Raised Cosine Filtering*

5—11 Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK) and GMSK

5—12 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

5—13 Spread Spectrum Systems

*Direct Sequence*

*Frequency Hopping*

*SS Frequency Bands*

5—14 Summary

5—15 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

**Chapter 6 ** **RANDOM PROCESSES AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS**

6—1 Some Basic Definitions

*Random Processes*

*Stationarity and Ergodicity*

*Correlation Functions and Wide-Sense Stationarity*

*Complex Random Processes*

6—2 Power Spectral Density

*Definition*

*Wiener-Khintchine Theorem*

*Properties of the PSD*

*General Formula for the PSD of Digital Signals*

*White-Noise Processes*

*Measurement of PSD*

6—3 DC and RMS Values for Ergodic Random Processes

6—4 Linear Systems

*Input-Output Relationships*

6—5 Bandwidth Measures

*Equivalent Bandwidth*

*RMS Bandwidth*

6—6 The Gaussian Random Process

*Properties of Gaussian Processes*

6—7 Bandpass Processes

*Bandpass Representations*

*Properties of WSS Bandpass Processes*

*Proofs of Some Properties*

6—8 Matched Filters

*General Results*

*Results for White Noise*

*Correlation Processing*

*Transversal Matched Filter*

6—9 Summary

6—10 Appendix: Proof of Schwarz’s Inequality

6—11 Study-Aid Examples ¿¿¿¿

Problems

**¿**

**Chapter 7 ** **PERFORMANCE OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS CORRUPTED BY NOISE**

7—1 Error Probabilities for Binary Signaling

*General Results*

*Results for Gaussian Noise*

*Results for White Gaussian Noise and Matched-Filter Reception*

*Results for Colored Gaussian Noise and Matched-Filter Reception*

7—2 Performance of Baseband Binary Systems

*Unipolar Signaling*

*Polar Signaling*

*Bipolar Signaling*

7—3 Coherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals

*On-Off Keying*

*Binary-Phase-Shift Keying*

*Frequency-Shift Keying*

7—4 Noncoherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals

*On-Off Keying*

*Frequency-Shift Keying*

*Differential Phase-Shift Keying*

7—5 Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying and Minimum-Shift Keying

7—6 Comparison of Digital Signaling Systems

*Bit-Error Rate and Bandwidth*

*Symbol Error and Bit Error for Multilevel Signaling*

*Synchronization*

7—7 Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio for PCM Systems

7—8 Output Signal-to-Noise Ratios for Analog Systems

*Comparison with Baseband Systems*

*AM Systems with Product Detection*

*AM Systems with Envelope Detection*

*DSB-SC Systems*

*SSB Systems*

*PM Systems*

*FM Systems*

*FM Systems with Threshold Extension*

*FM Systems with Deemphasis*

7—9 Comparison of Analog Signaling Systems

*Ideal System Performance*

7—10 Summary

7—11 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

**Chapter 8 ** **WIRE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS**

8—1 The Explosive Growth of Telecommunications

8—2 Telephone Systems

*Historical Basis*

*Modern Telephone Systems and Remote Terminals*

8—3 Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)

*G.DMT and G.Lite Digital Subscriber Lines*

*Video On Demand (VOD)*

*Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)*

8—4 Capacities of Public Switched Telephone Networks

8—5 Satellite Communication Systems

*Digital and Analog Television Transmission*

*Data and Telephone Signal Multiple Access*

*Satellite Radio Broadcasting*

8—6 Link Budget Analysis

*Signal Power Received*

*Thermal Noise Sources*

*Characterization of Noise Sources*

*Noise Characterization of Linear Devices*

*Noise Characterization of Cascaded Linear Devices*

*Link Budget Evaluation*

*Eb/N*0 *Link Budget for Digital Systems*

*Path Loss for Urban Wireless Environments*

8—7 Fiber-Optic Systems

8—8 Cellular Telephone Systems

*First Generation (1G)–The AMPS Analog System*

*Second Generation (2G)–The Digital Systems*

*The 1,-MHz Band PCS Systems*

*Status of 2G Networks*

*Third Generation (3G) Systems*

8—9 Television

*Black-and-White Television*

*MTS Stereo Sound*

*Color Television*

*Standards for TV and CATV Systems*

*Digital TV (DTV)*

8—10 Cable Data Modems

8—11 Wireless Data Networks

*Wi-Fi*

*Wi-Max*

8—12 Summary

8—13 Study-Aid Examples

Problems

**Appendix A¿ Mathematical Techniques, Identities, and Tables**

A—1 Trigonometry and Complex Numbers

*Definitions*

*Trigonometric Identities and Complex Numbers*

A—2 Differential Calculus

*Definition*

*Differentiation Rules*

*Derivative Table*

A—3 Indeterminate Forms

A—4 Integral Calculus

*Definition*

*Integration Techniques*

A—5 Integral Tables

*Indefinite Integrals*

*Definite Integrals*

A—6 Series Expansions

*Finite Series*

*Infinite Series*

A—7 Hilbert Transform Pairs

A—8 The Dirac Delta Function

*Properties of Dirac Delta Functions*

A—9 Tabulation of *Sa*(*x*) _ (sin *x*)/*x *

A—10 Tabulation of *Q*(*z *)

**Appendix B Probability and Random Variables**

B—1 Introduction

B—2 Sets

B—3 Probability and Relative Frequency

*Simple Probability*

*Joint Probability*

*Conditional Probabilities*

B—4 Random Variables

B—5 Cumulative Distribution Functions and Probability Density Functions

*Properties of CDFs and PDFs*

*Discrete and Continuous Distributions*

B—6 Ensemble Average and Moments

*Ensemble Average*

*Moments*

B—7 Examples of Important Distributions

*Binomial Distribution*

*Poisson Distribution*

*Uniform Distribution*

*Gaussian Distribution*

*Sinusoidal Distribution*

B—8 Functional Transformations of Random Variables

B—9 Multivariate Statistics

*Multivariate CDFs and PDFs*

*Bivariate Statistics*

*Gaussian Bivariate Distribution*

*Multivariate Functional Transformation*

*Central Limit Theorem*

Problems

**Appendix C Using MATLAB **

¿

C—1 Quick Start for Running M-Files

C—2 Programming in MATLAB

**References**

**Answers to Selected Problems**

¿

Index