Preface | p. ix |

Acknowledgments | p. x |

Directions to the Student | p. xi |

Refresher Math Pre-Test | p. xii |

Refresher Math | p. 1 |

Relative Value, Addition, and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 3 |

Relative Value of Decimals | p. 3 |

Addition and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 7 |

Summary | p. 8 |

Summary Self Test | p. 8 |

Multiplication and Division of Decimals | p. 11 |

Multiplication of Decimals | p. 11 |

Division of Decimals | p. 12 |

Elimination of Decimal Points | p. 13 |

Reduction of Fractions | p. 14 |

Reduction of Numbers Ending in Zero | p. 15 |

Expressing to the Nearest Tenth | p. 16 |

Expressing to the Nearest Hundredth | p. 17 |

Summary | p. 18 |

Summary Self Test | p. 18 |

Solving Common Fraction Equations | p. 20 |

Whole Number Equations | p. 20 |

Decimal Fraction Equations | p. 23 |

Multiple Number Equations | p. 26 |

Summary | p. 28 |

Summary Self Test | p. 28 |

Introduction to Drug Measures | p. 31 |

Metric, International (SI) System | p. 33 |

Basic Units of the Metric/SI System | p. 33 |

Metric/SI Prefixes | p. 34 |

Metric/SI Abbreviations | p. 34 |

Variations of Metric/SI Abbreviations | p. 35 |

Metric/SI Notation Rules | p. 35 |

Conversion Between Metric/SI Units | p. 37 |

Common Errors in Metric/SI Dosages | p. 39 |

Summary | p. 40 |

Summary Self Test | p. 40 |

Additional Drug Measures: Unit, Percentage, Milliequivalent, Ratio, Apothecary, Household | p. 42 |

International Units (U) | p. 42 |

Percentage (%) Measures | p. 43 |

Milliequivalent (mEq) Measures | p. 43 |

Ratio Measures | p. 44 |

Apothecary and Household Measures | p. 45 |

Apothecary/Household Notations | p. 46 |

Apothecary/Household to Metric/SI Equivalents Table | p. 46 |

The Apothecary/Metric Conversion Clock | p. 47 |

Summary | p. 48 |

Summary Self Test | p. 48 |

Reading Medication Labels and Syringe Calibrations | p. 51 |

Reading Oral Medication Labels | p. 53 |

Tablet and Capsule Labels | p. 54 |

Tablet/Capsule Dosage Calculation | p. 57 |

Oral Solution Labels | p. 61 |

Measurement of Oral Solutions | p. 62 |

Summary | p. 64 |

Summary Self Test | p. 65 |

Hypodermic Syringe Measurement | p. 71 |

Standard 3 cc Syringe | p. 71 |

Safety Syringes | p. 75 |

Tuberculin Syringe | p. 77 |

Tubex and Carpuject Cartridges | p. 79 |

5, 6, 10, and 12 cc Syringes | p. 82 |

20 cc and Larger Syringes | p. 84 |

Summary | p. 86 |

Summary Self Test | p. 86 |

Reading Parenteral Medication Labels | p. 90 |

Reading Metric/SI Solution Labels | p. 91 |

Percent (%) and Ratio Solution Labels | p. 92 |

Solutions Measured in International Units (U) | p. 93 |

Solutions Measured as Milliequivalents (mEq) | p. 94 |

Summary | p. 95 |

Summary Self Test | p. 96 |

Reconstitution of Powdered Drugs | p. 107 |

Reconstitution of a Single Strength Solution | p. 107 |

Reconstitution of Multiple Strength Solutions | p. 109 |

Reconstitution from Package Insert Directions | p. 110 |

Summary | p. 112 |

Summary Self Test | p. 112 |

Measuring Insulin Dosages | p. 117 |

Types of Insulin | p. 117 |

U-100 Insulin and Syringes | p. 119 |

Lo-Dose Syringes | p. 119 |

1 cc Capacity Syringes | p. 121 |

Combining Insulin Dosages | p. 123 |

Summary | p. 125 |

Summary Self Test | p. 125 |

Medication Administration Systems | p. 129 |

Medication Administration Records | p. 131 |

Medication Record 1 | p. 133 |

Medication Record 2 | p. 135 |

Medication Record 3 | p. 137 |

Medication Record 4 | p. 139 |

Summary | p. 139 |

Medication Card Administration | p. 140 |

Reading Medication Cards | p. 140 |

Summary | p. 141 |

Summary Self Test | p. 141 |

Dosage Calculation Using Dimensional Analysis | p. 145 |

Dosage Calculation Using Dimensional Analysis | p. 147 |

The Basic DA Equation | p. 147 |

Equations Requiring Metric Conversions | p. 153 |

Summary | p. 156 |

Summary Self Test | p. 157 |

Dosage Calculation from Body Weight and Body Surface Area | p. 173 |

Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 175 |

Converting lb to kg | p. 175 |

Converting kg to lb | p. 176 |

Calculating Dosages from Drug Label Information | p. 177 |

Calculating Dosages from Drug Literature | p. 180 |

Summary | p. 183 |

Summary Self Test | p. 183 |

Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on Body Surface Area | p. 189 |

Calculating BSA from kg and cm | p. 189 |

Calculating BSA from lb and in | p. 191 |

Dosage Calculation Based on BSA | p. 192 |

Assessing Orders Based on BSA | p. 193 |

Summary | p. 195 |

Summary Self Test | p. 195 |

Intravenous Calculations | p. 199 |

Introduction to IV Therapy | p. 201 |

Primary Line | p. 201 |

Secondary Line | p. 203 |

Volume Controlled Burettes | p. 205 |

Indwelling Infusion Ports/Intermittent Locks | p. 205 |

Electronic Infusion Devices (EID's) | p. 206 |

Electronic Rate Controllers | p. 206 |

Volumetric Pumps | p. 207 |

Horizon Nxt[superscript TM] Pump | p. 208 |

Syringe Pumps | p. 208 |

Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Devices | p. 209 |

Introduction to IV Fluids | p. 210 |

Determining Percentages in IV Fluids | p. 211 |

Parenteral Nutrition | p. 212 |

IV Medication Guidelines/Protocols | p. 212 |

Summary | p. 214 |

Summary Self Test | p. 215 |

IV Flow Rate Calculation | p. 217 |

IV Tubing Calibration | p. 217 |

Small Volume gtt/min Calculation | p. 218 |

Large Volume gtt/min Calculation from mL/hr Ordered | p. 221 |

Division Factor Method of Calculation | p. 222 |

Regulating Flow Rate | p. 225 |

Correcting Off-Schedule Rates | p. 225 |

Summary | p. 227 |

Summary Self Test | p. 228 |

Calculating IV Infusion and Completion Times | p. 230 |

Calculating from Volume and Hourly Rate Ordered | p. 230 |

Calculating Large Volume Infusion Time from gtt/min, Volume, and Set Calibration | p. 232 |

Calculating Small Volume Infusion Time from gtt/min, Volume, and Set Calibration | p. 234 |

Determining Infusion Completion Time | p. 236 |

Labeling Solution Bags/Bottles with Infusion Time | p. 238 |

Summary | p. 241 |

Summary Self Test | p. 242 |

IV Medication and Titration Calculations | p. 246 |

Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage Ordered | p. 247 |

Calculating gtt/min Rate from Dosage Ordered | p. 249 |

Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage per kg Ordered | p. 251 |

Calculating Dosage Infusing from Flow Rate | p. 253 |

Titration of Infusions | p. 255 |

Summary | p. 259 |

Summary Self Test | p. 260 |

Heparin Infusion Calculations | p. 263 |

Calculating mL/hr Flow Rate from U/hr Ordered | p. 263 |

Calculating gtt/min Flow Rate from U/hr Ordered | p. 265 |

Calculating U/hr Infusing from mL/hr Infusing | p. 267 |

Calculating U/hr Infusing from Solution Strength, Set Calibration, and gtt/min Rate | p. 269 |

Reading Heparin Labels and Preparing IV Solutions | p. 272 |

Summary | p. 274 |

Summary Self Test | p. 274 |

Pediatric Medication Calculations | p. 277 |

Pediatric Oral and Parenteral Medications | p. 279 |

Oral Medications | p. 279 |

IM and s.c. Medications | p. 281 |

Summary | p. 281 |

Summary Self Test | p. 282 |

Pediatric Intravenous Medications | p. 286 |

Methods of IV Medication Administration | p. 286 |

Medication Administration via Burette | p. 287 |

Comparing IV Dosages Ordered with Protocols | p. 291 |

Summary | p. 294 |

Summary Self Test | p. 295 |

Index | p. 299 |

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