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Direct Instruction Reading,9780131123083
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Direct Instruction Reading

by ; ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131123083

ISBN10:
0131123084
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $111.33
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    Direct Instruction Reading




Summary

Based on the latest guidelines from the National Reading Panel, this practical guide to teaching reading uses thedirect instruction reading approach, a proven program that's especially powerful with the most vulnerable of learners--those at risk because of poverty, disability, and/or a limited command of English. The emphasis is on inclusion, which uses language and demonstrations understood by all children. Nationally known and respected authors don't simply list method after method; rather, they provide a specific repertoire of carefully sequenced procedures that teach decoding, comprehension, content reading, and study skills. Strategies are recommended for each skill to be mastered; discussions of optimal timing and error correction, along with numerous examples, are included. In addition, the authors carefully and thoughtfully examine the relationships among different reading skills. For educators who need a thoughtful, sensitive, and informative book that will enhance their ability to teach reading, to any student in any context.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Perspective
Perspectives on Reading Instruction
2(8)
Perspectives on Improving Student Reading Performance
2(5)
Illustrations of the Four Orientations
7(3)
A Model of Reading Instruction
10(7)
The National Reading Panel (NRP) Report (2000)
12(1)
Direct Instruction Model
12(1)
Chall's Model of Reading Development
13(2)
Congruence of Our Direct Instruction Model, Chall's Six Stage Model, and the NRP Report
15(2)
Classroom Reading Instruction
17(7)
Instructional Materials
17(3)
Modifying Core Reading Programs for At-Risk Learners
20(1)
Assessment
20(1)
Organization of Instruction
21(3)
Delivery of Instruction
24(14)
Program Design
24(4)
Presentation Techniques
28(10)
PART 2 Beginning Reading: The First Months of Instruction
An Overview of Beginning Reading
38(12)
Phonics Instruction
38(1)
The Great Debate: Code-Emphasis vs. Meaning-Emphasis Programs
39(4)
Direct Instruction, Constructivist Approaches, and Systematic/Explicit Phonics Instruction
43(1)
Rationale for a Direct Instruction Approach
44(1)
Key Terminology
45(2)
An Overview of Decoding Instruction---Beginning Stage
47(3)
Phonemic Awareness and Alphabetic Understanding
50(10)
Phonemic and Phonological Awareness
50(2)
Preskills for Sounding Out Words
52(8)
Letter-Sound Correspondence
60(11)
Sequence
60(2)
Rate and Practice
62(1)
Procedure for Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences
62(2)
Critical Behaviors
64(7)
Sounding Out Regular Words
71(14)
Scope and Sequence
71(1)
Teaching Procedures
72(1)
Word Lists
72(2)
Teaching Procedure for Sounding Out Words in Lists
74(6)
Passage Reading
80(5)
Sight-Word Reading
85(13)
Sight-Reading in Word Lists
85(3)
Passage Reading
88(6)
Individual Checkouts for Rate and Accuracy
94(1)
Diagnosis and Remediation
94(4)
Irregular Words
98(7)
When to Introduce
98(1)
Sequence
99(1)
Teaching Procedure
100(1)
Modified Introductory Format
101(1)
Facilitating Retention
101(4)
Vocabulary and Language Skills: Beginning Stage
105(14)
Vocabulary Teaching
105(6)
Language Skills
111(8)
Using Commercial and Teacher-Constructed Materials: Beginning Reading Stage
119(21)
Selecting Instructional Materials
119(6)
Classroom Instruction in Kindergarten
125(3)
Classroom Instruction in First Grade
128(8)
Technology
136(4)
Research on Beginning Reading Instruction
140(8)
Phonics Instruction
140(1)
Phonemic Awareness
141(2)
Key Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Studies in the NRP Report
143(1)
Specific Instructional Strategies
144(1)
Vocabulary and Language Skills
145(1)
Summary
146(2)
PART 3 Decoding
Overview of Decoding
148(3)
Decoding Instruction
148(1)
Phonic Analysis
149(1)
Structural Analysis
149(1)
Irregular Words
149(1)
Comprehension
150(1)
Phonic Analysis
151(10)
Words With Letter Combinations
151(6)
Words With a VCe Pattern
157(4)
Structural Analysis
161(11)
Words Formed by Adding Common Endings to Base Words That End With a Consonant
161(2)
Introducing Words Formed by Adding ``ed''
163(2)
VCe Derivatives
165(3)
Y Derivatives
168(1)
Multisyllabic Words Formed With Prefixes and Suffixes
168(4)
Irregular Words: Primary and Intermediate Grades
172(10)
Systematic Introduction of Irregular Words
172(4)
Context as a Cue
176(6)
Fluency Instruction and Passage Reading
182(18)
Fluency
182(1)
Passage Reading
183(1)
Teaching Procedure
184(11)
Reading Outside School
195(5)
PART 4 Comprehension
Overview of Comprehension Instruction
200(4)
Vocabulary Instruction
204(16)
Indirect Vocabulary Learning
204(1)
Direct Vocabulary Learning
205(6)
Teaching Word-Learning Strategies
211(5)
Relation of Vocabulary Instruction to Improving Comprehension
216(1)
Summary
217(3)
Specific Comprehension Skills for the Early Primary Level
220(9)
Literal Comprehension
220(4)
Sequencing
224(1)
Summarization
225(4)
Specific Comprehension Skills for the Late Primary and Intermediate Levels
229(21)
Discriminating Literal and Inferential Questions
230(1)
Inference
230(7)
Prior Knowledge
237(1)
Sentence Structure
238(2)
Critical Reading
240(10)
Narrative-Comprehension Strategies
250(10)
Overview
250(1)
Story Selection
250(4)
Advanced Story-Reading Comprehension Strategy
254(6)
Direct Instruction in Content-Area Reading
260(48)
Characteristics of Expository Materials
260(6)
Content-Area Lessons
266(38)
Summary
304(4)
PART 5 School and Classroom Implementation: Primary and Intermediate Grades
Using Commercial Reading Materials: Late Primary and Intermediate Grades
308(11)
Constructing a Comprehensive Reading Program
308(2)
Using and Modifying Materials
310(1)
Screening and Placement Assessment at Beginning of the School Year
310(4)
Grouping and Placement
314(1)
Time for Instruction
315(1)
Adapting Instructional Materials to Meet Needs of At-Risk Students
315(4)
Corrective Readers
319(8)
Guidelines for Establishing a Comprehensive Program for Children Who Are Behind
319(2)
Constructing a Program for Children Reading Below Grade Level
321(3)
Commercial Materials for the Child Who Is Reading Below Grade Level
324(1)
Students With Limited English Proficiency
325(1)
Tutoring Programs
325(2)
Research on Fluency, Word Recognition and Decoding Skills, and Comprehension: Late Primary and Intermediate Grades
327(19)
Fluency
328(1)
Word Recognition and Comprehension
329(2)
Vocabulary Acquisition
331(3)
Text Organization and Reading Comprehension
334(4)
Metacognition and Reading Comprehension
338(7)
Summary
345(1)
Appendix A: Word Lists 346(15)
Appendix B: List of 400 Common Words 361(3)
Appendix C: Outline of Lessons for Beginning Phonics Program 364(3)
Appendix D: Basic Vocabulary for Beginning Readers and Suggestions for Assessing Student Knowledge 367(4)
References 371(12)
Name Index 383(4)
Subject Index 387

Excerpts

In April of 2000, the National Reading Panel, a panel of scientists charged by the U.S. Congress with the responsibility of reviewing research in reading instruction and identifying methods that consistently relate to reading success, issued its long-awaited report. The findings of the National Reading Panel confirmed the validity of the content and procedures that have been included inDirect Instruction Readingsince the first edition. The panel pointed out the importance of teaching phonemic awareness (Chapter 6), letter-sound correspondences (Chapter 7), systematic and explicit phonics (Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 15), fluency (Chapter 18), vocabulary and language skills (Chapters 11 and 20), and strategies for comprehending narrative and content-area text (Chapters 21 to 24). Furthermore, the panel pointed out the importance of systematic and explicit teaching in all areas. Direct Instruction Reading,unlike most textbooks, has not described multiple approaches to teaching beginning reading but instead has provided and continues to provide the reader with detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The direct instruction approach is highly congruent with the findings of the National Reading Panel. The approaches described in this text have been shown to benefit all students, but are especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English. This textbook is designed to provide teachers and soon-to-be teachers specific information that can help them to be effective with all their students. The text not only provides information on what to do but explains why particular procedures are recommended. Even though publishers have begun to incorporate more research findings into their reading programs, teachers will find great differences among programs regarding their effectiveness with at-risk students and must be prepared to make needed modifications and adjustments to ensure a successful learning experience for all students. Direct Instruction Readingpresents information on how to provide success to students through structuring initial teaching procedures so that the teacher presentation is clear; using language and demonstrations that can be understood by all children; sequencing the content to be sure that all essential skills and knowledge are taught in an aligned and coherent manner; using teacher presentation techniques that foster a high degree of interaction between teacher and student; and providing adequate practice and review to develop high levels of fluency and accuracy. Direct Instruction Readingattempts to help teachers create-a learning and instructional environment for teaching students in a humane and efficient manner. A learning environment is humane when the environment enhances the student's self-concept. Our experience, and our reading of the research, suggests that competence comes first, leading to increased self-concept. A learning environment is efficient when the maximum amount of learning occurs in the shortest possible time with the fewest resources. The organization ofDirect Instruction Readinghas changed somewhat from the third edition. We have organized the chapters to be congruent with the five major areas of reading instruction identified by the National Reading Panel. We continue to devote a disproportionate amount of the book to beginning reading, because the first months of reading instruction are immensely important to later reading success. The major change in this edition ofDirect Instruction Readingis not in the instructional details for how to teach reading, but in the chapters that connect Direct Instruction with the findings of the National Reading Panel, the chapters on how to establish a classroom reading program, and the chapters that present the research base that supp


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