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Discovering Biological Psychology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780618086160

ISBN10:
0618086161
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/22/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $176.33
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Summary

Discovering Biological Psychologyis a text for the beginning undergraduate course in biological, or physiological, psychology. The book provides a foundational understanding of the structure and function of the nervous system and its relationship to both typical and disordered human behavior. Written by an author with more than 25 years of teaching experience at schools ranging from community colleges to the Ivy League, this text presents classic concepts, current topics, and cutting-edge research in a style that is at once accessible to beginning and less well-prepared students and appealing to students with stronger backgrounds. Instructors using this text can teach a rigorous course that does not oversimplify the material, while keeping students excited and engaged. An effective illustration program supports and clarifies the content. Visible student-centered pedagogy guides students through complex scientific concepts. In presenting a new topic, the author creates a compelling narrative to bring together multiple related concepts.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Author xvii
Introducing Biological Psychology
2(26)
Biological Psychology as an Interdisciplinary Field
3(1)
Highlights in the Biological Psychology Timeline
3(5)
Interim Summary 1.1
7(1)
Research Methods in Biological Psychology
8(13)
Histology
8(1)
Autopsy
9(1)
Imaging
9(3)
Recording
12(4)
Stimulation
16(1)
Lesion
17(1)
Pharmacological Methods
18(1)
Genetic Methods
19(1)
Interim Summary 1.2
20(1)
Research Ethics
21(7)
Human Participants Guidelines
23(1)
The Ethics of Research on the Internet
23(1)
Animal Subjects Guidelines
24(1)
Interim Summary 1.3
25(1)
New Directions: New Ethical Challenges Regarding Stem Cell Research
26(1)
Thought Questions
27(1)
Recommended Reading
27(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Recommended Web Sites
27(1)
The Anatomy of the Nervous System
28(30)
Anatomical Directions and Planes of Section
29(3)
Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System
32(3)
The Meninges
32(1)
The Cerebrospinal Fluid
33(1)
The Blood Supply
34(1)
Interim Summary 2.1
35(1)
The Central Nervous System
35(14)
The Spinal Cord
35(2)
The Hindbrain
37(2)
The Midbrain
39(2)
The Forebrain
41(7)
Interim Summary 2.2
48(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
49(9)
The Cranial Nerves
49(1)
The Spinal Nerves
50(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
51(3)
Interim Summary 2.3
54(1)
New Directions: The Autonomic Nervous System and Stress
55(1)
Thought Questions
56(1)
Recommended Reading
56(1)
Key Terms
56(1)
Recommended Web Sites
57(1)
Cells of the Nervous System
58(32)
Neurons and Glia
59(10)
The Neuron Doctrine
59(1)
The Structure of Neurons
60(5)
Structural Variations in Neurons
65(1)
Functional Variations in Neurons
65(1)
Glia
65(4)
Interim Summary 3.1
69(1)
The Generation of the Action Potential
69(6)
The Ionic Composition of the Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
69(1)
Factors That Move Molecules
70(2)
The Resting Potential
72(1)
The Action Potential
73(2)
The Propagation of the Action Potential
75(3)
Interim Summary 3.2
77(1)
The Synapse
78(8)
Electrical Synapses
79(1)
Chemical Synapses
80(6)
Neuromodulation
86(4)
Interim Summary 3.3
87(1)
New Directions: Tetanus and the Lack of Inhibition
88(1)
Thought Questions
88(1)
Recommended Reading
89(1)
Key Terms
89(1)
Recommended Web Sites
89(1)
Psychopharmacology
90(30)
Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators, and Neurohormones
91(9)
Identifying Neurotransmitters
91(1)
Types of Neurotransmitters
92(7)
Interim Summary 4.1
99(1)
Drug Actions at the Synapse
100(4)
Agonists and Antagonists
100(1)
Neurotransmitter Production
100(1)
Neurotransmitter Storage
101(1)
Neurotransmitter Release
101(1)
Receptor Effects
101(2)
Reuptake Effects and Enzymatic Degradation
103(1)
Basic Principles of Drug Effects
104(5)
Administration of Drugs
104(1)
Individual Differences in Response
104(1)
Placebo Effects
105(1)
Tolerance and Withdrawal
105(2)
Addiction
107(1)
Interim Summary 4.2
108(1)
Effects of Psychoactive Drugs
109(11)
Stimulants
109(2)
Opiates
111(1)
Marijuana
112(2)
Other Hallucinogens
114(1)
Alcohol
115(1)
St. John's Wort
116(1)
Interim Summary 4.3
117(1)
New Directions: Designer Drugs
118(1)
Thought Questions
118(1)
Recommended Reading
118(1)
Key Terms
119(1)
Recommended Web Sites
119(1)
The Genetics, Evolution, and Development of the Human Brain
120(34)
Genetics and Behavior
121(9)
From Genes to Proteins
123(1)
Sources of Genetic Diversity
123(5)
The Roles of Heredity and Environment
128(1)
Interim Summary 5.1
129(1)
Evolution
130(3)
Evolution of the Nervous System
130(1)
Evolution of the Human Brain
131(1)
Human Brain
131(2)
Interim Summary 5.2
133(1)
Development
133(21)
Growth and Differentiation of the Nervous System
133(9)
The Effect of Experience on Development
142(3)
Disorders of Brain Development
145(2)
Redevelopment in Response to Damage
147(2)
The Aging Nervous System
149(2)
Interim Summary 5.3
151(1)
New Directions: Can We Stop the Aging Process?
152(1)
Thought Questions
152(1)
Recommended Reading
153(1)
Key Terms
153(1)
Recommended Web Sites
153(1)
Vision
154(34)
Characteristics of Light
155(3)
The Advantages of Light as a Stimulus
155(1)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
156(1)
Absorption, Reflection, and Refraction
156(1)
Interim Summary 6.1
157(1)
The Structures and Functions of the Visual System
158(19)
Protecting the Eye
158(1)
The Anatomy of the Eye
158(3)
The Layered Organization of the Retina
161(1)
Photoreceptors
161(3)
Differences Between Rods and Cones
164(1)
Processing by Retinal Interneurons
165(4)
Optic Nerve Connections
169(2)
The Striate Cortex
171(3)
Visual Analysis Beyond the Striate Cortex
174(2)
Interim Summary 6.2
176(1)
Visual Perception
177(4)
Hierarchies
177(1)
Spatial Frequencies
178(1)
The Perception of Depth
179(1)
Coding Color
179(2)
The Development of the Visual System
181(2)
Disorders of the Visual System
183(5)
Amblyopia
183(1)
Cataracts
183(1)
Visual Acuity Problems
183(1)
Blindness
184(1)
Visual Agnosias
184(1)
Interim Summary 6.3
185(1)
New Directions: The Effect of Vision on Flavor
186(1)
Thought Questions
186(1)
Recommended Reading
186(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Recommended Web Sites
187(1)
Nonvisual Sensation and Perception
188(36)
Audition
189(13)
Sound as a Stimulus
189(2)
The Structure and Function of the Auditory System
191(7)
Auditory Perception
198(2)
Hearing Disorders
200(1)
Interim Summary 7.1
201(1)
The Body Senses
202(15)
The Vestibular System
202(2)
Touch
204(7)
Temperature
211(1)
Pain
212(4)
Interim Summary 7.2
216(1)
The Chemical Senses
217(7)
Olfaction
217(2)
Taste
219(2)
Interim Summary 7.3
221(1)
New Directions: Yellow Smoky Voices and Sounds Like Briny Pickles
222(1)
Thought Questions
222(1)
Recommended Reading
222(1)
Key Terms
223(1)
Recommended Web Sites
223(1)
Movement
224(30)
Muscles
225(6)
Types of Muscle
225(1)
Muscle Anatomy and Contraction
225(4)
The Effects of Exercise on Muscle
229(1)
The Effects of Aging on Muscles
229(1)
Sex Differences in Musculature
230(1)
The Interaction of Muscles at a Joint
230(1)
Neural Control of Muscles
231(5)
Alpha Motor Neurons
231(1)
The Motor Unit
231(1)
The Control of Muscle Contractions
232(1)
The Control of Spinal Motor Neurons
232(3)
Interim Summary 8.1
235(1)
Reflex Control of Movement
236(2)
Monosynaptic Reflexes
236(1)
Polysynaptic Reflexes
236(1)
Reflexes over the Life Span
237(1)
Motor Systems of the Brain
238(7)
Spinal Motor Pathways
238(2)
The Cerebellum
240(1)
The Basal Ganglia
240(1)
The Motor Cortex
240(4)
Interim Summary 8.2
244(1)
Disorders of Movement
245(9)
Toxins
245(1)
Myasthenia Gravis
245(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
245(1)
Polio
246(1)
Accidental Spinal Cord Damage
246(1)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)
247(1)
Parkinson's Disease
247(2)
Huntington's Disease
249(2)
Interim Summary 8.3
251(1)
New Directions: How Much Stronger and Faster Can We Get?
252(1)
Thought Questions
252(1)
Recommended Reading
253(1)
Key Terms
253(1)
Recommended Web Sites
253(1)
Motivation: The Regulation of Temperature, Thirst, and Hunger
254(30)
Homeostasis
256(1)
Regulation of Body Temperature
256(7)
Adaptations to Temperature
257(1)
Behavioral Responses to Heat and Cold
258(1)
Endothermic Responses to Heat and Cold
258(1)
Deviations in Human Core Temperature
259(1)
Brain Mechanisms for Temperature Regulation
260(1)
Temperature Regulation in Infancy
261(1)
Interim Summary 9.1
262(1)
Thirst: Regulation of the Body's Fluid
263(8)
Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
263(1)
Osmosis Causes Water to Move
264(1)
The Role of the Kidneys
265(1)
The Sensation of Thirst
265(1)
Mechanisms of Osmotic Thirst
266(1)
Mechanisms of Hypovolemic Thirst
267(1)
Hormones, Sodium, and Thirst
267(2)
The Initiation of Drinking
269(1)
Cessation of Drinking
269(1)
Thirst and Sports Drinks
270(1)
Interim Summary 9.2
270(1)
Hunger: Regulation of the Body's Nutrients
271(7)
The Influence of Culture on Food Choices
271(1)
The Process of Digestion
271(2)
The Pancreatic Hormones
273(1)
The Initiation of Eating
274(2)
Satiety
276(2)
Obesity and Eating Disorders
278(6)
Defining Normal Weight
278(1)
Obesity
279(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
280(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
280(1)
Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia
281(1)
Treatments for Eating Disorders
281(1)
Interim Summary 9.3
282(1)
New Directions: Mood and Food
282(1)
Thought Questions
282(1)
Recommended Reading
283(1)
Key Terms
283(1)
Recommended Web Sites
283(1)
Sexual Behavior
284(28)
Sexual Development
285(9)
Genetic Abnormalities
286(2)
Three Stages of Prenatal Development
288(3)
Development at Puberty
291(2)
Interim Summary 10.1
293(1)
Hormones and Sexual Behavior
294(6)
Regulation of Sex Hormones by the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
294(1)
The Menstrual Cycle and Female Fertility
294(3)
Sex Hormones and Female Behavior
297(1)
Sex Hormones and Male Behavior
298(2)
Sex Differences in the Nervous System
300(3)
Sexual Orientation
303(2)
Hormones, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Orientation
303(1)
Brain Structure and Sexual Orientation
304(1)
Genes and Sexual Orientation
305(1)
Interim Summary 10.2
305(1)
Attraction
305(3)
The Importance of Symmetry
306(1)
The Beauty of Fertility and a Good Immune System
306(1)
Locating Love in the Brain
307(1)
Parental Behavior
308(1)
The Influence of Hormones on Mating and Parenting
308(1)
Genes and Parenting
309(1)
Sexual Dysfunction and Treatment
309(3)
Interim Summary 10.3
310(1)
New Directions: Why Have Sex?
310(1)
Thought Questions
311(1)
Recommended Reading
311(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Recommended Web Sites
311(1)
Sleep and Waking
312(30)
Circadian Rhythms
314(6)
Variations in Sleep Patterns
314(1)
Shift Work and Jet Lag
314(1)
The Internal Clock
315(2)
The Genetics of Circadian Rhythms
317(1)
The Biochemistry of Circadian Rhythms
318(1)
Seasonal Affective Disorder
319(1)
Stages of Waking and Sleep
320(3)
The Waking State
320(1)
Brain Activity During Sleep
320(3)
Sleep Throughout the Life Span
323(1)
Dreaming During REM and SWS
324(3)
Interim Summary 11.1
326(1)
The Functions of Sleep
327(2)
Sleep Keeps Us Safe
327(1)
Sleep Preserves Energy
328(1)
Sleep Restores Our Bodies
328(1)
Effects of SWS Deprivation
328(1)
Benefits of REM Sleep
329(1)
Effects of REM Deprivation
329(1)
Brain Mechanisms of Sleep and Arousal
329(4)
The Control of SWS
330(1)
The Control of Wakefulness
331(1)
The Control of REM Sleep
332(1)
Biochemistry of Sleep
333(2)
Interim Summary 11.2
334(1)
Sleep Disorders
335(7)
Dyssomnias
335(2)
Parasomnias
337(2)
Interim Summary 11.3
339(1)
New Directions: Can We Modify Our Sleep-Waking Cycles?
340(1)
Thought Questions
341(1)
Recommended Reading
341(1)
Key Terms
341(1)
Recommended Web Sites
341(1)
Learning and Memory
342(34)
Learning
343(10)
Types of Learning
344(1)
Using Invertebrates to Study Learning
345(4)
Classical Conditioning in Vertebrates
349(4)
Interim Summary 12.1
353(1)
Memory
353(23)
Types of Memory
354(2)
Brain Mechanisms in Memory
356(1)
The Temperal Lobe and Memory
357(12)
Biochemical Factors in Long-Term Memory
369(2)
Memory Failure
371(2)
Interim Summary 12.2
373(1)
New Directions: Can We Prevent Age-Related Memory Loss?
374(1)
Thought Questions
374(1)
Recommended Reading
374(1)
Key Terms
375(1)
Recommended Web Sites
375(1)
Lateralization, Language, and Intelligence
376(28)
Lateralization of Function
377(9)
The Split Brain
377(3)
The Development of Lateralization
380(1)
Implications of Hemispheric Asymmetry for Behavior
381(5)
Interim Summary 13.1
386(1)
Language
386(5)
Basic Features of Language
386(1)
The Origins of Language
387(1)
Are Nonhuman Animals Capable of Real Language?
388(2)
Multilingualism
390(1)
American Sign Language (ASL)
390(1)
Communication Disorders and Brain Mechanisms for Language
391(9)
Paul Broca and Patient ``Tan''
392(1)
Aphasias
392(5)
Disorders of Reading and Writing
397(2)
Stuttering
399(1)
Interim Summary 13.2
399(1)
Intelligence
400(3)
Assessing Intelligence
400(1)
General or Specific Abilities
400(1)
Heredity and Intelligence
401(1)
Biological Correlates of Intelligence
401(1)
Interim Summary 13.3
402(1)
New Directions: The Relationship Between Music and Language
402(1)
Thought Questions
403(1)
Recommended Reading
403(1)
Key Terms
403(1)
Recommended Web Sites
403(1)
Emotion, Aggression, Reward, and Stress
404(26)
Emotion
405(15)
The Evolution of Emotion
405(1)
Expression and Recognition of Emotion
406(4)
Theories of Emotion
410(4)
The Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in Emotion
414(1)
Brain Mechanisms and Emotion
415(4)
Interim Summary 14.1
419(1)
Aggression and Violence
420(3)
Genetics and Aggression
420(1)
Brain Damage and Aggression
421(1)
Biochemistry and Aggression
421(2)
Pleasure and Reward
423(1)
Stress
424(6)
Hans Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome
424(1)
Physical and Psychological Responses to Stress
425(2)
Stress, the Immune System, and Health
427(1)
Interim Summary 14.2
428(1)
New Directions: Coping with Stress
428(1)
Thought Questions
429(1)
Recommended Reading
429(1)
Key Terms
429(1)
Recommended Web Sites
429(1)
Neurological Disorders
430(26)
Major Classes of Neurological Disorders
431(9)
Vascular Disorders
431(3)
Open and Closed Head Injuries
434(1)
Brain Tumors
435(2)
Epilepsy
437(2)
Interim Summary 15.1
439(1)
Brain Infections
440(7)
Parasites
440(1)
Bacterial, Viral, and Fungal Infections
441(2)
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs)
443(4)
Migraine Headaches
447(2)
Interim Summary 15.2
448(1)
Assessment of Neurological Disorders
449(1)
Recovery from Damage
450(2)
Therapy for Brain Damage
452(4)
Rehabilitation
452(1)
Pharmacological Therapies
452(1)
Neural Tissue Transplants
453(1)
Interim Summary 15.3
454(1)
New Directions: Using Virtual Reality (VR) for Rehabilitation Following Brain Injury
454(1)
Thought Questions
454(1)
Recommended Reading
454(1)
Key Terms
455(1)
Recommended Web Sites
455(1)
Psychological Disorders
456
Schizophrenia
457(9)
Genetics of Schizophrenia
458(2)
Environmental Contributions to Schizophrenia
460(1)
Brain Structure and Function in Schizophrenia
460(4)
Biochemistry and Treatment of Schizophrenia
464(2)
Interim Summary 16.1
466(1)
Mood Disorders
466(7)
Major Depressive Disorder
466(5)
Bipolar Disorder
471(1)
Interim Summary 16.2
472(1)
Anxiety Disorders
473(4)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
474(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
474(2)
Panic Disorder
476(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
476(1)
Autism
477(1)
Genetics of Autism
477(1)
Brain Structure and Function in Autism
477(1)
Biochemistry and Treatment of Autism
478(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
478(2)
Genetics of ADHD
478(1)
Brain Structure and Function in ADHD
479(1)
Biochemistry and Treatment of ADHD
480(1)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
480
Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder
481(1)
Brain Structure and Function in Antisocial Personality Disorder
481(1)
Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder
482(1)
Interim Summary 16.3
482(1)
New Directions: The Roles of Nature and Nurture in Psychopathology
482(1)
Thought Questions
483(1)
Recommended Reading
483(1)
Key Terms
483(1)
Recommended Web Sites
483
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Name Index 1(9)
Subject Index 10


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