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More than any other introductory psychology textbook, the Hockenburys’ brief book is the one in which students see themselves – and the world they live in. The new edition builds on that distinction, presenting the discipline with a unique understanding of today’s students in all their diversity, emphasizing the field’s immediate impact on their lives. Without sacrificing science, Don and Sandy Hockenbury draw on personal experiences and anecdotes to illustrate essential concepts and important research directions.
The Discovering Psychology eBook, Online Study Center, or Study Guide can be packaged FREE with this new edition:
Discovering Psychology and Study Guide ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-1749-1
Table of Contents
Annotated Table of ContentsChapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods
Introduction: The Origins of Psychology
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: What Is Cross Cultural Psychology?
The Scientific Method
CRITICAL THINKING: What is CRITICAL THINKING?
Descriptive Research Methods
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: What is Pseudoscience?
The Experimental Method
Ethics in Psychological Research
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Psychological Research Using Brain Imaging
In Focus: Questions About the Use of animals in Psychological Research
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Psychology in the Media: Becoming an Informed Consumer
Introduction: Neuroscience and Behavior
How Drugs Affect Synaptic Transmission
Focus On Neuroscience: Is “Runner’s High” an Endorphin Rush?
The Nervous System and the Endocrine System
A Guided Tour of the Brain
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: Phrenology: The Bumpy Road to Scientific Progress
Focus On Neuroscience: Juggling and Brain Plasticity
Specialization in the Cerebral Hemispheres
CRITICAL THINKING: “His” and “Her” Brains?
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: Brain Myths
Application: Pumping Neurons: Maximizing Your Brain’s Potential
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Maximizing Your Brain's Potential
Introduction: What Are Sensation and Perception?
Basic Principles of Sensation
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: Subliminal Perception
Vision: From Light to Sight
Processing Visual Information
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Vision, Experience, and the Brain
Hearing: From Vibration to Sound
The Chemical and Body Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Position
In Focus: Do Pheromones Influence Human Behavior?
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Ways of Seeing
CRITICAL THINKING: ESP: Can Perception Occur Without Sensation?
The Effects of Experience on Perceptual Interpretations
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Culture and the Müller-Lyer Illusion: The Carpentered-World Hypothesis
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Strategies to Control Pain
Introduction: Consciousness: Experiencing the “Private I”
Biological and Environmental “Clocks” That Regulate Consciousness
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Sleep-Deprived Emotional Brain
Dreams and Mental Activity During Sleep
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Dreaming Brain: Turning REM On and Off
CRITICAL THINKING: Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Addicted Brain: Diminishing Rewards
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: How Methamphetamines Erode the Brain
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Stimulus Control Therapy for Insomnia
Chapter 5 Learning
Introduction: What Is Learning?
Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli
From Pavlov to Watson: The Founding of Behaviorism
IN FOCUS: Watson, Classical Conditioning, and Advertising
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning
IN FOCUS: Evolution, Biological Preparedness, and Conditioned Fears: What Gives You the Creeps?
Operant Conditioning: Associating Behaviors and Consequences
IN FOCUS: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment
CRITICAL THINKING: Is Human Freedom Just an Illusion?
Contemporary Views of Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning: Imitating the Actions of Others
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Mirror Neurons: Imitation in the Brain?
CRITICAL THINKING: Does Exposure to Media Violence Cause Aggressive Behavior?
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control
Introduction: What Is Memory?
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Culture’s Effects on Early Memories
Retrieval: Getting Information from Long-Term Memory
Forgetting: When Retrieval Fails
IN FOCUS: Déjà Vu Experiences: An Illusion of Memory?
CRITICAL THINKING: The Memory Wars: Recovered or False Memories?
Imperfect Memories: Errors, Distortions, and False Memories
The Search for the Biological Basis of Memory
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Assembling Memories: Echoes and Reflections of Perception
IN FOCUS: H.M. and Famous People
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Mapping Brain Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Superpower Memory in Minutes per Day!
Introduction: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Seeing Faces and Places in the Mind’s Eye
Solving Problems and Making Decisions
CRITICAL THINKING: The Persistence of Unwarranted Beliefs
Language and Thought
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: The Effect of Language on Perception
IN FOCUS: Does a High IQ Score Predict Success in Life?
The Nature of Intelligence
IN FOCUS: Neurodiversity: Beyond IQ
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Performing with a Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Undermine Performance
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: A Workshop on Creativity
Introduction: Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Concepts and Theories
Biological Motivation: Hunger and Eating
CRITICAL THINKING: Has Evolution Programmed Us to Overeat?
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Dopamine Receptors and Obesity
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Romantic Love and the Brain
Sexual Orientation: The Elusive Search for an Explanation
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Evolution and Mate Preferences
Psychological Needs as Motivators
Critical Thinking: Are Women Really More Emotional Than Men?
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Emotions and the Brain
CRITICAL THINKING: Emotion in Nonhuman Animals: Laughing Rats, Silly Elephants, and Smiling Dolphins?
Theories of Emotion: Explaining Emotion
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Turning Your Goals into Reality
Introduction: Your Life Story
Genetic Contributions to Your Life Story
Development During Infancy and Childhood
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Where Does the Baby Sleep?]
CRITICAL THINKING: The Effects of Child Care on Attachment and Development
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Adolescent Brain: A Work in Progress
Late Adulthood and Aging
The Final Chapter: Dying and Death
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Raising Psychologically Healthy Children
Chapter 10 Personality
Introduction: What Is Personality?
The Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality
The Humanistic Perspective on Personality
CRITICAL THINKING: Freud Versus Rogers on Human Nature
The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality
The Trait Perspective on Personality
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Personality Traits and Patterns of Brain Activity
IN FOCUS: Explaining Those Amazing Identical-Twin Similarities
Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: Graphology: The “Write” Way to Assess Personality?
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Possible Selves: Imagine the Possibilities
Introduction: What Is Social Psychology?
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Other People
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Brain Reward When Making Eye contact with Attractive People
Attribution: Explaining Behavior
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases
The Social Psychology of Attitudes
Conformity: Following the Crowd
Obedience: Just Following Orders
CRITICAL THINKING: Abuse at Abu Ghraib: Why Do Ordinary People Commit Evil Acts?
Helping Behavior: Coming to the Aid of Strangers
The Influence of Groups on Social Behavior
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: The Persuasion Game
Introduction: What Is Stress?
CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture
Physical Effects of Stress: The Mind–Body Connection
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Mysterious Placebo Effect
Individual Factors That Influence the Response to Stress Psychological Factors
CRITICAL THINKING: Do Personality Factors Cause Disease?
In Focus: Providing Effective Social Support
Coping: How People Deal with Stress
IN FOCUS: Gender Differences in Responding to Stress: “Tend-and-Befriend” or “Fight-or-Flight”?
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Minimizing the Effects of Stress
Introduction: Understanding Psychological Disorders
CRITICAL THINKING: Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portray Them?
Anxiety Disorders: Intense Apprehension and Worry
Mood Disorders: Emotions Gone Awry
CRITICAL THINKING: Does Smoking Cause Depression and Other Psychological Disorders?
Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia
Personality Disorders: Maladaptive Traits
The Dissociative Disorders: Fragmentation of the Self
Schizophrenia: A Different Reality
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: The Hallucinating Brain
Culture and Human Behavior: Travel Advisory: The Jerusalem Syndrome
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Schizophrenia: A Wildfire in the Brain
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: Understanding and Helping to Prevent Suicide
Introduction: Psychotherapy and Biomedical Therapy
IN FOCUS: Using Virtual Reality to Conquer Phobias
Group and Family Therapy
IN FOCUS: Self-Help Groups: Helping Yourself by Helping Others
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
SCIENCE VERSUS PSEUDOSCIENCE: EMDR: Can You Wave Your Fears Away?
Culture And Human Behavior: Cultural Values and Psychotherapy
FOCUS ON NEUROSCIENCE: Comparing Psychotherapy and Antidepressant Medication
ENHANCING WELL-BEING WITH PSYCHOLOGY: What to Expect in Psychotherapy
What Is Industrial/Organizational Psychology?
History of I/O Psychology
Industrial (Personnel) Psychology
IN FOCUS: Servant Leadership: When It’s Not All About You Workplace Trends and Issues
IN FOCUS: “Name, Title, Generation?”
Employment Settings, Type of Training, Earnings, and Employment Outlook