Why is My Evil Lecturer Forcing Me to Learn Statistics? | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

What the hell am I doing here? I don't belong here | |

Initial observation: finding something that needs explaining | |

Generating theories and testing them | |

Data collection 1: what to measure | |

Data collection 2: how to measure | |

Analysing data | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Stats Quiz | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Statistics (Well, Sort of) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Building statistical models | |

Populations and samples | |

Simple statistical models | |

Going beyond the data | |

Using statistical models to test research questions | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

The R Environment | |

What will This Chapter tell Me? | |

Before you start | |

Getting started | |

Using R | |

Getting data into R | |

Entering data with R Commander | |

Using Other Software to Enter and Edit Data | |

Saving Data | |

Manipulating Data | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Exploring Data with Graphs | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

The art of presenting data | |

Packages used in this chapter | |

Introducing ggplot2 | |

Graphing relationships: the scatterplot | |

Histograms: a good way to spot obvious problems | |

Boxplots (box-whisker diagrams) | |

Density plots | |

Graphing means | |

Themes and Options | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Exploring Assumptions | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

What are assumptions? | |

Assumptions of parametric data | |

Packages used in this chapter | |

The assumption of normality | |

Testing whether a distribution is normal | |

Testing for homogeneity of variance | |

Correcting problems in the data | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Correlation | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Looking at relationships | |

How do we measure relationships? | |

Data entry for correlation analysis | |

Bivariate correlation | |

Partial correlation | |

Comparing correlations | |

Calculating the effect size | |

How to report correlation coefficents | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Regression | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

An Introduction to regression | |

Packages Used in this Chapter | |

General procedure for regression in R | |

Interpreting a simple regression | |

Multiple regression: the basics | |

How accurate is my regression model? | |

How to do multiple regression using R Commander and R | |

Testing the accuracy of your regression model | |

Robust regression: bootstrapping | |

How to Report Multiple Regression | |

Categorical predictors and multiple regression | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Logistic Regression | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Background to logistic regression | |

What are the principles behind logistic regression? | |

Assumptions and things that can go wrong | |

Packages Used in this Chapter | |

Binary logistic regression: an example that will make you feel eel | |

How to report logistic regression | |

Testing assumptions: another example | |

Predicting several categories: multinomial logistic regression | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Comparing Two Means | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Packages Used in this Chapter | |

Looking at differences | |

The t-test | |

The independent t-test | |

The dependent t-test | |

Between groups or repeated measures? | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Comparing Several Means: ANOVA (GLM 1) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

The theory behind ANOVA | |

Assumptions of ANOVA | |

Planned contrasts | |

Post hoc procedures | |

One-way ANOVA using R | |

Calculating the effect size | |

Reporting results from one-way independent ANOVA | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Analysis of Covariance, ANCOVA (GLM 2) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

What is ANCOVA? | |

Assumptions and issues in ANCOVA | |

ANCOVA using R | |

Robust ANCOVA | |

Calculating the effect size | |

Reporting results | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Factorial ANOVA (GLM 3) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Theory of factorial ANOVA (between-groups) | |

Factorial ANOVA as regression | |

Two-Way ANOVA: Behind the scenes | |

Factorial ANOVA using R | |

Interpreting interaction graphs | |

Robust factorial ANOVA | |

Calculating effect sizes | |

Reporting the results of two-way ANOVA | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Repeated-Measures Designs (GLM 4) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Introduction to repeated-measures designs | |

Theory of one-way repeated-measures ANOVA | |

One-way repeated measures designs using R | |

Effect sizes for repeated measures designs | |

Reporting one-way repeated measures designs | |

Factorisal repeated measures designs | |

Effect Sizes for Factorial Repeated Measures designs | |

Reporting the results from factorial repeated measures designs | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Mixed Designs (GLM 5) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Mixed designs | |

What do men and women look for in a partner? | |

Entering and exploring your data | |

Mixed ANOVA | |

Mixed designs as a GLM | |

Calculating effect sizes | |

Reporting the results of mixed ANOVA | |

Robust analysis for mixed designs | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Non-Parametric Tests | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

When to use non-parametric tests | |

Packages Used in this Chapter | |

Comparing two independent conditions: the Wilcoxon rank-sum test | |

Comparing two related conditions: the Wilcoxon signed-rank test | |

Differences between several independent groups: the Kruskal-Wallis test | |

Differences between several related groups: Friedman's ANOVA | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

When to use MANOVA | |

Introduction: similarities and differences to ANOVA | |

Theory of MANOVA | |

Practical issues when conducting MANOVA | |

MANOVA using R | |

Robust MANOVA | |

Reporting results from MANOVA | |

Following up MANOVA with discriminant analysis | |

Reporting results from discriminant analysis | |

Some final remarks | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Exploratory Factor Analysis | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

When to use factor analysis | |

Factors | |

Research example | |

Running the analysis with R Commander | |

Running the analysis with R | |

Factor scores | |

How to report factor analysis | |

Reliability analysis | |

Reporting reliability analysis | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Categorical Data | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Packages used in this chapter | |

Analysing categorical data | |

Theory of Analysing Categorical Data | |

Assumptions of the chi-square test | |

Doing the chi-square test using R | |

Several categorical variables: loglinear analysis | |

Assumptions in loglinear analysis | |

Loglinear analysis using R | |

Following up loglinear analysis | |

Effect sizes in loglinear analysis | |

Reporting the results of loglinear analysis | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Multilevel Linear Models | |

What will this chapter tell me? | |

Hierarchical data | |

Theory of multilevel linear models | |

The multilevel model | |

Some practical issues | |

Multilevel modelling on R | |

Growth models | |

How to report a multilevel model | |

What have I discovered about statistics? | |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

Key terms that I've discovered | |

Smart Alex's tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting real research | |

Epilogue: Life After Discovering Statistics | |

Troubleshooting R | |

Glossary | |

Appendix | |

Table of the standard normal distribution | |

Critical Values of the t-Distribution | |

Critical Values of the F-Distribution | |

Critical Values of the chi-square Distribution | |

References | |

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