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# Discovering Statistics Using SPSS

**by**Andy Field

3rd

### 9781847879073

1847879071

Paperback

1/21/2009

SAGE Publications Ltd

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 1/21/2009.

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## Summary

This award-winning text, now fully updated with SPSS versions 16 and 17, is the only book on statistics that you will need!Fully revised and restructured, this new edition is even more accessible as it now takes students through from introductory to advanced level concepts, all the while grounding knowledge through the use of SPSS. Andy Field's humorous and self-deprecating style and the book's host of characters make the journey entertaining as well as educational.While still providing a very comprehensive collection of statistical methods, tests and procedures, and packed with examples and self-assessment tests to reinforce knowledge, the new edition now also offers:- a more gentle introduction to basic-level concepts and methods for beginners- new textbook features to make the book more user-friendly for those learning about more advanced concepts, encouraging 'critical thinking'- a brand new, full-colour design, making it easy for students to navigate between topics, and to understand how to use the latest version of SPSS- both 'real world' (the bizarre and the wonderful) and invented examples illustrate the concepts and make the techniques come alive for students- an additional chapter on multilevel modelling for advanced-level students- reinforced binding to make the book easier to handle at a computer workstation.The book also includes access to a brand new and improved companion Website, bursting with features including:- animated 'SPSS walk-through' videos clearly demonstrating how to use the latest SPSS modules- self-marking multiple choice questions- data sets for psychology, business and management and health sciences- a flash-card glossary for testing knowledge of key concepts- access to support material from SAGE study skills books.Statistics lecturers are also provided with a whole range of resources and teaching aids, including:- the test bank - over 300 multiple-choice questions ready to upload to WebCT, Blackboard or other virtual learning environments- charts and diagrams in electronic format for inclusion in lecture slides- PowerPoint slides written by the author to accompany chapters of the text.

## Table of Contents

Preface | |

Introduction | |

What's New? | |

Goodbye | |

How To Use The Book | |

What Background Knowledge Do I Need? | |

Do The Chapters Get More Difficult As I Go Through The Book? | |

Why Do I Keep Seeing Stupid Faces Everywhere? | |

What is on the CD-ROM? | |

Acknowledgements | |

Dedication | |

Symbols Used In This Book | |

Mathematical Operators | |

Greek Symbols | |

English Symbols | |

Home Maths Revision | |

Why Is My Evil Lecturer Forcing Me To Learn Statistics? | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

What The Hell Am I Doing Here? I Don't Belong Here | |

Initial Observation: Finding Something That Needs Explaining | |

Generating Theories And Testing Them | |

What To Measure | |

How To Measure | |

Analysing Data | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Stats Quiz | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Statistics (Well, Sort of) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Building Statistical Models | |

Populations And Samples | |

Simple Statistical Models | |

Going Beyond The Data | |

Using Statistical Models To Test Research Questions | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Stats Quiz | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

The SPSS Environment | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Versions Of SPSS | |

Getting Started | |

The Data Editor | |

The SPSS Viewer | |

The SPSS Smartviewer | |

The Syntax Window | |

Saving Files | |

Retrieving A File | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Task | |

Further reading | |

Exploring Data With Graphs | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

The Art Of Presenting Data | |

The SPSS Chart Builder | |

Histograms: A Good Way To Spot Obvious Problems | |

Boxplots (Box-Whisker Diagrams) | |

Graphing Means: Bar Charts And Error Bars | |

Line Charts | |

Graphing Relationships: The Scatterplot | |

Editing Graphs | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Exploring Assumptions | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

What Are Assumptions? | |

Assumptions Of Parametric Data | |

The Assumption Of Normality | |

Testing Whether A Distribution Is Normal | |

Testing For Homogeneity Of Variance | |

Correcting Problems In The Data | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Correlation | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Looking At Relationships | |

How Do We Measure Relationships? | |

Data Entry For Correlation Analysis Using SPSS | |

Bivariate Correlation | |

Partial Correlation | |

Comparing Correlations | |

Calculating The Effect Size | |

How To Report Correlation Coefficents | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Task | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Regression | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

An Introduction To Regression | |

Doing Simple Regression On SPSS | |

Interpreting A Simple Regression | |

Multiple Regression: The Basics | |

How Accurate Is My Regression Model? | |

How To Do Multiple Regression Using SPSS | |

Interpreting Multiple Regression | |

What If I Violate An Assumption? | |

How To Report Multiple Regression | |

Categorical Predictors And Multiple Regression | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Task | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Logistic Regression | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Background To Logistic Regression | |

What Are The Principles Behind Logistic Regression? | |

Assumptions And Things That Can Go Wrong | |

Binary Logistic Regression: An Example That Will Make You Feel Eel | |

Interpreting Logistic Regression | |

How To Report Logistic Regression | |

Testing Assumptions: Another Example | |

Predicting Several Categories: Multinomial Logistic Regression | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Comparing Two Means | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Looking At Differences | |

The T-Test | |

The Dependent T-Test | |

The Independent T-Test | |

Between Groups Or Repeated Measures? | |

The T-Test As A General Linear Model | |

What If My Data Are Not Normally Distributed? | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Task | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Comparing Several Means: Anova (GLM 1) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

The Theory Behind ANOVA | |

Running One-Way ANOVA On SPSS | |

Output From One-Way ANOVA | |

Calculating The Effect Size | |

Reporting Results From One-Way Independent ANOVA | |

Violations Of Assumptions In One-Way Independent ANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Analysis Of Covariance, Ancova (GLM 2) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

What Is ANCOVA? | |

Assumptions And Issues In ANCOVA | |

Conducting ANCOVA On SPSS | |

Interpreting The Output From ANCOVA | |

ANCOVA Run As A Multiple Regression | |

Testing The Assumption Of Homogeneity Of Regression Slopes | |

Calculating The Effect Size | |

Reporting Results | |

What To Do When Assumptions Are Violated In ANCOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Factorial Anova (GLM 3) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Theory Of Factorial ANOVA (Between-Groups) | |

Factorial ANOVA Using SPSS | |

Output From Factorial ANOVA | |

Interpreting Interaction Graphs | |

Calculating Effect Sizes | |

Reporting The Results Of Two-Way ANOVA | |

Factorial ANOVA As Regression | |

What To Do When Assumptions Are Violated In Factorial ANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Repeated Measures Designs (GLM 4) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Introduction To Repeated Measures Designs | |

Theory Of One-Way Repeated-Measures ANOVA | |

One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA Using SPSS | |

Output For One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

Effect Sizes For Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

Reporting One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

Repeated Measures With Several Independent Variables | |

Output For Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

Effect Sizes For Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

Reporting The Results From Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

What To Do When Assumptions Are Violated In Repeated Measures ANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Fixed Design Anova (GLM 5) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

Fixed Designs | |

What Do Men And Women Look For In A Partner? | |

Fixed ANOVA On SPSS | |

Output For Mixed Factorial ANOVA: Main Analysis | |

Calculating Effect Sizes | |

Reporting The Results Of Mixed ANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Nonparametric Tests | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

When To Use Non-Parametric Tests | |

Comparing Two Independent Conditions: The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test And Mann-Whitney Test | |

Comparing Two Related Conditions: The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | |

Differences Between Several Independent Groups: The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

Differences Between Several Related Groups: Friedman's ANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova) | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

When To Use MANOVA | |

Introduction: Similarities And Differences To ANOVA | |

Theory Of MANOVA | |

Practical Issues When Conducting MANOVA | |

MANOVA On SPSS | |

Output From MANOVA | |

Reporting Results From MANOVA | |

Following Up MANOVA With Discriminant Analysis | |

Output From The Discriminant Analysis | |

Reporting Results From Discriminant Analysis | |

Some Final Remarks | |

What To Do When Assumptions Are Violated In MANOVA | |

What Have I Discovered About Statistics? | |

Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

Smart Alex's Tasks | |

Further reading | |

Interesting Real Research | |

Exploratory Factor Analysis | |

What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

When To Use Factor Analysis | |

Factors | |

Discovering Factors | |

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