9780521820929

Distillation Theory and its Application to Optimal Design of Separation Units

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521820929

  • ISBN10:

    0521820928

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-10-18
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

Originally published in 2004, Distillation Theory and Its Application to Optimal Design of Separation Units presents a clear, multidimensional geometric representation of distillation theory that is valid for all distillation column types, splits, and mixtures. This representation answers such fundamental questions as: what are the feasible separation products for a given mixture? What minimum power is required to separate a given mixture? What minimum number of trays is necessary to separate a given mixture at a fixed power input? Concepts are reinforced by chapter exercises using free DistillDesigner software, which provides quick and reliable solutions to problems of flowsheet synthesis and to optimal design calculations. This software allows refinement and confirmation of the algorithms of optimal design. This book is intended for students and specialists in the design and operation of separation units in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, wood, petrochemical, oil-refining, and natural gas industries and for software designers.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Nomenclature xix
Phase Equilibrium and Its Geometric Presentation
1(19)
Introduction
1(1)
Concentration Space
1(2)
Phase Equilibrium of Binary Mixtures
3(2)
Phase Diagrams of Three-Component Mixtures
5(3)
Residue Curve Bundles of Four-Component Mixtures
8(2)
Matrix Description of the Multicomponent Mixture Residue Curve Structure
10(2)
Lines, Surfaces, and Hypersurfaces Ki = Kj
12(3)
Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagrams
15(2)
Conclusion
17(1)
Questions
18(1)
Exercises with Software
18(2)
References
18(2)
Basic Concepts of Distillation
20(20)
Purpose and Process Essence of Distillation
20(3)
Description of Distillation Process
21(1)
System of Algebraic Equations of Distillation
22(1)
Geometric Interpretation of Binary Distillation: Reflux and the Number of Trays
23(2)
McCabe-Thiele Diagram
23(1)
Influences of Nonideality
24(1)
Geometric Interpretation of Multicomponent Mixture Distillation: Splits
25(1)
Trajectory Bundles Under Infinite Reflux: Distillation Diagrams
26(1)
Trajectory Bundles Under Finite Reflux
27(2)
Minimum Reflux Mode: Fractionation Classes
29(3)
Binary Distillation
29(2)
Distillation of Three-Component Mixtures
31(1)
Adiabatic, Nonadiabatic, and Reversible Distillation
32(3)
Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures by Distillation Under Two Pressures or Heteroazeotropic and Extractive Distillation
35(1)
Is Process Opposite to Distillation Process Possible?
36(1)
Mixtures with Limited and Unlimited Separability
37(1)
The Problem of Designing Distillation Units
38(1)
Questions
38(2)
References
39(1)
Trajectories of Distillation in Infinite Columns Under Infinite Reflux
40(37)
Introduction
40(1)
Analogy Between Residue Curves and Distillation Trajectories Under Infinite Reflux
41(2)
Distillation Trajectories of Finite and Infinite Columns at Set Feed Composition
43(9)
Dimensionality of Product Composition Regions for Finite and Infinite Columns
43(1)
Product Composition Regions for Ideal Three-Component Mixtures
44(1)
Product Composition Regions for Ideal Four-Component Mixtures
45(2)
Feasible Splits for Ideal Mixtures
47(1)
Product Composition Regions for Azeotropic Three-Component Mixtures
48(4)
Rule for the Checkup of Azeotropic Mixtures Separability at R = ∞ and N = ∞
52(5)
Distillation Trajectories Location at R = ∞ and N = ∞
52(1)
Application of the Rule of Connectedness
53(2)
n-Component Mixture
55(2)
Feasible Splits at R = ∞ and N = ∞
57(14)
Method of Product Simplex for Distillation Subregions (m = n)
59(2)
Method of Product Simplex for Distillation Subregions (m > n)
61(2)
Algorithm of Product Simplex for n-Component Mixtures
63(8)
Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Sequence of Columns with Recycles at R = ∞ and N = ∞
71(1)
Nonsingularity of Separation Products Compositions at R = ∞ and N = ∞
72(1)
Conclusion
73(1)
Questions
74(1)
Exercises with Software
74(3)
References
75(2)
Trajectories of Thermodynamically Reversible Distillation
77(31)
Introduction
77(1)
Essence of Reversible Distillation Process and Its Peculiarities
78(5)
Essence of Reversible Distillation Process
78(1)
Location of Reversible Distillation Trajectories
79(1)
Sharp and Nonsharp Reversible Distillation of Ideal Mixtures
80(1)
Column Sequence of Ideal Mixtures Reversible Distillation
81(1)
Main Peculiarities of Reversible Distillation Column
82(1)
Trajectory Bundles of Sharp Reversible Distillation
83(9)
Bundles and Regions of Sharp Reversible Distillation
83(3)
Condition in Tear-Off Points of the Reversible Distillation Trajectories
86(1)
Possible Product Composition Regions
87(1)
Necessary Condition of Sharp Reversible Distillation
88(1)
Liquid and Vapor Flow Rates Changing along the Reversible Distillation Trajectories
89(3)
Diagrams of Three-Component Mixture Reversible Distillation
92(1)
Calculation of Reversible Distillation Trajectories
92(1)
Scanning the Sides of the Concentration Triangle
93(1)
Trajectories Bundles of Reversible Distillation for Multicomponent Mixtures
93(4)
Diagrams of Extractive Reversible Distillation for Three-Component Mixtures
97(3)
Condition in Tear-Off Points of the Extractive Reversible Distillation Trajectories
97(2)
Azeotropic Mixtures
99(1)
Trajectory Bundles of Extractive Reversible Distillation for Multicomponent Mixtures
100(2)
Boundaries of Nonsharp Reversible Distillation
102(3)
Three-Component Azeotropic Mixtures
102(3)
Four-Component Azeotropic Mixtures
105(1)
Conclusion
105(1)
Questions
105(1)
Exercises with Software
106(2)
References
106(2)
Distillation Trajectories and Conditions of Mixture Separability in Simple Infinite Columns at Finite Reflux
108(62)
Introduction
108(3)
Calculation of Distillation at Minimum Reflux for Ideal Mixtures
111(9)
Underwood System of Equations
112(2)
Evolution of Separation Product Compositions of One-Section Columns at Set Feed Composition
114(3)
Evolution of Separation Product Compositions of Two-Section Columns at Set Feed Composition
117(3)
Trajectory Tear-Off Theory and Necessary Conditions of Mixture Separability
120(6)
Conditions of Distillation Trajectory Tear-Off at Sharp Splits
120(3)
Trajectory Tear-Off Regions and Sharp Distillation Regions
123(1)
Necessary Condition of Mixture Separability for the Set Split
124(2)
Structure and Evolution of Section Trajectory Bundles for Three-Component Mixtures
126(15)
The Product Is a Pure Component (k = 1)
126(3)
The Product Is a Binary Mixture (k = 2)
129(7)
The Product Is a Three-Component Mixture (k = 3)
136(4)
The Product Is Azeotrope
140(1)
Structure and Evolution of Section Trajectory Bundles for Four- and Multicomponent Mixtures
141(9)
Four-Component Mixture
141(6)
Mixtures with Any Number of Components
147(3)
Conditions of Section Trajectories Joining and Methods of Minimum Reflux Calculating
150(12)
Two Models of Feed Tray
150(1)
Conditions of Section Trajectories Joining
151(1)
Direct and Indirect Splits (One of the Products Is Pure Component or Azeotrope)
152(2)
Intermediate Splits
154(4)
Splits with Distributed Component
158(3)
Equations of Thermal Balance
161(1)
Visualization of Section Trajectories
162(1)
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Separability of Mixtures
162(2)
Adiabatic Columns
162(1)
Nonadiabatic Columns
163(1)
Conclusion
164(1)
Questions
165(1)
Exercises with Software
166(4)
References
166(4)
Distillation Trajectories in Infinite Complex Columns and Complexes
170(48)
Introduction
170(2)
Columns with Intermediate Inputs and Outputs of Heat: ``Pinch Method''
172(2)
Distillation Trajectories and Minimum Reflux Mode in Two-Feed Columns with Nonsharp Separation in Intermediate Section
174(7)
Location of Reversible Distillation Trajectories of Intermediate Sections
175(2)
The Structure of Trajectory Bundles of Intermediate Sections
177(1)
Control Feed at Minimum Reflux Mode
178(1)
General Algorithm of Calculation of Minimum Reflux Mode
179(2)
Trajectories of Intermediate Sections of Extractive Distillation Columns
181(6)
Sharp Extractive Distillation of Three-Component Mixtures
181(5)
Sharp Extractive Distillation of Four- and Multicomponent Mixtures
186(1)
Conditions of Separability in Extractive Distillation Columns and Minimum Reflux Mode
187(6)
Conditions of Separability in Extractive Distillation Columns
187(1)
Three-Component Mixtures
188(2)
The Four- and Multicomponent Mixtures
190(3)
Determination of Minimum Flow Rate of Entrainer
193(2)
Distillation Complexes with Thermal Coupling Flows
195(5)
Kinds of Distillation Complexes with Thermal Coupling Flows
195(2)
Petlyuk Columns
197(3)
Calculation of Minimum Reflux Mode for Distillation Complexes with Thermal Coupling Flows
200(6)
The Columns with Side Withdrawals of Flows
200(2)
The Columns with Side Strippings
202(2)
The Petlyuk Columns
204(2)
Distillation Trajectories in Complexes of Heteroazeotropic and Heteroextractive Distillation
206(6)
Heteroazeotropic Distillation
207(3)
Heteroextractive Distillation
210(2)
Conclusion
212(1)
Questions
213(5)
References
213(5)
Trajectories of the Finite Columns and Their Design Calculation
218(45)
Introduction
218(2)
Distillation Trajectories of Finite Columns: Possible Compositions in Feed Cross Section
220(6)
Location of Section Trajectories
220(3)
Possible Compositions in Feed Cross Section
223(3)
Design Calculation of Two-Section Columns
226(17)
Direct and Indirect Splits of Mixtures with Any Number of Components
226(1)
Intermediate Splits of Mixtures with Any Number of Components
227(12)
Splits with a Distributed Component
239(3)
Splits with Several Distributed Components: Preferred Split
242(1)
Advantages of New Design Algorithms
243(1)
Design Calculation of Extractive Distillation Columns
243(6)
Three-Component Azeotropic Mixtures
245(1)
The Multicomponent Mixtures: The Top Product and the Entrainer Are Pure Components (mr = 1, me = 2)
246(1)
The Multicomponent Mixtures: The Top Product Is a Binary Mixture, the Entrainer Is a Pure Component (mr = 2, me > 2)
247(1)
The Multicomponent Mixtures: The Top Product Is a Pure Component, the Entrainer Is a Mixture (mr = 1, me > 2)
247(2)
Design Calculation of ``Petlyuk Columns'' and of Columns with Side Sections
249(6)
Design Calculation of ``Petlyuk Columns''
249(3)
Design Calculation of Columns with Side Sections
252(3)
Determination of Necessary Tray Numbers at Heteroazeotropic and Heteroextractive Distillation
255(2)
Conclusion
257(2)
Questions
259(1)
Exercises with Software
259(4)
References
260(3)
Synthesis of Separation Flowsheets
263(62)
Introduction
263(2)
Zeotropic Mixtures
265(11)
Heuristic Rules of Synthesis
265(1)
Estimation of the Expenditures on Separation
265(2)
Preferability Regions for Ternary Mixtures
267(2)
Systematic Identification of Alternative Sequences
269(2)
Examples of Synthesis of Separation Flowsheets
271(5)
Thermodynamically Improved and Thermally Integrated Separation Flowsheets
276(5)
Thermodynamic Losses and Their Decrease
276(3)
Thermally Integrated Separation Flowsheets
279(1)
The Heat Pump
279(2)
Multicomponent Azeotropic Mixtures: Presynthesis
281(19)
Possible Product Segments at the Edges of Concentration Simplex
282(1)
Possible Product Regions at the Boundary Elements of Concentration Simplex
283(3)
Possible Sharp Splits in Columns with One Feed
286(1)
Possible Sharp Splits in Columns with Two Feeds
287(1)
The Most Interesting Splits of Columns with Decanters
288(1)
Examples of Presynthesis
288(1)
Example 1: Simple Columns
288(2)
Example 1: Extractive Distillation
290(2)
Example 2: Simple Columns
292(7)
Example 2: Extractive Distillation
299(1)
Multicomponent Azeotropic Mixtures: Automatic Sequencing and Selection
300(7)
Selection of Splits
301(2)
Examples of Sequencing and Selection
303(1)
Example 1
303(2)
Example 2
305(2)
Binary and Three-Component Azeotropic Mixtures
307(5)
Application of Semisharp Extractive Distillation
307(1)
Application of Pressure Change
308(1)
Choice of Entrainers
309(3)
Petroleum Mixtures
312(6)
Peculiarities of Petroleum as Raw Material for Separation
312(1)
Methods of Petroleum Separability Increase
312(1)
The Best Distillation Complex for Petroleum Refining
313(1)
Main Succession of Petroleum Refining
314(3)
Modernization of Units for Petroleum Refining
317(1)
Conclusion
318(1)
Questions
319(6)
References
320(5)
Short Glossary 325(4)
Index 329

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