This text with readings helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. By acquainting students with philosophical theories and the thought experiments used to test them, the text fosters active learning and helps students become better thinkers. .
Table of Contents
Preface CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise Section 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and Theories Philosophical Problems The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry The Mind-Body Problem The Problem of Free Will The Problem of Personal Identity The Problem of Moral Relativism The Problem of Evil The Problem of Skepticism Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Socrates and the Socratic Method Science and the Scientific Method Logical versus Causal Possibility Section 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving Your Point Deductive Arguments Inductive Arguments Informal Fallacies Section 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments Case Study: Explaining How Moral Abortions Are Possible How Are Thought Experiments Possible? Criticizing Thought Experiments Conceivability and Possibility Scientific Thought Experiments Readings: Bertrand Russell, "The Value of Philosophy" Brand Blanshard, "The Philosophic Enterprise" Robert Nozick, "Philosophy as an Art Form" Max Schulman, "Love is a Fallacy" CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body Problem Section 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul Descartes's Doubt I Think, Therefore I Am The Conceivability Argument The Divisibility Argument The Problem of Interaction The Causal Closure of the Physical The Problem of Other Minds Section 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body Empiricism Logical Positivism Logical Behaviorism The Identity Theory Section 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software Artificial Intelligence The Turing Test Functionalism and Feeling Intentionality Section 2.4 There Ain't No Such Things as Ghosts: Mind as Myth Folk Psychology Subjective Knowledge Section 2.5 The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality Primitive Intentionality Mental Dependence The Causal Exclusion Problem Emergentism Panpsychism Readings: Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation II" Hugh Elliot, "Modern Science and Materialism" David Chalmers, "The Puzzle of Concious Experience" Terry Bisson, "They're Made of Meat" CHAPTER 3 Free Will and Determinism Section 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance Hard Determinism Indeterminism Section 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity Traditional Compatibilism Hierarchical Compatibilism Section 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination The Case for Freedom Agent Causation Readings: Robert Blatchford, "The Delusion of Free Will" W. T. Stace, "The Problem of Free Will" Corliss Lamont, "Freedom of Choice and Human Responsibility" Thomas D. Davis, "Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends" CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal Identity Section 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On: Self as Substance Persons Animalism The Soul Theory Section 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche The Memory Theory Psychological Continuity Theory Section 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process The Brain Theory Split Brains Closest Continuer Theories Identity and What Matters in Survival Identity and What Matters in Responsibility Explaining the Self Moral Agents, Narratives, and Persons Readings: John Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity" Thomas Reid, "On Mr. Locke's Account of Personal Identity" Derek Parfit, "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons" Ray Kurzweil, "Live Forever" CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and Morality Section 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right Descriptive vs. Normative Ethics Subjectivism Emotivism Cultural Relativism The Divine Command Theory Are There Universal Moral Principles? Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right Ethical Egoism Act-Utilitarianism Rule-Utilitarianism Preference Utilitarianism Section 5