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Doing Philosophy: An Introduction Through Thought Experiments

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780078038259

ISBN10:
0078038251
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/4/2012
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

Now in its fifth successful edition, Doing Philosophyhelps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. The book traces the historical development of philosophical thinking on a number of central problems and shows how philosophical theories have evolved in response to criticism. By introducing students to philosophical theorizing and encouraging them to formulate their own views, Doing Philosophyinspires active learning and helps students become more accomplished critical thinkers.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents subject to change before publication.

Preface

CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise

Objectives

Section 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and Theories

Philosophical Problems

Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Logic

The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry

The Mind-Body Problem
The Problem of Free Will
The Problem of Personal Identity
The Problem of Moral Relativism
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Skepticism
Box: What Is Your Philosophy?

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Socrates and the Socratic Method

Box: In the News: The Oracle at Delphi
Box: Pre-Socratic Philosophers

Science and the Scientific Method

Box: The Laws of Thought

Logical versus Causal Possibility

Thought Probe: Possibilities

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving Your Point

Identifying Arguments

Deductive Arguments

Some Valid Argument Forms
Some Invalid Argument Forms

Inductive Arguments

Enumerative Induction
Analogical Induction
Hypothetical Induction (Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation)

Informal Fallacies

Unacceptable Premises
Irrelevant Premises
Insufficient Premises Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments

Thought Probe: Platonic Humans

Case Study: Explaining How Moral Abortions Are Possible

Thought Experiment: Warren’s Moral Space Traveler
Thought Probe: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Robots

How Are Thought Experiments Possible?

Criticizing Thought Experiments

Conceivability and Possibility

Scientific Thought Experiments

Thought Experiment: Impossibility of Aristotle’s Theory of Motion

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: Tooley’s Cat
Thought Experiment: Thomson’s Diseased Musician

Internet Inquiries

Readings

Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy

Reading Questions

Brand Blanshard: The Philosophic Enterprise

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body Problem

Thought Experiment: Descartes’ Mechanical Moron
Thought Experiment: Leibniz’s Mental Mill
Box: In the News: The Approaching Singularity
Thought Probe: Artificial Intelligence

Objectives

Section 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul

Descartes' Doubt

Thought Probe: Living in the Matrix
Box: René Descartes: Father of Modern Philosophy

I Think, Therefore I Am

The Conceivability Argument

Box: The Biblical Conception of the Person
Box: In the News: Descartes and Vivisection

The Divisibility Argument

The Problem of Interaction

Box: Parallelism: Occasionalism and the Preestablished Harmony

The Causal Closure of the Physical

Box: The Seat of the Soul
Thought Probe: Mental Relay Stations

The Problem of Other Minds

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body

Empiricism

Box: David Hume: The Model Philosopher

Logical Positivism

Logical Behaviorism

Box: Ryle’s Category Mistake
Thought Experiment: Ryle’s University Seeker
Thought Experiment: The Perfect Pretender
Thought Experiment: Putnam’s Super-Spartans
Box: Behavioral Therapy
Thought Experiment: Chisholm's Expectant Nephew

The Identity Theory

Thought Probe: The Ultimate Lie Detector
Identity and Indiscernibility
Conscious Experience
Box: Do You Use Only 10% of Your Brain?
Thought Experiment: Nagel’s Bat
Thought Experiment: Lewis’s Pained Martian
Thought Experiment: Putnam’s Conscious Computer
Thought Probe: Speciesism
Thought Experiment: Searle’s Brain Replacement
Box: In the News: Neural Chips
Thought Probe: Neural Prostheses

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: Your Mother, the Zombie

Internet Inquiries

Section 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software

Artificial Intelligence

Functionalism and Feeling

Thought Experiment: Lewis’s Pained Madman
Thought Experiment: Block’s Chinese Nation
Thought Experiment: Putnam’s Inverted Spectrum
Box: Inverted Spectra and Pseudonormal Vision
Thought Probe: Pseudonormal Vision

The Turing Test

Thought Experiment: The Imitation Game
Box: Alan Turing: Father of Code and Computers
Thought Experiment: Searle’s Chinese Room
Box: Connectionism
Thought Experiment: Searle’s Chinese Gym
Thought Probe: Total Turing Test

Intentionality

Thought Experiment: Block’s Conversational Jukebox
Thought Probe: Devout Robots

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 2.4 There Ain't No Such Things as Ghosts: Mind as MythThought Experiment: Rorty’s Demons

Folk Psychology

Thought Experiment: Searle’s Chevrolet Station Wagon

Subjective Knowledge

Thought Experiment: Jackson’s Color-Challenged Scientist
Box: In the News: Seeing Color for the First Time
Thought Probe: Seeing Color
Thought Experiment: Zombies
Thought Probe: Zombies

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 2.5 The Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality

Primitive Intentionality

Box: The Double Aspect Theory
Thought Experiment: Jacquette’s Intentionality Test

Panpsychism

Emergentism

Box: An Emergent God?
Thought Probe: Pan-en-theism

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation II

Reading Questions

David M. Armstrong: The Mind-Brain Identity Theory

Reading Questions

David Chalmers: The Puzzle of Concious Experience

Reading Questions

Terry Bisson: They're Made of Meat

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 3 Free Will and Determinism

Box: In the Courts: The Devil Made Me Do It

Objectives

Section 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance

Hard Determinism

Thought Experiment: Laplace’s Superbeing
The Consequence Argument
Box: Freedom and Foreknowledge
Thought Probe: Freedom and Foreknowledge
Box: Fatalism versus Causal Determinism
Thought Probe: The Book of Life
Science and the Nature/Nurture Debate Determinism
Thought Probe: Behavior Modification
Box: Faking Free Will
Thought Probe: Faking Free Will
Box: Is Determinism Self-Refuting?
Thought Probe: Defending Determinism
Thought Probe: Genetic Engineering
Thought Experiment: Gardner’s Random Bombardier
Common Sense and Causal Determinism
Thought Probe: Living with Hard Determinism

Indeterminism

Box: William James: Physiologist, Psychologist, Philosopher
Thought Experiment: Taylor’s Unpredictable Arm

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: Newcomb’s Paradox

Internet Inquiries

Section 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity

Thought Experiment: Locke’s Trapped Conversationalist

Traditional Compatibilism

Box: Thomas Hobbes: The Great Materialist Punishment Prepunishment
Thought Probe: Minority Report
Thought Experiment: Taylor’s Ingenious Physiologist
Box: In the News: Guilty Minds and Pre-Crime
Thought Probe: Guilty Minds and Pre-Crime
Thought Experiment: Taylor’s Drug Addiction
Thought Probe: Religious Cults

Hierarchical Compatibilism

Box: In the Courts: Government-Sponsored Brainwashing
Thought Probe: The Manchurian Candidate
Box: Better Living through Neurophysiology
Thought Probe: Brain Stimulation
Thought Experiment: Frankfurt’s Unwilling and Wanton Addicts
Thought Experiment: Frankfurt’s Happy Addict
Thought Experiment: Frankfurt's Decision Inducer
Thought Experiment: Slote’s Hypnotized Patient
Thought Probe: The Willing Bank Teller

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination

The Case for Freedom

The Argument from Experience
The Argument from Deliberation
The Neurophysiological Challenge
Thought Probe: Is Free Won’t Enough for Free Will?

Agent Causation

Box: Sartre and Smullyan on Free Will
Thought Probe: Self-Consciousness and Free Will
Thought Probe: Free Androids

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

Richard Dawkins: Let's All Stop Beating Basil's Car

Reading Questions

W. T. Stace: The Problem of Free Will

Reading Questions

John Dupre: The Solution to the Provlem of the Freedom of the Will

Reading Questions

Geoffrey Klempner: The Black Box

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal Identity

Box: In the Courts: Kathleen Soliah, a.k.a. Sara Jane Olson
Thought Probe: A Different Person

Section 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On: Self as Substance

Thought Probe: Hobbes’s Ship of Theseus

Persons

Thought Probe: Dolphins

Animalism

Thought Experiment: The Vegetable Case
Box: In the News: Eternal Life through Cloning
Thought Probe: Safe Cloning
Thought Experiment: Benjamin’s Questionable Cure
Box: The Definition of Death
Thought Probe: Permanently Unconscious
Thought Experiment: Locke’s Tale of the Prince and the Cobbler
Thought Experiment: The Transplant Case
Thought Experiment: Unger’s Great Pain
Box: In the Courts: Multiple-Personality Disorder
Thought Probe: Multiple Personalities

The Soul Theory

Box: St. Augustine: Soul Man
Thought Experiment: The King of China
Box: Transubstantiation
Thought Experiment: Nestor and Thersites
Thought Experiment: Kant’s Soul Switch
Thought Probe: Souls in Heaven

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche

The Memory Theory

Box: John Locke: The Great Empiricist
Box: In the Courts: Sleepwalking and Murder
Thought Probe: Sleepwalking and Murder
Thought Probe: Memory Damping
The Inconsistency Objection
Thought Experiment: Reid’s Tale of the Brave Officerand Senile General
Thought Probe: Were You Ever a Fetus?
The Circularity Objection
Box: In the News: Soul Catcher
Thought Probe: Soul Catcher
Thought Probe: Merging of the Minds
The Insufficiency Objection
The Psychological Continuity Theory
Thought Probe: Is Darth Vader Anakin Skywalker?
The Reduplication Problem I: Reincarnation
Thought Experiment: Williams’s Reincarnation of Guy Fawkes
Thought Experiment: Williams’s Reduplication Argument

The Reduplication Problem II: Teletransportation

Thought Experiment: Parfit’s Transporter Tale
Box: Quantum Teleportation
Thought Probe: Transporter Travel
Thought Probe: Can You Go to Heaven?

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: Bodily Torture

Internet Inquiries

Section 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process

The Brain Theory

Thought Experiment: Shoemaker’s Brain Transplant
Box: A Brain Is a Terrible Thing to Waste
Thought Probe: Body Transplants

Split Brains

Box: Alien Hand Syndrome
Thought Probe: Who Is Behind the Hand?
Thought Experiment: Parfit’s Division

Closest Continuer Theories

Box: Buddhists on the Self and Nirvana
Thought Probe: Branch Lines

Identity and What Matters in Survival

Identity and What Matters in Responsibility

Thought Experiment: Parfit’s Reformed Nobelist

Explaining the Self

Thought Probe: Robert and Frank

Moral Agents, Narratives, and Persons

Thought Probe: Being Clive Wearing

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

John Locke: Of Identity and Diversity

Reading Questions

Derek Parfit: Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons

Reading Questions

Ray Kurzweil: Live Forever

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and Morality

Objectives

Section 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right

Subjective Absolutism

Subjective Relativism

Emotivism

Thought Experiment: Blanshard’s Rabbit

Cultural Relativism

Box: In the News: Universal Human Rights
The Anthropological Argument
The Logical Structure of Moral Judgments
Thought Probe: When in Rome

The Divine Command Theory

Box: In the Courts: God Is My Attorney
Thought Probe: Commanded to Kill
Box: The Fortunes of Hell

Are There Universal Moral Principles?

Box: Moral Children
Thought Probe: Moral Children
Thought Probe: Moral Knowledge

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right

Box: Is Life Intrinsically Valuable?
Thought Probe: Moral Justification

Ethical Egoism

Box: Ayn Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness
Thought Experiment: Feinberg’s Single-Minded Hedonist

Act-Utilitarianism

Box: Jeremy Bentham: Making Philosophy Do Work
Thought Probe: Animal Rights
Problems with Rights
Thought Experiment: McCloskey’s Utilitarian Informant
Thought Experiment: Brandt’s Utilitarian Heir
Problems with Duties
Thought Experiment: Ross’s Unhappy Promise
Box: In the News: Killing Disabled Babies
Thought Probe: Singer’s Preference Utilitarianism
Thought Experiment: Godwin’s Fire Rescue
Problems with Justice
Thought Experiment: Ewing’s Utilitarian Torture
Thought Experiment: Ewing’s Innocent Criminal
Thought Probe: The Utility Machine

Rule-Utilitarianism

Thought Experiment: Nozick’s Experience Machine
Thought Probe: Beneficial Drugs

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: Williams’s South American Showdown
Thought Experiment: Thomson’s Trolley Problem
Thought Experiment: Thomson’s Transplant Problem

Internet Inquiries

Section 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes Right

Kant's Categorical Imperative

The First Formulation
Box: Immanuel Kant: Small-Town Genius
Thought Experiment: Hare’s Nazi Fanatic
Thought Experiment: Ross’s Good Samaritan
The Second Formulation
Box: In the News: Kant, Mill, and the War in Iraq
Thought Probe: War
Thought Experiment: Broad’s Typhoid Man
Thought Experiment: Ewing’s Prudent Diplomat
Thought Probe: Easy Rescue

Ross's Prima Facie Duties

Thought Probe: Desert Island Bequest

Rawls's Contractarianism

Thought Probe: Just Policies

Nozick's Libertarianism

Thought Experiment: Nozick’s Basketball Player
Thought Probe: Consensual Cannibalism

Justice, the State, and the Social Contract

Hobbes
Locke
Nozick
Thought Experiment: Widerquist's Libertarian Monarchy
Thought Probe: Libertarian Government

The Ethics of Care

Box: In the News: Jillian’s Choice
Thought Probe: Jillian’s Choice
Thought Probe: Lying with Care

Making Ethical Decisions

Thought Probe: The Zygmanik Brothers

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes Right

The Virtuous Utilitarian

The Virtuous Kantian

Thought Experiment: Stocker’s Hospitalized Patient

The Purpose of Morality

Box: Children without a Conscience
Thought Probe: Empathy and Agency

Aristotle on Virtue

Box: Aristotle: Pillar of Western Thought
Box: The Buddha on Virtue

MacIntyre on Virtue

Nussbaum on Virtue

Thought Probe: Medical Treatment

Virtue Ethics

Thought Probe: The Ring of Gyges

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

W. T. Stace: Are Ethical Values Relative?

Reading Questions

Jeremy Bentham: Of the Principle of Utility

Reading Questions

Immanuel Kant: Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative

Reading Questions

Martha Nussbaum: Non-Relative Virtues

Reading Questions

Ursula K. Leguin: The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of God

Box: Biblical Archaeology
Thought Probe: Biblical Truths
Box: Religious Adherents
Thought Probe: Deluded Believers
Thought Probe: Holy Scripture

Objectives

Section 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as Creator

The Traditional Cosmological Argument

Box: Thomas Aquinas

The Kalam Cosmological Argument

Thought Probe: Why a Universe?

The Teleological Argument

The Analogical Design Argument
Thought Experiment: Paley’s Watch
The Best-Explanation Design Argument
Box: In the Courts: Is Evolution Just a Theory?
Box: Extraterrestrial Design
Thought Probe: Intelligent Design
Box: Creationism and Morality
Thought Probe: Human Design Flaws

The Argument from Miracles

Box: Parting the Red Sea
Thought Probe: Parting the Red Sea
Box: Was Jesus a Magician?
Thought Probe: Jesus’s Miracles
Thought Probe: The Fivefold Challenge

The Argument from Religious Experience

Box: This Is Your Brain on God
Thought Probe: Religious Experience

The Ontological Argument

Anselm’s Ontological Argument
Thought Experiment: Gaunilo’s Lost Island
Descartes’ Ontological Argument
Thought Experiment: Edwards’s Gangle
Thought Probe: One More God

Pascal's Wager

Thought Experiment: Pascal’s Wager
Box: Silverman’s Wager
Thought Probe: The Best Bet
Thought Probe: Alien Religion

God and Science

Thought Probe: Goulder vs. Augustine

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as Troublemaker

Thought Experiment: Rowe’s Fawn

St. Augustine and the Free-Will Defense

Box: Karma and the Problem of Inequality
Thought Probe: Karma
Thought Probe: Is There Free Will in Heaven?

The Knowledge Defense

The Ideal-Humanity Defense

Box: In the News: Natural Evil

The Soul-Building Defense

The Finite-God Defense

Thought Probe: What If God Died?

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Thought Experiment: The Invisible Gardener

Internet Inquiries

Section 6.3 Faith and Meaning: Believing the Unbelievable

The Leap of Faith

Thought Probe: Kierkegaard and Russell

Evidentialism

Thought Probe: Blanshard’s Beliefs
The Will to Believe
Thought Probe: James and Pandeism
The Meaning of Life
Thought Experiment: God’s Plan
Thought Probe: Meaning and Morality

Existentialism

Thought Probe: Meaning and Purpose

Religion without God

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways

Reading Questions

Richard Swinburne: Natural Theology

Reading Questions

David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Reading Questions

B.C. Johnson: God and the Problem of Evil

Reading Questions

Michael Martin: The Miracle Sleuth

Reading Questions

CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and Knowledge

Objectives

Section 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about Skepticism

Greek Rationalism

Parmenides
Thought Probe: Thinking about Nothing
Zeno
Thought Experiment: Zeno’s Paradox of Bisection
Plato
Box: Solving Parmenides’ and Zeno’s Paradoxes
Thought Probe: Innate Knowledge

Cartesian SkepticismCartesian Doubt

Thought Experiment: Descartes’ Dream Argument
Thought Probe: Dreams and Reality
Thought Experiment: Descartes’ Evil Genius Argument
Thought Experiment: Unger’s Mad Scientist Cartesian Certainty

Reasonable Doubt

The Empiricist Alternative

The Problem of Induction

Thought Probe: Science and Faith

The Kantian Synthesis

Thought Probe: Constructing Reality

Mystical Experience

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External World

Direct Realism

Representative Realism

Thought Probe: Hypothesizing the External World

Phenomenalism

Thought Experiment: The Inconceivability of the Unconceived
Box: George Berkeley: The Ultimate Empiricist

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Section 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge Is

Thought Experiment: Gettier’s Guy in Barcelona

The Defeasibility Theory

Thought Experiment: Lehrer and Paxson’s Demented Mrs. Grabit

The Causal Theory

Thought Experiment: Goldman’s Fake Barns

The Reliability Theory

Thought Experiment: Lehrer’s Human Thermometer

Virtue Perspectivism

The Explanationist Theory

Summary

Study Questions

Discussion Questions

Internet Inquiries

Readings

Rene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation 1

Reading Questions

Bertrand Russell: On Induction

Reading Questions

Ernest Sosa: Virtue Perspectivism

Reading Questions

Thomas D. Davis: Why Don't You Just Wake Up?

Reading Questions

Notes

Credits

Index



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