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Doing Qualitative Research : Designs, Methods, and Techniques,9780205695935

Doing Qualitative Research : Designs, Methods, and Techniques

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9780205695935

ISBN10:
0205695930
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Pub. Date:
2/21/2012
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

Examine qualitative research as evidence-based stories of social life. Doing Qualitative Researchshows how qualitative research is evidence-based stories of our social life. By the time readers complete this book, they will be able to conduct their own research and understand the pleasures and perils of qualitative research. This text is ideal for classes in disciplines such as cultural studies, anthropology, political science, ethnic studies, women and gender studies, the media, journalism and communications, organizational behavior, and more. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Assess others'research and develop their own research Understand the scientific method, broadly defined and adapted to understanding human beings Analyze with a critical and reflexive style of research readers should understand how their own lives affect how others are seen Link theory and research Understand the macro-micro linkages created by qualitative research Note:MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit:www.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with Pearson eText (at no additional cost). ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205231667 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205231669

Author Biography

Greg Scott

Greg Scott, Associate Professor of Sociology and Director of the Social Science Research Center (SSRC) at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois, received his doctorate in sociology in 1998 from the University of California at Santa Barbara.  From 1995-2000 he served as Director of Research and Associate Director of the Illinois Attorney General’s Gang Crime Prevention Center where he conducted and supervised primary and evaluation research on community prevention and intervention programs. 

Since arriving at DePaul University in 2000, he has conducted quantitative, qualitative, and ethnographic research on injection drug use (hepatitis B vaccination clinical trials, syringe-facilitated HIV/AIDS transmission, opiate overdose, and the network impact of sterile syringe exchange efforts, safer injection) and on the relationship between street gangs and the reintegration of ex-offenders.  Between 1990 and 2001 Greg conducted extensive ethnographic fieldwork on drug-dealing street gangs, immersing himself in the world of illicit heroin and cocaine commerce.  In 2001 he began to examine the "demand and use" side of the drug market.  At this point he took up living with homeless and precariously housed injection drug users, habitual crack smokers, sex workers, burglars, thieves, and drug dealers.  Greg has become an independent documentary filmmaker, concentrating his efforts on the social, economic, cultural, political, and health issues facing illicit drug users; he produces training films for health professionals and laypersons in order to contribute to safe injection practices and overdose prevention as well as social documentaries to educate the public and policy makers on the lives of drug users. He is making a documentary called “The Brickyard,” a feature-length film on a West Side Chicago encampment of homeless people among whom Greg has lived and worked for the past 7 years.

 

In 2005 Greg established a non-profit organization ("Sawbuck Productions") whose mission revolves around creating and producing multi-media educational and political materials concerning the well-being of illicit drug users.  Recently, Greg began using his films as a catalyst for organizing a social movement in Chicago, Chicago Area Network of Drug Users (CANDU) whose goal is to create the city's first-ever "drug users' union” to improve the well being and life chances of illicit drug users.  

As well as conducting ethnographic research and producing doc films and radio documentaries (and trying to keep up with his teenage son Ben), Greg teaches upper-division courses on ethnographic filmmaking, substance use and abuse, public health and high-risk behavior, and urban cultural research.  Greg also runs the Social Science Research Center (SSRC) at DePaul University.  To find out more about the SSRC’s work and Greg’s involvement in the enterprise, visit the website (www.depaul.edu/~ssrc).

 

 

Roberta Garner

Roberta Garner is a professor of sociology at DePaul University; she earned a PhD at the University of Chicago in the late 1960s, coming of age in the sixties between the Beatniks and the hippy/Baby-boom generation. Her PhD dissertation was based on 250 life narratives of first generation college students, and since then she has conducted qualitative research in the Italian school system and written (with a colleague and grad students) a mixed qualitative-quantitative study of Midwestern high school students’ aspirations, school engagement, and perceptions of their schools. 


She has traveled extensively in Europe and Latin America and was field director of four DePaul Study Abroad trips and programs. She lived in Italy in 1979 during a period of intense political activism there, in Budapest, Hungary in 1984 in the waning years of the socialist era, in Merida, Mexico in 1986,  in Florence, Italy in 1987-88 (where she used a “parent-as-researcher” method to write about schooling in Italy), and most recently in Paris.
Her interests include political sociology, urban sociology, sociology of youth and education, and sociological theory; and she enjoys teaching stats and methods courses. She was one of the six editors of The New Chicago (Temple University Press, 2006), a collection of essays that explored changes in Chicago in recent decades, including the making of a post-industrial economy, the impact of immigration, and gentrification and displacement in the inner city. Recently she co-authored (with Black Hawk Hancock) a book on contemporary sociological theories (Changing Theories: New Directions in Sociology, U. of Toronto Press) and translated (from French) an interview with Loïc Wacquant about his experiences as an ethnographer, a critical reflexive theorist in France and the U.S., and an apprentice boxer engaged in carnal sociology (published in Qualitative Sociology in 2009).  As you will see when you read the book, she is open to both qualitative and statistical methods and is enthusiastic about integrating research and theory.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. x
Getting Started.¨Thinking about Research Choicesp. 1
Introduction: Logic of Inquiry, Research Designs and Strategies, and the Methods Tool-Kitp. 3
Overviewp. 3
Guiding Principlesp. 3
The Book's Organizationp. 4
Getting Started¨Thinking about Research Choicesp. 4
Choosing a Research Designp. 4
Focus on Ethnographyp. 6
Choices from the Methods Tool-Kitp. 6
Telling the Storyp. 6
Key Conceptsp. 6
An Example: Studying the Unhousedp. 8
Quantitative versus Qualitative Researchp. 9
Unobtrusive and "Obtrusive" (or Interactive) Researchp. 10
Fieldworkp. 10
Understanding the Experiences of Othersp. 11
Exercisesp. 12
Key Termsp. 13
A Brief History Of Qualitative Researchp. 14
Overviewp. 14
Classical Ideasp. 14
Max Weberp. 15
Verstehen¨Understandingp. 15
The Historical-Comparative Methodp. 15
The Construction of "Ideal-Types"p. 15
The Chicago School and its Legacyp. 16
Spatial Mapping and Spatial Analysisp. 16
The Life History Methodp. 16
Analysis of Documentsp. 17
Observations and Descriptions of Neighborhood Lifep. 17
Occupational Studiesp. 17
Ethnographic Research in Anthropologyp. 17
Anthropologists of the Early 1900sp. 18
Sociology and Anthropology: An Often Uneasy Unionp. 18
The Frankfurt Institutep. 19
Street Corner Society: Paragon of Early Qualitative Researchp. 23
Critical Community Studiesp. 23
The Rise of Microsociologies and the Great Surge in Qualitative Researchp. 24
Foundational Concepts of Early Qualitative Researchp. 24
The Common Denominator: Get Out of the Office and into the Mix of Real Life!p. 25
Principles of the New Qualitative Methodologyp. 25
Ethnomethodologists and "Breaching" Experimentsp. 26
The Birth of a Contentious Dividep. 27
Feminist and Postmodernist Approaches: New Directions at the End of the Twentieth Centuryp. 27
Feminist Research Strategiesp. 27
Postmodernism in Qualitative Researchp. 28
Toward More Comprehensive Orientationsp. 29
Conclusionp. 29
Exercisesp. 30
Key Termsp. 30
Asking Research Questionsp. 31
Overviewp. 31
Introduction: What is a Research Question?p. 31
What Does a Research Question Produce?p. 32
The Sociologist's Wayp. 32
The Scientific Methodp. 33
The Scientific Method: A Set of Rules Guiding Procedures, Presentation of Evidence, and Storytellingp. 33
Principles of the Scientific Methodp. 34
Framing Research Questionsp. 38
Learning the Language: Qualitative Research Vernacularp. 38
Doubts and Concerns: Are We Being Too Scientific?p. 42
Choosing Research Activitiesp. 43
Where do Research Questions Come From?p. 44
Studying a Tattoo Parlor: Using the Scientific Methodp. 45
Qualitative Research Principles in Action: Paul Willis, Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobsp. 47
Tips for Formulating a Research Questionp. 48
Conclusionp. 49
Exercisesp. 49
Key Termsp. 50
The Ethics 0f Qualitative Researchp. 51
Overviewp. 51
A Mental Exercise in Role-Takingp. 51
You're a Survey "Respondent"p. 51
You're an "Informant" Neighborp. 52
Ethical Conduct in Qualitative Researchp. 52
Qualitative Research as a "Complicated Relationship"p. 53
The Question of Meaningp. 53
Rules on the Books versus Rules in Actionp. 53
Formal Safeguards: Human Subjects Research, the Irb, and Professional Codes of Ethicsp. 54
To Obey or Not to Obey: "The Milgram Study"p. 54
"Prisoner 819 Did a Bad Thing": The Stanford Prison Experimentp. 55
The Spy Who Didn't Love Me: Laud Humphreys' Tea Room Tradep. 55
Institutional Review Boardsp. 56
Beyond Formal Codes of Ethicsp. 59
Informed Consentp. 60
The (Hollow) Right to Withdrawp. 60
Informed Consent Is a Process, Not a Documentp. 60
Some Suggestions for Resolving the Tension between Law on the Books and Law in Actionp. 61
Deceptionp. 61
"Instrumentalization" of Relationshipsp. 62
Give in Order to Take. . . and Take Morep. 63
Caveat: The Subject is Not a Dishragp. 63
The "Gaze"p. 63
Revealing Subjects'Ignorancep. 64
Caveat: "Studying Up" versus "Studying Down"¨The Patterning of Ethical Issuesp. 64
Looking Ahead at Ethicsp. 65
Exercisesp. 65
Key Termsp. 66
The Politics of Qualitative Researchp. 67
Overviewp. 67
Research and Politics: Together But Mostly Apartp. 67
Limiting Personal Bias by Exposing It: Embracing Transparency and Falsifiabilityp. 68
Research as a Means for Championing Rights: Social Justice and Social Sciencep. 69
Politicizing Research Without Compromising Sciencep. 70
Clusters of Values: Truth, Sociological Imagination, and Social Justicep. 70
Politically Engaged Science: Different Strokes for Different Folksp. 71
Political Engagement in Theory and Interpretationp. 72
Mounting a Critique of Existing Concepts and Constructing Alternative Concepts that more Accurately capture Social Realitiesp. 72
Dissecting Misrecognitionp. 73
Controversy over Contextp. 74
Engaging in Public Discussionp. 75
Combating Stereotypesp. 75
Exposing Misrecognition and Debunking Stereotypesp. 76
The Dangers of Trying a Little Politically Motivated Tendernessp. 76
Critical Examination of the State of Social Services and Government Policiesp. 77
Identifying Inequalities in Service Deliveryp. 78
Critique of Organizational Practicesp. 79
Studying the Rich and Powerfulp. 79
Activism: From Spokesperson to CBPRp. 81
Realistic Ways for Sociologists to Assist Straggling Communitiesp. 82
The Critical Analysis of Research Methodsp. 82
The Politics of Researching Research: A Critique of Respondent-Driven Samplingp. 83
Case Studyp. 83
Conclusionp. 85
Exercisesp. 85
Key Termsp. 86
Integrating Theory Into Qualitative Research: Foundational, Grounded, and Critical-Reflexive Theoriesp. 87
Overviewp. 87
The Meaning of "Theory": What it is, What it Isn'tp. 87
Foundational Theoryp. 88
Grounded Theoryp. 88
Critical-Reflexive Theoryp. 88
Foundational Theory in Action: Research Illustrationsp. 89
Foundational Theory in Actionp. 89
Evaluating Foundational Theories in Actionp. 90
Connecting Theory with Research Design and Methodsp. 92
When Does Theory Begin? Before the Beginningp. 92
Foundational Theories and the Problematic of a Research Projectp. 93
Grounded Theory in Action: Research Illustrationsp. 93
To See the World in a Grain of Sandp. 94
Key Elements of Grounded Theoryp. 94
But is Grounded Theory Really Built from the Ground Up?p. 96
The "Always Already" Contradiction of Grounded Theoryp. 96
Critical-Reflexive Theory in Actionp. 97
Getting Back to "Bias"¨Simply but Not Simplisticallyp. 97
The Theory-Research "Dialogue"p. 97
Moving Ahead With Theory: A Practical Guide for Overcoming the Abstraction Paralysisp. 98
Levels of Analysisp. 98
Research and Theory: A Continuous Conversationp. 100
How Much Theory?p. 100
From Empirical Observation to Reflexive Theorizing: Four Steps for Getting Startedp. 102
Conclusionp. 106
Acknowledgementp. 106
Exercisesp. 106
Key Termsp. 107
Choosing a Research Designp. 109
Ethnography: A Synopsisp. 111
Overviewp. 111
An Example¨In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barriop. 111
An Exampk¨Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Streetp. 112
Ethnography in Everyday Lifep. 112
Professional Strangenessp. 112
Solving Puzzles in Reversep. 113
Ethnography: A Logic of Knowingp. 115
The Culture Question: "How?"p. 115
Culture as Process and Structure in Contextp. 116
Depth versus Breadthp. 117
Falsificationp. 118
Questioning Realityp. 119
Parsimony and Ockham's Razorp. 120
The World in a Grain of Sandp. 120
Ethnography Holds Up a Mirrorp. 120
Ethnography and Journalismp. 121
Conclusionp. 123
Exercisesp. 124
Key Termsp. 124
Historical-Comparative Researchp. 125
Overviewp. 125
History of Historical-Comparative Researchp. 125
Exemplary Historical-Comparative Research Studiesp. 126
Characteristics of Historical-Comparative Researchp. 131
When and How to Use Historical-Comparative Analysisp. 132
Conclusionp. 132
Exercisesp. 133
Key Termsp. 133
Social Autopsies: Adverse Events and What they Tell Us About Societyp. 134
Overviewp. 134
Contemporary Life and the Demand for Autopsiesp. 134
Types of Events: Natural Disasters, Accidents, and Intentional Actsp. 135
Examples of Social Autopsiesp. 136
The Design of Social Autopsiesp. 139
Appropriate Types of Research Questionsp. 139
The Logic of the Social Autopsyp. 139
Social Autopsies are Contentiousp. 140
Against the "Conspiracy Theory"p. 140
Components of a Social Autopsyp. 141
Who Was Affected?p. 141
The Role of Organizations and Institutionsp. 145
Evaluate the Public Representations of the Eventp. 146
Putting it all Together: The Need for Multilevel Designp. 147
Theoretical Foundationsp. 147
Related Types of Inquiriesp. 148
Applicationsp. 149
Conclusionp. 150
Exercisesp. 150
Key Termsp. 151
Community-Based Participatory Research or Participatory Action Research (With Krista Harper)p. 152
Overviewp. 152
What is CBPR?p. 152
A Brief History (or Rather, "Herstory")p. 153
What is the Meaning of "Community?"p. 155
Problem-Solving? Whose Problems, Whose Solutions?p. 155
Par in Action: Environmental Justice in a Hungarian Villagep. 156
Starting with Justicep. 156
Getting to Know the Romap. 156
A Key Informant Emergesp. 157
Jointly Designing the Projectp. 158
An Overview of CBPR as a Design Choicep. 159
Practical Tipsp. 160
PAR as Method and Object of Teaching: Critical Perspectivesp. 160
A Retelling of PAR's Historyp. 161
Revising the Definition of PARp. 161
PAR and Pedagogy: The Politics of Teaching and Learning through CBPRp. 162
Beware the Backfire Effect: When CBPR Becomes the "Cure That Kills"p. 162
Conclusionp. 165
Exercisesp. 165
Key Termsp. 166
The Analysis of Cultural Objects and Discourses as a Research Design (With Martha Martinez and Christopher Carroll)p. 167
Overviewp. 167
Why Conduct Cultural Objects Research?p. 168
Practical Reasons for Studying Cultural Objectsp. 168
Theory-Driven Reasons for Studying Cultural Objectsp. 168
Research in Action: Examples of Studying Cultural Objectsp. 169
Entertainmentp. 169
Advertisingp. 170
Understanding the Religious Imaginary: Thank You, St. Jude!p. 170
Stylep. 171
Architecture and Urban Designp. 172
Managers'Views of Workers: Developing a Research Design and Asking a Research Questionp. 172
The Invisible Metropolis (by Christopher Carroll)p. 176
Analysis of High School Yearbooksp. 178
Content Analysis Exercise: Home Pages of Colleges and Universitiesp. 180
Summary: When and How Do We Use This Design?p. 181
Formulate the Research Questions and Think about Relevant Theoriesp. 181
Carefully Specify the Units of Analysis and Organize Your Samplingp. 182
Identify Key Variables to Recordp. 182
Select Your Time Period(s)p. 182
Create a Data Filep. 183
Conclusionp. 183
Exercisesp. 183
Key Termsp. 184
Multimethod Designsp. 185
Overviewp. 185
Mixing Methods: The Value of Triangulationp. 185
Reasons and Strategies For Bringing Methods Togetherp. 185
Using Qualitative Research to Understand Forces that Produce Patterns of Variable Relationshipsp. 186
Including Quantitative Analysis within an Overall Qualitative or Ethnographic Designp. 186
Using Quantitative Methods to Analyze Qualitative Materialsp. 187
Using Qualitative Data to Contextualize Quantitative Datap. 187
Using Quantitative Tools in Comparative Researchp. 189
Using Multimethod Research to Understand Contemporary Issues: The Example of Youth Crime and Homelessnessp. 190
Conclusionp. 192
Exercisesp. 192
Key Termsp. 192
Focus on Ethnographyp. 193
Ethnography: Defining, Preparing For, and Entering the fieldp. 195
Overviewp. 195
What is Ethnography?p. 195
The Fieldp. 196
Casting a Big Light with a Small Lampzp. 197
Getting Ready to Get Close: Planning for Ethnographic Workp. 198
Doing Your Homework: Background Researchp. 198
Refiexivity Exercises: Placing Your Vague Preconceptions in a Vivid Foregroundp. 199
Asking Questions and Planning to Seek Answersp. 200
Prepare for Your Role on a Stage Not Your Ownp. 201
Reflecting on Reduction and Recognizing Your Blinders! A Preparatory Exercisep. 203
Thinking About Your Project: The Logic of Ethnographic Discoveryp. 204
Mental Habits of Ethnographersp. 205
Sameness and Difference: Not the Same Differencep. 205
Generalizing from Your Sample of One: Culture Xp. 205
Iterative Recursive Abductionp. 206
Speculation, Imagination, and Surprisep. 208
Maintaining the Capacity to Be Surprisedp. 210
Entering the Fieldp. 211
New Peoplep. 211
Knowing When to Keep Quietp. 213
Conclusionp. 214
Key Termsp. 214
Types of Ethnographic Datap. 215
Overviewp. 215
Review: Designing Research, Knowing the Data you Needp. 215
Types of Datap. 215
Behavior/Actionp. 216
Wordsp. 221
Nonbehavioral Datap. 224
Objects and Stylesp. 226
Events and Ritualsp. 227
The Intangibles: Norms, Values, Standards, and Beliefsp. 228
People and Personasp. 229
Conclusionp. 231
Key Termsp. 231
Writing Ethnographic Field Notes (With Gerald R.Suttles)p. 232
Overviewp. 232
The Significance of Field Notesp. 232
The Basics of Field Notesp. 232
Handling Timep. 233
Language and Terminology: The Key to Understanding Insider Viewsp. 236
Concretenessp. 237
Present Tensep. 238
Contemporaneityp. 238
Writing to Think, Thinking to Write: Writing as Thinkingp. 239
From the Periphery to the Core: Lessons from a Student Ethnography of a Tattoo Parlor in Chicago, ILp. 240
Putting the Blinders Back On: Smartly This Time!p. 240
Digital Recording Technologyp. 241
Integrity of Datap. 241
Logisticsp. 242
Conclusion: Field Notes and Professional Standardsp. 243
Exercisesp. 244
Key Termsp. 244
Directed Strategies for Data-Makingp. 245
Overviewp. 245
Ethnography Essentials: A Brief Reviewp. 245
The Directed Strategiesp. 246
When Should I Use Directed Strategies?p. 246
What Do Directed Strategies Produce?p. 248
Asking Questionsp. 248
Processual Interviewingp. 250
Manualizep. 251
Free-Listing and Pile-Sortingp. 251
Sociometric Grid Mappingp. 252
Daily Diaryp. 253
Ethnographic Shadowingp. 255
Informant Mapping: Individuals and Focus Groupsp. 256
Systematic Social Observation (SSO)p. 258
Conclusionp. 261
Exercisesp. 262
Key Termsp. 262
Choices from the Methods Tool-Kitp. 263
Observation, Participant-Observation, and Carnal Sociologyp. 265
Overviewp. 265
A Spectrum of Observation: Degrees of Separationp. 265
Unobtrusive Observationp. 265
"Obtrusive" Observation: A Range of Involvementp. 266
Carnal Participation and Observationp. 266
Choosing Carnal Sociologyp. 267
The "Goodness of Fit" between Observer and Observedp. 267
Research Ethics and IRB Restrictionsp. 268
Entry and Guidesp. 268
Entryp. 269
The Guide, Key Informants, and Research Bargainsp. 270
Recording Observation and Participation: Field Notes and Analytic Memosp. 272
Choices about Recording: Descriptive Notesp. 273
The Analytic Memo: A Device for Making Sense of Notesp. 274
Howard Becker's Tips for Improving Objectivity and Plausibilityp. 275
Observable Indicatorsp. 275
Credibility of Informantsp. 275
Volunteered and Spontaneous Sharing of Information versus Directed Information: A Clue to the Salience of Concernsp. 276
Noting the Frequency and Distribution of Phenomenap. 276
First Steps: Mapping Space, Identifying Icons, Recording Timep. 277
A Summary of Practical Tipsp. 278
Conclusionp. 279
Exercisesp. 279
Key Termsp. 279
Interviewingp. 280
Overviewp. 280
Background and Orientationsp. 280
Orientations toward Interviewingp. 281
The Postmodern Viewp. 281
Structured, Semi-Structured, and Unstructured Interviewsp. 282
Interview Procedures and Practicesp. 285
The Sympathetic Ear: An Example of Research in Actionp. 285
Believing, Disbelieving and Disbelieving Beliefp. 285
Elite Interviewsp. 288
Asking Questions Informally and Interacting Effectivelyp. 290
The "10 Commandments of Informant Interviewing"p. 290
The Basics of Getting Informants to Engage in Revelatory Talkp. 294
A Final Word on the Subject: Observation Trumps Interviewing!p. 296
Conclusionp. 296
Exercisesp. 296
Key Termsp. 297
Focus Groups (With Tracey Lewis-Elligan)p. 298
Overviewp. 298
The Many Uses of an Unnatural Venue: Focus Group Basicsp. 298
One Exception: The In Situ Focus Groupp. 299
Gauging Appropriateness of the Methodp. 299
Guidelines for Running a Focus Groupp. 300
Research in Action: Examples of Focus Group-Based Studiesp. 304
Case Example: Are African American girls joining the eating disorder mainstream?p. 304
High School Focus Groupsp. 307
Conclusionp. 310
Exercisesp. 310
Key Termsp. 310
Life Narrativesp. 311
Overviewp. 311
The Life Narrative: A Staple Item in the Qualitative Research Method Inventoryp. 311
The Chicago School: Exemplary Life Narrative Studiesp. 312
The Spontaneity Factorp. 312
Whose Life, Whose Narrative?p. 313
A Suitable Topicp. 313
A Suitable Lifep. 314
Motivationp. 314
The Life History Interviewp. 315
Levels of Datap. 315
Limitations of the Life History Interviewp. 316
FormatsVaryp. 318
Practical Guidance for Building the Life Narrativep. 318
Recordingp. 318
The Transcriptp. 319
Interpretationp. 319
Conclusionp. 323
CODAp. 324
Exercisesp. 324
Key Termsp. 325
Visual Methods (With Thomas Fredericks)p. 326
Overviewp. 326
The Centrality of "The Visual"p. 326
Having a Vision: The Beginningp. 327
The Imagep. 328
Creator and Consumer: A Contested "Relationship"p. 328
Our Basic Assumptions about Imageryp. 329
A Brief History of Visual Methods in the Social Sciencesp. 329
In the Beginning: Photographyp. 329
Science Poo-Poos Picturesp. 330
Then Came Pictures in Motion... The Moviesp. x331
Then Came the 1960s: Peace, Love, and Subjectivityp. 332
50 Years Later... and ... ?p. 332
(Critical) Visual Literacyp. 334
Visual Intelligence and Literacyp. 335
Visual Literacy and Sociologyp. 337
How Sociologists Approach Visual Material and Methodsp. 337
The Data are and Must Be Imagesp. 338
Implementing Visual Methods: Key Ideasp. 339
Straddling the Great Divide: The Image as an Objective-Subjective Matterp. 339
The Practice of Image-Makingp. 340
Video (as) Documentationp. 340
Ethnographilm: A Particular Kind of Documentary Moviep. 341
The Heart of Ethnographilm Is Ethnographyp. 341
Ethnographilm and Documentary Film: A Shared Historyp. 342
So What Exactly is an Ethnographilm?p. 343
Approaches You Can Takep. 343
Some Basic Rules of Ethnographilmmakingp. 344
Why Make an Ethnographilm?p. 346
Conclusion ... Actually, We've Only Just Begunp. 347
Exercisesp. 347
Key Termsp. 347
Computer Software for Qualitative Data Analysis (With Sarah Korhonen and Rachel Lovell)p. 348
Overviewp. 348
CADAp. 348
New Tricks for Old and Young Dogsp. 349
The Importance of Setting Reasonable Expectationsp. 350
Introduction to CAQDASp. 351
A Brief History of CAQDASp. 351
Reduction: The Key to CAQDASp. 353
Back to the Future: The Primacy of the Binaryp. 354
Garbage in, Garbage Out¨Revisited with an Addendum Regarding False Hopep. 354
The Magic Moment: Al Green or Alanis Morissette?p. 354
Remembering Meaningp. 355
Path Forwardp. 355
The Contenders: NVivo Versus ATLAS.tip. 355
A Note on Grounded Theory: Inductive and Deductive Approaches to Making Sensep. 356
Coded Chunks of Text: The Foundation of Qualitative Data Analysisp. 357
Inductive and Abductive Coding: Not Mutually Exclusivep. 358
Logic of NVivo and ATLAS.tip. 359
Logic of NVivop. 360
Logic of ATLAS.tip. 361
The Trinity of Units: Analysis, Observation, and Manipulationp. 363
Specifics of the Program Softwarep. 364
Data Preparationp. 367
Working With Datap. 369
Codingp. 369
Additional Coding Proceduresp. 371
Queriesp. 372
Relations/Relationshipsp. 373
Eyeballing and Beyond: A Graphical View of Your Researchp. 374
Conclusionp. 374
Key Termsp. 374
Telling the Storyp. 375
The Research Reportp. 377
Overviewp. 377
The Canons of Form and the Canonical Research Reportp. 377
Voicep. 378
Play it Straightp. 378
Or Play it Not So Straightp. 378
Writing Lit Reviewsp. 379
Other Elements of the Research Report: Practical Tipsp. 379
What Is Paraphrasing and Why is it Often a Problem?p. 380
Truth: The Big Onionp. 382
Truth and Objectivityp. 385
Understanding the Participants' Point of Viewp. 385
Distinguishing the Insider and the Outsider's Perspectivesp. 385
Developing Thick Descriptionp. 385
Considering Macro-Micro Linkagesp. 385
Theory-Methods Linkages in the Research Reportp. 386
Critical-reflexive sociology (Bourdieu, Wacquant, Burawoy)p. 389
Conclusionp. 389
Exercisesp. 390
Key Termsp. 390
Wrapping It Upp. 391
Overviewp. 391
Challenges Aboundp. 391
Legal Complicationsp. 391
Holding Up the Mirror: Research Subjects See Themselves in Your Report¨the Issue of Representationp. 393
Promises to Keep (and Some to Break): Sharing Findingsp. 397
The Fading of Friendshipp. 398
Post-Project Bluesp. 400
Conclusionp. 401
Exercisesp. 401
Key Termsp. 401
Bibliographyp. 402
Indexp. 408
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