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Dolphin Biological Investigations Lab Manual specific t/a Brooker Biology,9780073323992
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Dolphin Biological Investigations Lab Manual specific t/a Brooker Biology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780073323992

ISBN10:
0073323993
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/16/2007
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math
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Summary

Developed to accompany the Brooker et al.:Biologytext; this lab manual focuses on labs that are investigative and ask students to use more critical thinking and hands-on learning. The author emphasizes investigative, quantitative, and comparative approaches to studying the life sciences.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Correlation Tablep. xii
Science: A Way of Gathering Knowledgep. 1
Using the Scientific Methodp. 3
Description of the Problemp. 3
Summarizing Observationsp. 3
Asking Questionsp. 3
Forming Hypothesesp. 3
Designing an Experimentp. 4
Procedurep. 4
Data Recordingp. 4
Data Summarizationp. 4
Data Interpretationp. 4
Conclusionp. 5
Discussionp. 5
Scientific Method Assignmentp. 5
Evaluating Published Informationp. 5
Evaluate Formatp. 5
Evaluate the Sourcep. 6
Evaluate Writing Stylep. 6
Evaluate the Argumentsp. 6
Evaluate the Evidencep. 6
Check the Datap. 7
Evaluate the Conclusionsp. 7
Evaluating Scientific Literature Assignmentp. 7
Evaluating WWW pagesp. 8
Techniques in Microscopyp. 11
The Compound Microscopep. 13
Parts of a Microscopep. 13
Making Slides and Using a Microscopep. 14
The Compound Microscope Imagep. 15
Image Orientationp. 15
Magnificationp. 15
Field of View and Brightnessp. 16
Focal Plane and Optical Sectioningp. 16
Image Contrastp. 16
Measuring with a Microscope (Optional)p. 16
Using an Oil Immersion Lens (optional)p. 17
Stereoscopic Dissecting Microscopesp. 18
Electron Microscopesp. 18
Transmission Electron Microscopep. 19
Interpreting TEMsp. 20
Cellular Structure Reflects Functionp. 23
Prokaryotic Cellsp. 24
Bacteriap. 24
Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)p. 24
Eukaryotic Cellsp. 25
Protistsp. 25
Fungal Cellsp. 26
Plant Cellsp. 26
Animal Cellsp. 28
Using your knowledgep. 31
Determining How Materials Enter Cellsp. 33
Simultaneous Osmosis and Diffusionp. 35
Test for Chloride Ionp. 36
Test for Proteinp. 36
Test for Starchp. 36
Osmosisp. 36
Diffusion in Gases (Optional Demonstration)p. 37
Diffusion in Gelsp. 37
Osmosis in Living Cehsp. 38
Elodea Plasmolysisp. 38
Osmoregulation in Parameciump. 38
Using Quantitative Techniques and Statisticsp. 41
Measuring Volumesp. 42
Practice Pipettingp. 43
Verifying Techniques Using a Balancep. 43
Calculating Simple Statisticsp. 44
Statistical Analysis of Class Datap. 45
Using Histograms to Summarizep. 46
Spectrophotometryp. 46
Creating an Absorbance Curvep. 47
Constructing a Standard Curvep. 49
Modeling Biological Moleculesp. 53
Getting Startedp. 56
Carbohydratesp. 57
Polysaccharidesp. 59
Lipidsp. 60
Amino Acidsp. 64
Polypeptides and Proteinsp. 66
Advanced Analysis of Peroxidase Structurep. 68
Nucleotides/Nucleic Acidsp. 69
Determining the Properties of an Enzymep. 73
Peroxidasep. 75
Preparing an Extract Containing Peroxidasep. 75
Standardizing the Amount of Enzymep. 76
Analysis of Amount of Enzyme Datap. 77
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activityp. 78
Temperature Effectsp. 78
Analysis of Temperature Datap. 78
pH Effectsp. 79
Analysis of pH Datap. 79
Demonstrating Effects of Boiling on Peroxidase Activityp. 80
Optional: The Effects of Inhibitorsp. 81
Analysisp. 82
Advanced Molecular Analysisp. 82
Measuring Cellular Respirationp. 87
Ethanolic Fermentation in Yeastp. 89
Aerobic Respiration in Peasp. 90
Forming a Hypothesisp. 90
Experimental Setupp. 91
Measurementp. 91
Analysisp. 92
Determining Chromosome Number in Mitotic Cellsp. 95
Mitosis in Animal Cellsp. 97
Mitosis in Plant Cellsp. 98
Measuring Durationp. 98
Staining Chromosomes in Dividing Cellsp. 99
Tissue Preparation Stepsp. 99
Testing a Hypothesisp. 101
Collecting Datap. 101
Analysisp. 101
Observing Meiosis and Determining Cross-Over Frequencyp. 105
Meiosis in Ascarisp. 107
Experimental Organismp. 107
Procedurep. 108
Measuring the Frequency of Crossing-Overp. 110
Background about Experimental Organismp. 110
Procedurep. 111
Analysisp. 111
Advanced Statistical Analysisp. 113
Determining Genotypes of Fruit Fliesp. 117
Life Cycle of the Fruit Flyp. 119
Fruit Fly Anatomyp. 119
Giant Chromosomes in Drosophila (Optional)p. 120
Theoretical Background for Crossesp. 121
Autosome Modelp. 121
Sex Chromosome Modelp. 122
Applying Chromosomal Models to Crossesp. 123
Setting Test Crosses to Determine Genotypesp. 124
Tending the Fliesp. 124
Predicting Alternative Resultsp. 124
Investigating Wing Locusp. 124
Investigating Eye Color Locusp. 125
Counting the Offspringp. 126
Analysisp. 127
Isolating DNA and Working with Plasmidsp. 133
Isolation of Genomic DNAp. 135
Rupturing Onion Cellsp. 135
DNA Precipitationp. 135
Determining the Amount of DNA in Solutionp. 136
Transformation by Plasmidsp. 137
Making Competent Cellsp. 137
Transformation Procedurep. 138
Selective Growthp. 139
Analysisp. 139
Testing Assumptions in Microevolution and Inducing Mutationsp. 143
Mating Gamep. 146
Random Matingp. 147
Natural Selectionp. 147
Migration and Bottleneckingp. 147
Mutationp. 148
Computer Simulation of Microevolutionp. 148
Effect of No Natural Selection in a Large Populationp. 149
Effect of Natural Selectionp. 149
Genetic Driftp. 149
Genetic Drift and Natural Selection Togetherp. 150
Experimental Induction of Mutationsp. 150
Procedurep. 150
Analysisp. 152
Working with Bacterial Diversityp. 155
Where Do Bacteria Live?p. 157
Bacterial Cell Shapesp. 157
Gram's Stainingp. 158
Determinative Microbiologyp. 160
Differential Growthp. 160
Differential Growth Analysisp. 161
Bacterial Population Countsp. 162
Analyzing Milk Samplesp. 163
Application of Resultsp. 163
Applied Microbiologyp. 163
Cyanobacteriap. 164
Diversity Among Protistsp. 167
Clade Parabasalap. 170
Clade Euglenozoap. 171
Phylum Euglenophytap. 171
Phylum Kinetoplastidap. 172
Clade Alveolatap. 173
Phylum Ciliophorap. 173
Clade Stramenopilap. 174
Phylum Bacillariophytap. 174
Phylum Oomycota: Water Moldsp. 175
Clade Rhodophytap. 176
Clade Chlorophytap. 177
Phylum Chlorophytap. 177
Amoeba Groupp. 180
Phylum Myxogastridiap. 181
Investigating Plant Phylogeny: Seedless Plantsp. 185
Plant Adaptations to Landp. 187
Algal Preadaptations to Landp. 188
Anatomy and Life Cycle of a Stonewortp. 188
Bryophytesp. 189
Phylum Hepatophyta (Liverworts)p. 189
Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses)p. 191
Vascular Plantsp. 193
Phylum Pterophyta (Ferns and Horsetails)p. 194
Investigating Plant Phylogeny: Seed Plantsp. 199
Gymnospermsp. 201
Phylum Coniferophyta (Conifers)p. 201
Angiospermsp. 207
Phylum Anthophyta (Flowering Plants)p. 207
Observing Fungal Diversity and Symbiotic Relationshipsp. 213
Observation of Field Samplesp. 216
Phylum Chytridiomycotap. 216
Phylum Zygomycotap. 217
Phylum Ascomycota: The Sac Fungip. 220
Mildewsp. 220
Cup Fungip. 221
Phylum Basidiomycota: The Club Fungip. 222
Fungal Associationsp. 223
Lichensp. 223
Mycorrhizaep. 225
Fun with Fungi (optional)p. 226
Killer Fungip. 226
Fungus Amon-gusp. 227
Summaryp. 227
Investigating Early Events in Animal Developmentp. 229
Sea Star Developmentp. 230
Cleavage Patterns in Invertebrate Animalsp. 232
Experimental Embryology with Sea Urchins (Alternative Activity)p. 233
Obtaining Gametesp. 234
Observing Fertilizationp. 235
Separation of Blastomeres (Optional)p. 235
Frog Developmentp. 236
Chick Development (Alternative Activity)p. 238
Bird Gametes and Matingp. 238
Chick Cleavage and Gastulationp. 239
Later Developmental Stagesp. 241
Animal Phylogeny: Investigating Animal Body Plansp. 243
Phylum Poriferap. 246
Phylum Cnidariap. 248
A Polyp: Hydrap. 248
A Medusa: Gonionemusp. 250
A Colonial Form: Obeliap. 251
Phylum Platyhelminthesp. 252
Class Turbellariap. 252
Class Trematodap. 254
Class Cestoideap. 255
Phylum Nematodap. 256
Vinegar eelsp. 259
Rogue's Galleryp. 259
Protostomes I: Lophotrochozoans and Development of Complexityp. 261
Clade Lophotrochozoap. 263
Phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa)p. 263
Phylum Annelidap. 264
Annelid Diversityp. 265
Live Aquatic Oligochaete Wormsp. 265
Earthworm Dissectionp. 266
Phylum Molluscap. 270
Molluscan Diversityp. 271
Class Bivalviap. 271
Class Cephalopodap. 274
Squid Dissectionp. 274
Protostomes II: Ecdysozoa and Great Diversityp. 279
Subphylum Cheliceratap. 281
Horseshoe Crabp. 281
Spiderp. 282
Subphylum Crustaceap. 283
Subphylum Uniramiap. 289
Class Insectap. 289
Using Keys to Identify Insects (Optional)p. 291
Field Collecting Terrestrial Arthropods (Optional)p. 292
Deuterostomes and the Origins of Vertebratesp. 295
Phylum Echinodermatap. 296
Echinoderm Diversityp. 296
Phylum Chordatap. 300
Subphylum Urochordatap. 300
Larval Anatomyp. 300
Adult Anatomyp. 301
Subphylum Cephalochordatap. 302
Subphylum Vertebratap. 304
Investigating Plant Cells, Tissues, and Primary Growthp. 309
Investigating the Unique Structures of Plant Cellsp. 312
Investigating the Structure of Plant Tissuesp. 314
Meristematic Tissuep. 314
Dermal Tissuep. 315
Ground Tissuesp. 317
Vascular Tissuep. 319
Primary-Secondary Growth and Transport in Roots and Stemsp. 323
Whole Rootsp. 326
Root Histologyp. 327
Longitudinal Section of a Young Dicot Rootp. 327
Cross Sections of Primary Rootsp. 328
Stem Structurep. 331
External Dicot Stem Structurep. 331
Microscopic Herbaceous Dicot Stem Structurep. 331
Internal Woody Dicot Stem Structurep. 332
Structure of Woodp. 334
Internal Monocot Stem Structurep. 334
Transpiration (Demonstration)p. 336
Demonstration: Testing the Water Tension Hypothesisp. 337
Investigating Leaf Structure and Photosynthesisp. 339
Types of Leavesp. 341
Internal Leaf Anatomyp. 342
Structure of a Dicot Leafp. 342
Structure of a Monocot Leafp. 344
Guard-Cell Response to Osmotic Stressp. 344
Photosynthetic Pigmentsp. 345
Extraction Procedurep. 345
Absorption Spectrump. 346
Analysisp. 346
Light Intensity and Photosynthetic Ratep. 346
Procedurep. 347
Analysisp. 348
Testing a Predictionp. 348
Demonstration of Starch Accumulation in Leaves (Optional)p. 349
Angiosperm Reproduction, Germination, and Developmentp. 353
Sexual Reproductionp. 356
Flower Structurep. 356
Gametophytes in Flowering Plantsp. 358
Pollinationp. 361
Fertilizationp. 362
Embryo Developmentp. 363
Seedsp. 363
Fruitsp. 364
Investigating the Effects of Hormones on Plant Developmentp. 366
Effects of Hormones on Seedling Growth Patternsp. 366
Investigating Digestive and Gas Exchange Systemsp. 371
Invertebrate Feeding Behavior in Hydrap. 372
Mammalian Digestive System Anatomyp. 373
Anatomy of the Mouthp. 373
Alimentary Canal Anatomyp. 374
Histology of Small Intestinep. 376
Invertebrate Respiratory Systemsp. 376
Insect Tracheal Systemp. 376
Gillsp. 377
Mammalian Respiratory Systemp. 378
Respiratory Tree Anatomyp. 378
Microscopic Examination of Maramalian Lungp. 379
Lung Ventilation Mechanismp. 379
Measuring Human Respiratory Volumesp. 379
Comparative Summaryp. 382
Investigating Circulatory Systemsp. 385
Invertebrate Circulatory Systemp. 387
Optional Demonstration of Open Circulationp. 387
Mammalian Circulatory Systemp. 388
The Heart and Its Vesselsp. 388
Vessels Cranial to the Heartp. 389
Vessels Caudal to the Heartp. 391
Internal Heart Structurep. 391
Histology of Vesselsp. 392
Bloodp. 392
Circulation in Capillariesp. 395
Measuring Blood Pressurep. 396
Blood Pressures under Experimental Conditionsp. 397
Investigating the Urogenital Systemp. 399
Invertebrate Excretory Systemsp. 400
Nephridial Systemsp. 400
Mammalian Excretory Systemp. 401
Anatomy of Fetal Pig Excretory Systemp. 401
Nephron Structurep. 402
Mammalian Reproductive Systemp. 403
Male Systemp. 403
Female Systemp. 404
Investigating the Properties of Muscle and Skeletal Systemsp. 407
Microscopic Anatomy of Musclep. 409
Cardiac Musclep. 411
Fetal Pig Superficial Muscles (Optional)p. 411
Physiology of Musclep. 413
Overview of Experimentp. 413
Determining Motor Pointp. 413
Determining Thresholdp. 413
Recruitment of Motor Unitsp. 414
Temporal Summation and Tetanyp. 414
Skeletal Systemsp. 414
Types of Skeletonsp. 415
Hydrostatic Skeletonsp. 415
Exoskeletonsp. 415
Endoskeletonsp. 416
Microanatomy of Bonep. 417
Comparative Vertebrate Endoskeletonsp. 417
Skeletal Comparisonsp. 417
Investigating Nervous and Sensory Systemsp. 421
Microanatomy of the Nervous Systemp. 423
Mammalian Nervous Systemp. 425
Spinal Cordp. 425
Autonomic Systemp. 425
Brainp. 426
Sensory Systemsp. 428
Eye Anatomyp. 428
Color Visionp. 429
Ear Anatomyp. 430
Estimating Population Size and Growthp. 433
Quadrat Sampling of Vegetationp. 434
Techniquep. 434
Analysisp. 436
Mark and Recapturep. 437
Techniquep. 438
Analysisp. 438
Exponential Population Growthp. 439
Computer-Generated Growth Curvesp. 440
Significant Figures and Roundingp. 443
What Are Significant Figures?p. 443
Doing Arithmetic with Significant Figuresp. 443
What Is Rounding?p. 443
Examples of Roundingp. 444
Making Graphsp. 445
Line Graphsp. 445
Derivative Graphsp. 446
Histogramsp. 446
Simple Statisticsp. 447
Dealing with Measurement Datap. 447
Comparing Count Data: Dealing with Variabilityp. 449
Scientific Hypothesisp. 450
Testing the Null Hypothesisp. 451
Making a Decision about the Null Hypothesisp. 451
A Hypothetical Alternativep. 452
Writing Lab Reports and Scientific Papersp. 453
Formatp. 453
Titlep. 453
Abstracp. 453
Introductionp. 453
Materials and Methodsp. 453
Resultsp. 454
Discussionp. 454
Literature Citedp. 454
General Comments on Stylep. 454
Further Readingp. 455
Creditsp. 457
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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