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Doping in Conjugated Polymers,9781118573808
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Doping in Conjugated Polymers



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Conjugated polymers have a combination of a metallic property (conductivity) and polymeric properties; doping makes the conjugated polymer semiconducting ranging from insulating to low conducting. The doping process is a tested effective method to produce conducting polymers as semiconducting material and provides a substitute for inorganic semiconductors. The recent and rapid growth of interest in conjugated polymer-dopant interaction has been stimulated by a cross-disciplinary group of investigators: chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, electronic and electrical engineers. Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the first book to be dedicated to the subject and offers an A to Z overview. It details doping interaction, dopant types, doping techniques, influence of dopant on applications etc. It explains how the performances of doped conjugated polymers are greatly influenced by the nature of dopants and their level of distribution within the polymer, and shows how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical properties of the doped conjugated polymers can be tailored by controlling the size and mobility of the dopants counter ions. The book also examines doping at the nano scale in particular with carbon nanotubes.

Author Biography

Pradip Kar obtained his PhD in 2009 from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, India, and has published more than 20 research papers in peer-reviewed journals.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement xi

Preface xiii

1 Introduction to Doping in Conjugated Polymer 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Molecular Orbital Structure of Conjugated Polymer 4

1.3 Possibility of Electronic Conduction in Conjugated Polymer 7

1.4 Necessity of Doping in Conjugated Polymer 9

1.5 Concept of Doping in Conjugated Polymer 12

1.6 Doping as Probable Solution 17

2 Classification of Dopants for the Conjugated Polymer 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Classification of Dopant According to Electron Transfer 20

2.3 Classification of Dopant According to Chemical Nature 31

2.4 Classification of Dopant According to Doping Mechanism 40

3 Doping Techniques for the Conjugated Polymer 47

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Electrochemical Doping 48

3.3 Chemical Doping 51

3.4 In-situ doping 56

3.5 Radiation-Induced Doping or Photo Doping 59

3.6 Charge Injection Doping 61

4 Role of Dopant on the Conduction of Conjugated Polymer 63

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Charge Defects within Doped Conjugated Polymer 66

4.3 Charge Transport within the Doped Conjugated Polymer 4.3

4.4 Migration of Dopant Counter Ions 74

5 Influence of Properties of Conjugated Polymer on Doping 81

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Conducting Property 82

5.3 Spectroscopic Property 84

5.4 Electrochemical Property 89

5.5 Thermal Property 92

5.6 Structural Property 94

6 Some Special Classes of Dopants for Conjugated Polymer 97

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Iodine and Other Halogens 98

6.3 Halide Doping 103

6.4 Protonic Acid Doping 106

6.5 Covalent Doping 110

7 Influence of Dopant on the Applications of Conjugated Polymer 113

7.1 Introduction 113

7.2 Sensors 114

7.3 Actuators 118

7.4 Field Effect Transistor 120

7.5 Rechargeable Batteries 122

7.6 Electrochromic Devices 123

7.7 Optoelectronic Devices 126

7.8 Others Applications 127

8 Recent and Future Trends of Doping in Conjugated Polymer 131

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 Doping of Nanostructured Conjugated Polymer 133

8.3 Doping in Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposite 137

8.4 Future Trends 142

References 145

Index 000

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