9780190209520

Drawing Essentials A Complete Guide to Drawing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190209520

  • ISBN10:

    0190209526

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/26/2016
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Ideal for introductory through advanced studio art courses in drawing, Drawing Essentials: A Complete Guide to Drawing, Third Edition, thoroughly addresses drawing techniques that are the most significant at the foundational level: basic drawing, figure drawing, and perspective drawing. Award-winning artist, teacher, and author Deborah Rockman explains clearly and in depth the essentials of depicting form and space on a two-dimensional surface, focusing on the cultivation of observational skills, critical thinking, technical refinement, and knowledge of materials. Over 550 instructive illustrations enhance the narrative--from old masters to contemporary works, and many student works--offering a wealth of examples for instruction and inspiration. Classroom tested and proven, this new edition builds on the strengths of its predecessors, incorporating additional pedagogy and examples, and updates to address the changing world of twenty-first century studio art.

Author Biography


Deborah Rockman is Professor of Art in the BFA and MFA drawing programs at Kendall College of Art and Design, Ferris State University.

Table of Contents


Preface
Introduction

1. Essential Skills and Information: What Every Student Should Know About Drawing
Sighting and the Use of a Sighting Stick
Why Use Sighting?
Guidelines for Sighting
Applications of Sighting
Transferring Sighting Observations to a Drawing Surface
The Principles of Composition: Theory versus Application
Review of Some Simple Definitions
Visual Principles of Composition
Variable Compositional Elements to Consider
Using a Viewfinder: What Does It Do for You?
General Guidelines Concerning Composition
Thumbnail Studies as a Method for Exploring Composition
The Golden Section
What Is the Golden Section?
Constructing a Golden Rectangle
The Fibonacci Series
Line Variation and Sensitivity
Working from General To Specific
The Medium and Surface
What Is Meant by "Sensitive" Line?
Achieving Line Variation and Line Sensitivity
Different Kinds and Functions of Line
Straight-Line Construction
Planar Construction
Working with Value Structure
A General-to-Specific Approach to Building Value Structure
Using Value to Establish an Effect or a Mood
Value and Texture
Four Things to Look for When Identifying Value Structure on a Form
Various Methods for Applying Value
Exercises for Promoting a General-to-Specific Approach
Controlling Some Variables of Value Structure
The Illusion of Space and Depth on a Two-Dimensional Surface
Methods for Indicating Space and Depth
Different Kinds of Space
The Technique of Scaling to Determine Accurate Size Relationships
Establishing Scale Successfully
The Process of Scaling
General Guidelines for Scaling
Creating an Effective Still Life
What Kinds of Objects Should Be Included?
Additional Considerations for Still Lifes
The Meaning of Still-Life Objects
Using Photographic References

2. Spatial Thinking and Visualization: The Essential Principles of Perspective Drawing
An Introduction to Perspective
What Is Perspective?
Different Types of Perspective
Basic Principles of Linear Perspective
Perspective and Sighting
Limitations of Linear Perspective
Recommended Sequencing for Maximum Comprehension
Suggestions for Effective Perspective Drawing
Perspective Materials List
The Terminology of Perspective
Primary Working Terminology
Related Terminology
Additional Useful Terminology
Perspective and Cubes
Constructing a Cube in One-Point Perspective
Constructing a Cube in Two-Point Perspective Based on Estimation of Cube Depth in Relation to Cube Height
Estimating Cube Depth in Two-Point Perspective
Using Perspective Grids
Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in One-Point Perspective
Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in Two-Point Perspective
Increasing Complexity in the Perspective Environment
Multiple or Sliding Vanishing Points
Cube Multiplication
Cube Division
Constructing Ellipses in One-Point and Two-Point Perspective
The Eight-Point Tangent System for Ellipse Construction
Major and Minor Axes, Distortion, and Fullness of Ellipses

3. Advanced Perspective Techniques
Taking Perspective to the Next Level
Mathematically Precise Cubes in Two-Point Perspective
Constructing a 30/60 Cube Based on the Height of the Leading Edge
Constructing a 45/45 Cube Based on the Size of the Base Square
First Alternative Method for Constructing a 45/45 Cube
Second Alternative Method for Constructing a 45/45 Cube
Using Measuring Lines for Equal and Unequal Divisions of an Area
Setting Up the Measuring Line
The Process of Dividing a Form
Applications for the Use of Regular and Irregular Divisions
Inclined Planes in Perspective
Auxiliary Vanishing Points and the Vertical Trace
Geometric Solids and Transparent Construction
What Is Transparent Construction?
Establishing the Cubic Connection
Three-Point Perspective
Constructing a Form in Three-Point Perspective
Suggested Perspective Exercises

4. Essential Drawing Principles in Relation to the Human Figure
The Human Figure
Why Study the Human Figure?
Classroom Etiquette When Drawing from a Model
The Process of Sighting in Relation to the Human Form
Comparative Proportions in the Male and Female Figure
Gesture Drawing or Rapid Contour Drawing
Seeing Is the Key
Using Axis Lines
Keeping It Simple
Setting the Pace
Working from the Inside Out
Enhancing the Illusion of Volume and Space in the Human Form
Line Variation in Figure Drawing
Scaling Techniques in Figure Drawing
A General-to-Specific Approach to Form and Value in Figure Drawing
An Introduction to Portraiture
Common Errors
General Guidelines for Locating Facial Features and Other Landmarks
The Features and Other Significant Aspects of Portraiture
An Alternative Viewpoint in Portraiture
Mapping the Figure in Space
Drawing The Figure in an Observed Environment
Using Straight-Line Construction
Creating Visual Paths of Movement
The Figure and Anatomy
Artistic Anatomy Versus Medical Anatomy
Anatomy Reveals Itself
Major Bones of the Human Skeletal Structure
Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure
Additional Information About the Human Skeletal Structure
Superficial Muscles of the Human Figure
Anatomical Terminology

5. Color Theory and Application
Understanding Color
Color Terminology
The Seven Color Contrasts
Color Harmony and Color Chords
The Spatial and Volumetric Effects of Color
Value and Color
Temperature and Color
Intensity and Color
Volume and Color
Hints for Observing and Recording Color
Value in a Color Drawing
Intensity in a Color Drawing
Complements in a Color Drawing
Drawing with Color Media
Colored Pencils
Student-Grade Colored Pencils
Artist-Grade Colored Pencils
Building Your Colored Pencil Collection
Colored Pencil Accessories
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Colored Pencils
Colored Pencil Papers
Colored Pencil Techniques
Resolving Some Limitations of Colored Pencil
Pastels
Student-Grade Pastels
Artist-Grade Pastels
Pastel Pencils
Pastel Accessories
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Pastels
Pastel Papers and Substrates
Pastel Techniques
Basic Working Procedures
Oil Pastels
Student-Grade Oil Pastels
Artist-Grade Oil Pastels
Building Your Oil Pastel Collection
Oil Pastel Accessories
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Oil Pastels
Oil Pastel Papers and Substrates
Oil Pastel Techniques
Basic Working Procedures
Some Final Thoughts About Working with Color

6. Developing Ideas, Resolving Problems, and Evaluating Results
Ideation: Generating Ideas
Imaginative Thinking and the Brain
Imagination, Creativity, and Brainstorming
Diagnosing Problems in Your Work
Inaccurate Proportional, Scale, or Shape Relationships
Multiple Perspective Eye Levels
Foreshortening Inaccuracies or a Lack of Foreshortening
Flat and Restricted Line Work
Details or Specifics at the Expense of the Larger and More General Underlying Forms
Scaling Inaccuracies in Relation to Perspective Principles
Lack of Volume or Timid Value Structure in Three-Dimensional Forms
Overly Generalized Drawing
Substituting Recipes or Formulas for Careful Observation
Unintentionally Ambiguous Space
Rigid or Pristine Drawings Lacking a Sense of Process
Disregard for or Poor Composition
Intentions Versus Results
Discovering Disparity
Descriptive Feedback
Interpretive Feedback
The Importance of Critiques
Group Critiques
Individual Critiques
Key Questions for Critiquing Work
Questions Regarding Composition
Questions Regarding Drawing
Questions Regarding Figure Drawing
Questions Regarding Perspective
Questions Regarding Color

7. Drawing Materials and Processes
Media and Materials for Drawing
Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Surfaces and Substrates
Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Media
Additional Materials for Drawing and Related Processes
Transfer Techniques Combined with Drawing
Photocopy and Laser Print Transfers
Acrylic Medium Transfers
Lazertran Transfers

Appendix: Contemporary Art: A Gallery of Drawings
Joe Biel
Dustan Creech
Bailey Doogan
Dan Fischer
Sangram Majumdar
Antony Micallef
Chloe Piene
Ben Polsky
Jon Rappleye
Robert Schultz
Jenny Scobel
Joseph Stashkevetch
Armin Mersmann
Julia Randall
Daniel E. Greene
Lilian Kreutzberger
Rob Womack
Nathan Heuer
Aneka Ingold
Ian Ingram
Zaria Forman
Juan Perdiguero

Glossary of Art Terms
Bibliography
Index

Rewards Program

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