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Ideal for introductory through advanced studio art courses in drawing, Drawing Essentials: A Complete Guide to Drawing, Third Edition, thoroughly addresses drawing techniques that are the most significant at the foundational level: basic drawing, figure drawing, and perspective drawing. Award-winning artist, teacher, and author Deborah Rockman explains clearly and in depth the essentials of depicting form and space on a two-dimensional surface, focusing on the cultivation of observational skills, critical thinking, technical refinement, and knowledge of materials. Over 550 instructive illustrations enhance the narrative--from old masters to contemporary works, and many student works--offering a wealth of examples for instruction and inspiration. Classroom tested and proven, this new edition builds on the strengths of its predecessors, incorporating additional pedagogy and examples, and updates to address the changing world of twenty-first century studio art.
Deborah Rockman is Professor of Art in the BFA and MFA drawing programs at Kendall College of Art and Design, Ferris State University.
Table of Contents
1. Essential Skills and Information: What Every Student Should Know About Drawing Sighting and the Use of a Sighting Stick Why Use Sighting? Guidelines for Sighting Applications of Sighting Transferring Sighting Observations to a Drawing Surface The Principles of Composition: Theory versus Application Review of Some Simple Definitions Visual Principles of Composition Variable Compositional Elements to Consider Using a Viewfinder: What Does It Do for You? General Guidelines Concerning Composition Thumbnail Studies as a Method for Exploring Composition The Golden Section What Is the Golden Section? Constructing a Golden Rectangle The Fibonacci Series Line Variation and Sensitivity Working from General To Specific The Medium and Surface What Is Meant by "Sensitive" Line? Achieving Line Variation and Line Sensitivity Different Kinds and Functions of Line Straight-Line Construction Planar Construction Working with Value Structure A General-to-Specific Approach to Building Value Structure Using Value to Establish an Effect or a Mood Value and Texture Four Things to Look for When Identifying Value Structure on a Form Various Methods for Applying Value Exercises for Promoting a General-to-Specific Approach Controlling Some Variables of Value Structure The Illusion of Space and Depth on a Two-Dimensional Surface Methods for Indicating Space and Depth Different Kinds of Space The Technique of Scaling to Determine Accurate Size Relationships Establishing Scale Successfully The Process of Scaling General Guidelines for Scaling Creating an Effective Still Life What Kinds of Objects Should Be Included? Additional Considerations for Still Lifes The Meaning of Still-Life Objects Using Photographic References
2. Spatial Thinking and Visualization: The Essential Principles of Perspective Drawing An Introduction to Perspective What Is Perspective? Different Types of Perspective Basic Principles of Linear Perspective Perspective and Sighting Limitations of Linear Perspective Recommended Sequencing for Maximum Comprehension Suggestions for Effective Perspective Drawing Perspective Materials List The Terminology of Perspective Primary Working Terminology Related Terminology Additional Useful Terminology Perspective and Cubes Constructing a Cube in One-Point Perspective Constructing a Cube in Two-Point Perspective Based on Estimation of Cube Depth in Relation to Cube Height Estimating Cube Depth in Two-Point Perspective Using Perspective Grids Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in One-Point Perspective Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in Two-Point Perspective Increasing Complexity in the Perspective Environment Multiple or Sliding Vanishing Points Cube Multiplication Cube Division Constructing Ellipses in One-Point and Two-Point Perspective The Eight-Point Tangent System for Ellipse Construction Major and Minor Axes, Distortion, and Fullness of Ellipses
3. Advanced Perspective Techniques Taking Perspective to the Next Level Mathematically Precise Cubes in Two-Point Perspective Constructing a 30°/60° Cube Based on the Height of the Leading Edge Constructing a 45°/45° Cube Based on the Size of the Base Square First Alternative Method for Constructing a 45°/45° Cube Second Alternative Method for Constructing a 45°/45° Cube Using Measuring Lines for Equal and Unequal Divisions of an Area Setting Up the Measuring Line The Process of Dividing a Form Applications for the Use of Regular and Irregular Divisions Inclined Planes in Perspective Auxiliary Vanishing Points and the Vertical Trace Geometric Solids and Transparent Construction What Is Transparent Construction? Establishing the Cubic Connection Three-Point Perspective Constructing a Form in Three-Point Perspective Suggested Perspective Exercises
4. Essential Drawing Principles in Relation to the Human Figure The Human Figure Why Study the Human Figure? Classroom Etiquette When Drawing from a Model The Process of Sighting in Relation to the Human Form Comparative Proportions in the Male and Female Figure Gesture Drawing or Rapid Contour Drawing Seeing Is the Key Using Axis Lines Keeping It Simple Setting the Pace Working from the Inside Out Enhancing the Illusion of Volume and Space in the Human Form Line Variation in Figure Drawing Scaling Techniques in Figure Drawing A General-to-Specific Approach to Form and Value in Figure Drawing An Introduction to Portraiture Common Errors General Guidelines for Locating Facial Features and Other Landmarks The Features and Other Significant Aspects of Portraiture An Alternative Viewpoint in Portraiture Mapping the Figure in Space Drawing The Figure in an Observed Environment Using Straight-Line Construction Creating Visual Paths of Movement The Figure and Anatomy Artistic Anatomy Versus Medical Anatomy Anatomy Reveals Itself Major Bones of the Human Skeletal Structure Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure Additional Information About the Human Skeletal Structure Superficial Muscles of the Human Figure Anatomical Terminology
5. Color Theory and Application Understanding Color Color Terminology The Seven Color Contrasts Color Harmony and Color Chords The Spatial and Volumetric Effects of Color Value and Color Temperature and Color Intensity and Color Volume and Color Hints for Observing and Recording Color Value in a Color Drawing Intensity in a Color Drawing Complements in a Color Drawing Drawing with Color Media Colored Pencils Student-Grade Colored Pencils Artist-Grade Colored Pencils Building Your Colored Pencil Collection Colored Pencil Accessories Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Colored Pencils Colored Pencil Papers Colored Pencil Techniques Resolving Some Limitations of Colored Pencil Pastels Student-Grade Pastels Artist-Grade Pastels Pastel Pencils Pastel Accessories Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Pastels Pastel Papers and Substrates Pastel Techniques Basic Working Procedures Oil Pastels Student-Grade Oil Pastels Artist-Grade Oil Pastels Building Your Oil Pastel Collection Oil Pastel Accessories Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Oil Pastels Oil Pastel Papers and Substrates Oil Pastel Techniques Basic Working Procedures Some Final Thoughts About Working with Color
6. Developing Ideas, Resolving Problems, and Evaluating Results Ideation: Generating Ideas Imaginative Thinking and the Brain Imagination, Creativity, and Brainstorming Diagnosing Problems in Your Work Inaccurate Proportional, Scale, or Shape Relationships Multiple Perspective Eye Levels Foreshortening Inaccuracies or a Lack of Foreshortening Flat and Restricted Line Work Details or Specifics at the Expense of the Larger and More General Underlying Forms Scaling Inaccuracies in Relation to Perspective Principles Lack of Volume or Timid Value Structure in Three-Dimensional Forms Overly Generalized Drawing Substituting Recipes or Formulas for Careful Observation Unintentionally Ambiguous Space Rigid or Pristine Drawings Lacking a Sense of Process Disregard for or Poor Composition Intentions Versus Results Discovering Disparity Descriptive Feedback Interpretive Feedback The Importance of Critiques Group Critiques Individual Critiques Key Questions for Critiquing Work Questions Regarding Composition Questions Regarding Drawing Questions Regarding Figure Drawing Questions Regarding Perspective Questions Regarding Color
7. Drawing Materials and Processes Media and Materials for Drawing Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Surfaces and Substrates Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Media Additional Materials for Drawing and Related Processes Transfer Techniques Combined with Drawing Photocopy and Laser Print Transfers Acrylic Medium Transfers Lazertran Transfers
Appendix: Contemporary Art: A Gallery of Drawings Joe Biel Dustan Creech Bailey Doogan Dan Fischer Sangram Majumdar Antony Micallef Chloe Piene Ben Polsky Jon Rappleye Robert Schultz Jenny Scobel Joseph Stashkevetch Armin Mersmann Julia Randall Daniel E. Greene Lilian Kreutzberger Rob Womack Nathan Heuer Aneka Ingold Ian Ingram Zaria Forman Juan Perdiguero