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What is included with this book?
Foreword | p. xxi |
Preface | p. xxiii |
Preface to the Second Edition | p. xxv |
Preface to the First Edition | p. xvii |
Acknowledgments | p. xxxiii |
Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems | p. 1 |
Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods | p. 3 |
Simple Structures | p. 3 |
Single-Degree-of-Freedom System | p. 7 |
Force-Displacement Relation | p. 8 |
Damping Force | p. 12 |
Equation of Motion: External Force | p. 14 |
Mass-Spring-Damper System | p. 19 |
Equation of Motion: Earthquake Excitation | p. 23 |
Problem Statement and Element Forces | p. 26 |
Combining Static and Dynamic Responses | p. 28 |
Methods of Solution of the Differential Equation | p. 28 |
Study of SDF Systems: Organization | p. 33 |
Stiffness Coefficients for a Flexural Element | p. 33 |
Free Vibration | p. 39 |
Undamped Free Vibration | p. 39 |
Viscously Damped Free Vibration | p. 48 |
Energy in Free Vibration | p. 56 |
Coulomb-Damped Free Vibration | p. 57 |
Response to Harmonic and Periodic Excitations | p. 65 |
Viscously Damped Systems: Basic Results | p. 66 |
Harmonic Vibration of Undamped Systems | p. 66 |
Harmonic Vibration with Viscous Damping | p. 72 |
Viscously Damped Systems: Applications | p. 85 |
Response to Vibration Generator | p. 85 |
Natural Frequency and Damping from Harmonic Tests | p. 87 |
Force Transmission and Vibration Isolation | p. 90 |
Response to Ground Motion and Vibration Isolation | p. 91 |
Vibration-Measuring Instruments | p. 95 |
Energy Dissipated in Viscous Damping | p. 99 |
Equivalent Viscous Damping | p. 103 |
Systems with Nonviscous Damping | p. 105 |
Harmonic Vibration with Rate-Independent Damping | p. 105 |
Harmonic Vibration with Coulomb Friction | p. 109 |
Response to Periodic Excitation | p. 113 |
Fourier Series Representation | p. 114 |
Response to Periodic Force | p. 114 |
Four-Way Logarithmic Graph Paper | p. 118 |
Response to Arbitrary, Step, and Pulse Excitations | p. 125 |
Response to Arbitrarily Time-Varying Forces | p. 125 |
Response to Unit Impulse | p. 126 |
Response to Arbitrary Force | p. 127 |
Response to Step and Ramp Forces | p. 129 |
Step Force | p. 129 |
Ramp or Linearly Increasing Force | p. 131 |
Step Force with Finite Rise Time | p. 132 |
Response to Pulse Excitations | p. 135 |
Solution Methods | p. 135 |
Rectangular Pulse Force | p. 137 |
Half-Cycle Sine Pulse Force | p. 143 |
Symmetrical Triangular Pulse Force | p. 148 |
Effects of Pulse Shape and Approximate Analysis for Short Pulses | p. 151 |
Effects of Viscous Damping | p. 154 |
Response to Ground Motion | p. 155 |
Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response | p. 165 |
Time-Stepping Methods | p. 165 |
Methods Based on Interpolation of Excitation | p. 167 |
Central Difference Method | p. 171 |
Newmark's Method | p. 174 |
Stability and Computational Error | p. 180 |
Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Central Difference Method | p. 184 |
Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Newmark's Method | p. 184 |
Earthquake Response of Linear Systems | p. 197 |
Earthquake Excitation | p. 197 |
Equation of Motion | p. 203 |
Response Quantities | p. 204 |
Response History | p. 205 |
Response Spectrum Concept | p. 207 |
Deformation, Pseudo-velocity, and Pseudo-acceleration Response Spectra | p. 208 |
Peak Structural Response from the Response Spectrum | p. 217 |
Response Spectrum Characteristics | p. 222 |
Elastic Design Spectrum | p. 230 |
Comparison of Design and Response Spectra | p. 239 |
Distinction between Design and Response Spectra | p. 241 |
Velocity and Acceleration Response Spectra | p. 242 |
El Centro, 1940 Ground Motion | p. 246 |
Earthquake Response of Inelastic Systems | p. 257 |
Force-Deformation Relations | p. 258 |
Normalized Yield Strength, Yield Strength Reduction Factor, and Ductility Factor | p. 264 |
Equation of Motion and Controlling Parameters | p. 265 |
Effects of Yielding | p. 266 |
Response Spectrum for Yield Deformation and Yield Strength | p. 273 |
Yield Strength and Deformation from the Response Spectrum | p. 277 |
Yield Strength-Ductility Relation | p. 277 |
Relative Effects of Yielding and Damping | p. 279 |
Dissipated Energy | p. 280 |
Energy Dissipation Devices | p. 283 |
Inelastic Design Spectrum | p. 288 |
Applications of the Design Spectrum | p. 295 |
Comparison of Design and Response Spectra | p. 301 |
Generalized Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems | p. 305 |
Generalized SDF Systems | p. 305 |
Rigid-Body Assemblages | p. 307 |
Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity | p. 309 |
Lumped-Mass System: Shear Building | p. 321 |
Natural Vibration Frequency by Rayleigh's Method | p. 328 |
Selection of Shape Function | p. 332 |
Inertia Forces for Rigid Bodies | p. 336 |
Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems | p. 343 |
Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods | p. 345 |
Simple System: Two-Story Shear Building | p. 345 |
General Approach for Linear Systems | p. 350 |
Static Condensation | p. 367 |
Planar or Symmetric-Plan Systems: Ground Motion | p. 370 |
Unsymmetric-Plan Buildings: Ground Motion | p. 375 |
Symmetric-Plan Buildings: Torsional Excitation | p. 383 |
Multiple Support Excitation | p. 384 |
Inelastic Systems | p. 389 |
Problem Statement | p. 389 |
Element Forces | p. 390 |
Methods for Solving the Equations of Motion: Overview | p. 390 |
Free Vibration | p. 401 |
Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes | p. 402 |
Systems without Damping | p. 402 |
Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes | p. 404 |
Modal and Spectral Matrices | p. 406 |
Orthogonality of Modes | p. 407 |
Interpretation of Modal Orthogonality | p. 408 |
Normalization of Modes | p. 408 |
Modal Expansion of Displacements | p. 418 |
Free Vibration Response | p. 419 |
Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Undamped Systems | p. 419 |
Free Vibration of Systems with Damping | p. 422 |
Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Classically Damped Systems | p. 426 |
Computation of Vibration Properties | p. 428 |
Solution Methods for the Eigenvalue Problem | p. 428 |
Rayleigh's Quotient | p. 430 |
Inverse Vector Iteration Method | p. 430 |
Vector Iteration with Shifts: Preferred Procedure | p. 435 |
Transformation of k[phi] = [omega superscript 2]m[phi] to the Standard Form | p. 440 |
Damping in Structures | p. 447 |
Experimental Data and Recommended Modal Damping Ratios | p. 447 |
Vibration Properties of Millikan Library Building | p. 447 |
Estimating Modal Damping Ratios | p. 452 |
Construction of Damping Matrix | p. 454 |
Damping Matrix | p. 454 |
Classical Damping Matrix | p. 455 |
Nonclassical Damping Matrix | p. 463 |
Dynamic Analysis and Response of Linear Systems | p. 467 |
Two-Degree-of-Freedom Systems | p. 467 |
Analysis of Two-DOF Systems without Damping | p. 467 |
Vibration Absorber or Tuned Mass Damper | p. 470 |
Modal Analysis | p. 472 |
Modal Equations for Undamped Systems | p. 472 |
Modal Equations for Damped Systems | p. 475 |
Displacement Response | p. 476 |
Element Forces | p. 477 |
Modal Analysis: Summary | p. 477 |
Modal Response Contributions | p. 482 |
Modal Expansion of Excitation Vector p(t) = sp(t) | p. 482 |
Modal Analysis for p(t) = sp(t) | p. 486 |
Modal Contribution Factors | p. 487 |
Modal Responses and Required Number of Modes | p. 489 |
Special Analysis Procedures | p. 496 |
Static Correction Method | p. 496 |
Mode Acceleration Superposition Method | p. 499 |
Analysis of Nonclassically Damped Systems | p. 500 |
Earthquake Analysis of Linear Systems | p. 507 |
Response History Analysis | p. 508 |
Modal Analysis | p. 508 |
Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan | p. 514 |
Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan | p. 533 |
Torsional Response of Symmetric-Plan Buildings | p. 544 |
Response Analysis for Multiple Support Excitation | p. 548 |
Structural Idealization and Earthquake Response | p. 554 |
Response Spectrum Analysis | p. 555 |
Peak Response from Earthquake Response Spectrum | p. 555 |
Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan | p. 560 |
Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan | p. 572 |
Reduction of Degrees of Freedom | p. 593 |
Kinematic Constraints | p. 594 |
Mass Lumping in Selected DOFs | p. 595 |
Rayleigh-Ritz Method | p. 595 |
Selection of Ritz Vectors | p. 599 |
Dynamic Analysis Using Ritz Vectors | p. 604 |
Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response | p. 609 |
Time-Stepping Methods | p. 609 |
Analysis of Linear Systems with Nonclassical Damping | p. 611 |
Analysis of Nonlinear Systems | p. 618 |
Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity | p. 629 |
Equation of Undamped Motion: Applied Forces | p. 630 |
Equation of Undamped Motion: Support Excitation | p. 631 |
Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes | p. 632 |
Modal Orthogonality | p. 639 |
Modal Analysis of Forced Dynamic Response | p. 641 |
Earthquake Response History Analysis | p. 648 |
Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis | p. 653 |
Difficulty in Analyzing Practical Systems | p. 656 |
Introduction to the Finite Element Method | p. 661 |
Rayleigh-Ritz Method | p. 661 |
Formulation Using Conservation of Energy | p. 661 |
Formulation Using Virtual Work | p. 665 |
Disadvantages of Rayleigh-Ritz Method | p. 667 |
Finite Element Method | p. 667 |
Finite Element Approximation | p. 667 |
Analysis Procedure | p. 669 |
Element Degrees of Freedom and Interpolation Functions | p. 671 |
Element Stiffness Matrix | p. 672 |
Element Mass Matrix | p. 673 |
Element (Applied) Force Vector | p. 675 |
Comparison of Finite Element and Exact Solutions | p. 679 |
Dynamic Analysis of Structural Continua | p. 680 |
Earthquake Response and Design of Multistory Buildings | p. 687 |
Earthquake Response of Linearly Elastic Buildings | p. 689 |
Systems Analyzed, Design Spectrum, and Response Quantities | p. 689 |
Influence of T[subscript 1] and [rho] on Response | p. 694 |
Modal Contribution Factors | p. 695 |
Influence of T[subscript 1] on Higher-Mode Response | p. 697 |
Influence of [rho] on Higher-Mode Response | p. 700 |
Heightwise Variation of Higher-Mode Response | p. 701 |
How Many Modes to Include | p. 703 |
Earthquake Analysis and Response of Inelastic Buildings | p. 707 |
Nonlinear Response History Analysis | p. 708 |
Equations of Motion: Formulation and Solution | p. 708 |
Computing Seismic Demands: Factors To Be Considered | p. 709 |
Story Drift Demands | p. 713 |
Strength Demands for SDF and MDF Systems | p. 719 |
Approximate Analysis Procedures | p. 720 |
Motivation and Basic Concept | p. 720 |
Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis | p. 722 |
Modal Pushover Analysis | p. 729 |
Evaluation of Modal Pushover Analysis | p. 734 |
Simplified Modal Pushover Analysis for Practical Application | p. 739 |
Earthquake Dynamics of Base-Isolated Buildings | p. 741 |
Isolation Systems | p. 741 |
Base-Isolated One-Story Buildings | p. 744 |
Effectiveness of Base Isolation | p. 750 |
Base-Isolated Multistory Buildings | p. 754 |
Applications of Base Isolation | p. 760 |
Structural Dynamics in Building Codes | p. 767 |
Building Codes and Structural Dynamics | p. 768 |
International Building Code (United States), 2006 | p. 768 |
National Building Code of Canada, 2005 | p. 771 |
Mexico Federal District Code, 2004 | p. 773 |
Eurocode 8, 2004 | p. 775 |
Structural Dynamics in Building Codes | p. 778 |
Evaluation of Building Codes | p. 784 |
Base Shear | p. 784 |
Story Shears and Equivalent Static Forces | p. 788 |
Overturning Moments | p. 790 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 793 |
Structural Dynamics in Building Evaluation Guidelines | p. 795 |
Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure: Current Practice | p. 796 |
SDF-System Estimate of Roof Displacement | p. 797 |
Estimating Deformation of Inelastic SDF Systems | p. 799 |
Nonlinear Static Procedure | p. 806 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 812 |
Frequency-Domain Method of Response Analysis | p. 815 |
Notation | p. 837 |
Answers to Selected Problems | p. 849 |
Index | p. 865 |
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