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Early Childhood Special Education - 0 to 8 Years Strategies for Positive Outcomes,9780131745988
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Early Childhood Special Education - 0 to 8 Years Strategies for Positive Outcomes

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131745988

ISBN10:
0131745980
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/3/2008
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

Featuring the application of evidence-based strategies, ecological and family-based approaches, effective learning, and the use of responsive cultural/linguistic practices,Early Childhood Education (0-8 Years): Strategies for Positive Outcomes, prepares students for all the professional knowledge and skill competencies they need to promote optimal development in infant and toddlers (0-3), preschoolers (3-5), and primary-aged (6-8) children with special needs. Using real-life case studies to illustrate recommended practices, the book clearly presents disability characteristics, assessment practices, and easy-to-implement interventions for inclusive and special education settings, while giving students all the resources they need to master and apply the material. Highlights of This First Edition: Prepares students with ALL the professional knowledge and skill competencies necessary to promote optimal development in children with special needs from birth through 8 years old. Highlights intervention techniques from special education, speech-language pathology, occupational/physical therapy, and the fields of vision and hearing impairments. Uses a real-life case study in each chapter to illustrate recommended practices and strategies. Examines the legal, philosophical, and instructional tenets of the field of Early Childhood Special Education in detail, including IDEA 2004. Features how to use evidence-based practices and strategies that maximize communicative, cognitive/literacy, fine and gross motor, adaptive, and social-emotional development in infants and toddlers, preschoolers, and primary-aged children.

Table of Contents

Foundations of Early Childhood Special Educationp. 1
Introduction to Working with Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Primary-Aged Children with Special Needsp. 3
Overviewp. 4
Case Studyp. 4
Federal Legislation Affecting Early Childhood Special Education Servicesp. 5
1973-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Actp. 6
1990-Individuals with Disabilities Education Actp. 6
2001-No Child Left Behindp. 8
2004-Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Actp. 8
Characteristics of Early Childhood Special Educationp. 9
Characteristics of General Early Childhood Educationp. 11
Least Restrictive Environmentp. 12
Characteristics of Children Receiving Early Childhood Special Education Servicesp. 12
Characteristics of Infants and Toddlersp. 14
Characteristics of Preschoolersp. 14
Characteristics of Primary-Aged Studentsp. 14
Program Objectives for Educating Young Children with Special Needsp. 15
Intervention with Infants and Toddlersp. 15
Intervention with Preschoolersp. 15
Intervention with Primary-Aged Studentsp. 15
Service Delivery Models for Educating Young Children with Special Needsp. 16
Home-Based Program Modelp. 16
Center-Based Program Modelp. 17
Home-Center Program Modelp. 18
Itinerant Teacher Model/Inclusionp. 18
Models for Primary-Aged Studentsp. 19
An Ecological Approach to Early Childhood Special Educationp. 20
Microsystemp. 21
Mesosystemp. 21
Exosystemp. 21
Professional Standardsp. 21
Standards-Based Educationp. 22
Conclusionp. 22
Building Partnerships in Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Settingsp. 27
Overviewp. 28
Case Studyp. 28
Building Partnerships with Familiesp. 29
Impact of a Disability/Developmental Delay on Parentsp. 29
Impact of a Disability/Developmental Delay on Siblingsp. 29
Impact of a Disability/Developmental Delay on Extended Familyp. 30
A Family-Based Approachp. 30
Communicating with Parents and Professionalsp. 33
Nonverbal Communication Skillsp. 34
Verbal Communication Skillsp. 35
The Family Systems Approachp. 37
Family Characteristicsp. 38
Family Interactionp. 38
Family Functionsp. 38
Developing Professional-Family Partnerships in Planningp. 39
Servings Families from Culturally/Ethnically/Linguistically Diverse Backgroundsp. 39
Parents' Personal Rightsp. 40
The Right to Feel Angryp. 40
The Right to Seek Another Opinionp. 41
The Right to Stop Tryingp. 41
The Right to Be Annoyed with Their Childp. 41
The Right to Be a Parentp. 41
Building Effective Teamsp. 41
Types of Teamsp. 42
Developing Effective Teamsp. 44
Conclusionp. 45
Assessment and Individualized Interventionsp. 51
Overviewp. 52
Case Studyp. 52
Assessmentp. 53
Norm-Referenced Assessmentsp. 53
Criterion-Referenced Assessmentsp. 54
Play-Based Assessmentsp. 55
Judgment-Based Assessmentsp. 55
The Purposes of Assessmentp. 56
Developing Individualized Programsp. 58
Developing an Individualized Family Service Planp. 59
Developing an Individualized Education Programp. 64
Monitoring Skill Acquisitionp. 70
Individualized Instruction for Primary-Aged Studentsp. 74
Conclusionp. 74
Effective Instructional and Accommodative Practicesp. 79
Overviewp. 80
Case Studyp. 80
Designing and Managing the Physical Spacep. 81
Using Staff Effectivelyp. 81
Organizing Learning Centersp. 81
Planning for Instructionp. 84
Using Thematic/Unit Curricular Organizationp. 84
Understanding the Stages of Learningp. 84
Instructional Approachesp. 86
Direct Instructionp. 87
Naturalistic Instructionp. 88
Embedded Learning Opportunities/Routine-Based Instructionp. 90
Instructional Strategiesp. 92
Promptingp. 92
Modelingp. 93
Response-Contingent Feedbackp. 93
Mand-Model Procedurep. 93
Active Student Respondingp. 93
Increasing Engagement in Young Childrenp. 94
Providing Sufficient Skill Practicep. 95
Using Activity Mini-Schedulesp. 95
Using Scaffoldingp. 96
Using Computers to Support Learningp. 96
Inclusive and Accommodative Practicesp. 97
Program and Assessment Accommodationsp. 98
Coplanning and Collaborationp. 98
Consultationp. 99
Inclusion of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolersp. 99
Inclusion of Primary-Aged Studentsp. 100
Writing Section 504 Accommodation Plansp. 101
Conclusionp. 103
Techniques for Promoting Development and Learningp. 111
Promoting Communication Developmentp. 113
Overviewp. 114
Case Studyp. 114
Overview of Communication and Language Developmentp. 115
Communication, Speech, and Languagep. 116
Language Delayp. 117
Language Disorderp. 117
Communication Development in Infants and Toddlersp. 118
Semantic Development: The First Wordsp. 118
Pragmatic Developmentp. 119
The Role of Parents and Caregiversp. 120
The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP)p. 121
General Principles of Communication Intervention with Young Childrenp. 123
General Approaches to Communication Interventionp. 123
Facilitative Strategies for Promoting Communication in Young Childrenp. 124
Communication Development in Toddlersp. 126
Late Talkers Versus Late Bloomersp. 128
Assessment of Language Delays in Toddlersp. 128
Strategies for Promoting Communication in Toddlers with Language Delaysp. 130
Communication Development in Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairmentp. 131
Limitations in Language Content: Semanticsp. 132
Limitations in Language Form: Phonology, Morphology, and Syntaxp. 132
Limitations in Language Use: Pragmaticsp. 134
Language and Communication Assessment of Preschoolersp. 135
Strategies for Promoting Communication in Preschoolersp. 136
Language Characteristics of Primary-Aged Students with Language Impairmentsp. 136
Phonological Characteristics of Students with LLDp. 137
Syntactic Characteristics of Students with LLDp. 137
Semantic Characteristics of Students with LLDp. 137
Pragmatic Characteristics of Students with LLDp. 138
Communication and Language Assessment of Primary-Aged Studentsp. 139
Strategies for Promoting Communication in School-Age Children with Language and Learning Impairmentsp. 139
Augmentative-Alternative Communicationp. 141
Types of AAC Systemsp. 142
Conclusionp. 142
Promoting Cognitive and Literacy Developmentp. 149
Overviewp. 150
Case Studyp. 150
Theories of Cognitive Development and Learningp. 151
Behavioral Theory of Learningp. 151
Information-Processing Theory of Learningp. 151
Cognitive-Development Theory of Learningp. 151
The Effects of Early Experiencep. 152
Infants and Toddlersp. 152
Preschoolersp. 153
Cognitive Milestones and Intervention Implications Assessmentp. 154
Infants and Toddlersp. 154
Preschoolersp. 155
Primary-Aged Studentsp. 160
Assessment of Cognitive Developmentp. 160
Formal Cognitive Assessmentp. 160
Informal Assessmentsp. 162
Promoting Cognitive Development and Learning in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolersp. 162
Promoting Cognitive Development and Academic Learning in Primary-Aged Studentsp. 166
Reading Instructionp. 166
Models of Reading Instructionp. 167
Monitoring Reading Progressp. 169
Teaching Mathematicsp. 169
Approaches to Teaching Mathematicsp. 171
Conclusionp. 172
Promoting Fine and Gross Motor and Adaptive Skills Developmentp. 177
Overviewp. 178
Case Studyp. 178
Theories of Fine and Gross Motor Developmentp. 179
Neuromaturational Theoryp. 179
Motor Learning Theoryp. 179
Sensorimotor Theoryp. 180
Treatment Modelsp. 180
Approaches to Interventionp. 180
Activity-Based/Routine-Based Interventionp. 181
Supports to Therapyp. 181
Service Delivery Modelsp. 181
Direct Service Deliveryp. 181
Monitoring Service Deliveryp. 181
Consultation Service Deliveryp. 182
Assessment Practicesp. 182
Screeningp. 182
Diagnosisp. 182
Program Planningp. 182
Characteristics of Children with Physical Disabilitiesp. 184
Cerebral Palsyp. 184
Spina Bifidap. 185
Down Syndromep. 185
Other Conditions that Impact Neuromotor Developmentp. 186
Therapeutic Intervention Strategiesp. 186
Positioningp. 186
Play with People and Objectsp. 187
Promoting Gross Motor Skillsp. 188
Promoting Fine Motor Developmentp. 189
Adapting Curriculap. 190
Promoting Adaptive Skills Developmentp. 191
Feedingp. 191
Dressingp. 193
Personal Hygienep. 193
Assistive technologyp. 194
Conclusionp. 195
Promoting Social and Emotional Developmentp. 199
Overviewp. 200
Case Studyp. 200
Social and Emotional Development in Infants and Toddlersp. 201
Attachmentp. 201
Social and Emotional Development in Preschoolersp. 204
Peer Interactions and Friendshipsp. 204
The Development of Playp. 204
Development of Emotional Regulationp. 206
Social and Emotional Development in Primary-Aged Studentsp. 206
Play in Kindergarten and the Primary Gradesp. 207
Peer Interactions and Friendships in the Primary Gradesp. 208
Managing Challenging Behaviorp. 208
Principles of Behavior Managementp. 208
Relationship Building with Young Childrenp. 209
Assessment of Undesirable Behaviorp. 210
Intervention with Infants and Toddlersp. 210
Intervention with Preschoolersp. 211
Intervention with Primary-Aged Studentsp. 212
Conducting Functional Behavior Assessments and Developing Interventionsp. 214
General Strategies for Promoting Appropriate Social and Emotional Skillsp. 215
Promoting Appropriate Social and Emotional Skills in Infants and Toddlersp. 215
Promoting Appropriate Social and Emotional Skills in Preschoolersp. 216
Promoting Appropriate Social and Emotional Skills in Primary-Aged Studentsp. 217
Conclusionp. 218
Interventions with Specific Populationsp. 223
Techniques for Teaching Young Children with Mild Learning and Behavior Problemsp. 225
Overviewp. 226
Case Studyp. 226
The Identification Processp. 227
Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolersp. 227
Primary-Aged Studentsp. 227
Characteristics of Young Children with Mild Learning and Behavior Problemsp. 233
Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolersp. 233
Primary-Aged Students with Mild Mental Retardationp. 233
Primary-Aged Students with Learning Disabilitiesp. 234
Primary-Aged Students with Behavior Disorders/Emotional Disturbancep. 235
Individualizing Instruction and Tracking Learningp. 236
Primary-Aged Studentsp. 239
Strategies for Promoting Skill Developmentp. 241
Task Analysisp. 241
Time Delayp. 242
Instructional Adaptationp. 242
Developing Communication Skillsp. 243
Developing Social Skillsp. 244
Developing Preliteracy Skillsp. 246
Developing Literacy Skills in Primary-Aged Studentsp. 246
Conclusionp. 248
Techniques for Teaching Young Children with Moderate/Severe or Multiple Disabilitiesp. 255
Overviewp. 256
Case Studyp. 256
Definitions of Moderate/Severe and Multiple Disabilitiesp. 257
General Characteristics of Children with Moderate/Severe and Multiple Disabilitiesp. 258
Neuromotor Impairmentsp. 258
Degenerative Diseasesp. 259
Infectious Diseasesp. 259
Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disordersp. 259
Sensory Impairmentsp. 259
Major Health Impairmentsp. 260
Neurodevelopmental Disordersp. 260
Using a Needs-Based Approach to Interventionp. 260
Medical Needsp. 261
Physical Needsp. 261
Educational Needsp. 262
Social-Emotional Needsp. 262
Forming Educational Teams for Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilitiesp. 263
Roles and Responsibilities of Team Membersp. 263
Early Interventionist/Early Childhood Special Education Professionalp. 263
General Early Childhood Educatorp. 264
Physical Therapistp. 264
Occupational Therapistp. 265
Speech-Language Pathologistp. 265
Assistive Technology Specialistp. 265
Educator for Students with Visual Impairments and Orientation and Mobility Specialistp. 265
Audiologistp. 265
Other Specialistsp. 266
Assessment Considerationsp. 266
Alternative Assessments for Young Children with Moderate/Severe and Multiple Disabilitiesp. 266
Identify Standards or Expected Learning Outcomesp. 267
Determine the Assessment Formatp. 267
Using Continuous Monitoring and Data Collectionp. 267
Curriculum Development for Children with Moderate/Severe and Multiple Disabilitiesp. 267
Desired Life Outcomesp. 268
Supporting Access to the General Curriculump. 269
Conclusionp. 275
Techniques for Teaching Young Children with Hearing Lossp. 279
Overviewp. 280
Case Studyp. 280
Definitionsp. 281
Causes and Types of Hearing Lossp. 282
Causes of Hearing Lossp. 282
Types of Hearing Lossp. 282
Severity of Hearing Lossp. 284
Taking a Visual Perspectivep. 284
A Life-Span Developmental Framework for Interventionp. 285
Impact of Hearing Loss on Development and Learningp. 286
Communication Approachesp. 287
Monolingual Approachesp. 288
Language-Mixing Approachesp. 288
Cued Speech Approachp. 288
Bilingual Approachesp. 288
Technologies that Supplement and Support Soundp. 288
Hearing Aids and Group FM Systemsp. 289
Cochlear Implantsp. 289
Involving Familiesp. 290
Strategies for Promoting Auditory Developmentp. 291
Environmental Modifications for Improving Auditory Communication and Learningp. 292
Sound Localization Skillsp. 293
Responding to Soundsp. 294
Imitation of Soundsp. 295
Promote Spoken Language Within Home Routinesp. 296
Strategies for Promoting Visual Communicationp. 297
Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolersp. 298
Promoting Preliteracy Developmentp. 300
Storytime Activitiesp. 301
Promoting Literacy Developmentp. 302
Strategies for Teaching Literacy in a Bilingual Environmentp. 302
Teaching Literacy in a Language-Mixing Communication Environmentp. 303
Effective Inclusion Practicesp. 305
Conclusionp. 305
Techniques for Teaching Young Children with Low Vision and Blindnessp. 309
Overviewp. 310
Case Studyp. 310
Definitions of Vision Problems and Visual Impairmentp. 311
Prevalence of Visual Impairmentp. 314
Specialized Related-Services Professionalsp. 314
Types and Causes of Vision Problems and Visual Impairmentp. 315
Causes of Visual Impairmentp. 316
The Impact of Vision Loss on Developmentp. 317
Characteristics of Children with Vision Lossp. 317
Cognitive Developmentp. 318
Social-Emotional Developmentp. 321
Language Developmentp. 322
Fine and Gross Motor Developmentp. 324
Preliteracy and Literacy Developmentp. 326
Assessmentp. 328
Vision Screeningp. 329
Functional Vision Assessmentp. 329
Learning Media Assessmentp. 329
Developmental and Academic Assessmentp. 329
State- and DistrictWide Assessments for Primary-Aged Studentsp. 330
Specialized Areas of Instructionp. 330
Continuum of Placement and Inclusionary Practicesp. 330
Conclusionp. 330
Appendices
DEC Recommended Practices Strand: Child-Focused Competenciesp. 337
DEC Recommended Practices Strand: Inclusion Competenciesp. 341
Websites for Professionals and Familiesp. 343
Author Indexp. 349
Subject Indexp. 359
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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