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Earth : An Introduction to Physical Geology

by ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131148659

ISBN10:
0131148656
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $120.40

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Summary

To understand timely issues such as natural disasters and environmental challengesand to evaluate solutions to related problemsthe average citizen needs a basic awareness of the scientific principles that influence our planet. This trusted book makes an often-complex subject accessible to readers with a strong focus on readability and illustrations.Offers a meaningful, non-technical survey that is informative and up to date for learning basic principles and concepts. Includes a revised and expanded GEODe Earth CD-ROM. Updates and revises art and illustrations to include dozens of new high-quality, photographs carefully selected to aid understanding and add realism. Provides a wealth of new special-interest boxes, including "Earth as a System," "People and the Environment," and "Understanding Earth."A useful reference for anyone interested in learning more about Earth's geology.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Instructor and Student Resources xxi
An Introduction to Geology
1(33)
The Science of Geology
2(3)
Geology, People, and the Environment
3(1)
Some Historical Notes About Geology
4(1)
Geologic Time
5(3)
Relative Dating and the Geologic Time Scale
6(1)
The Magnitude of Geologic Time
7(1)
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
8(4)
Hypothesis
8(2)
Theory
10(1)
Scientific Methods
10(1)
Plate Tectonics and Scientific Inquiry
11(1)
A View of Earth
12(2)
Hydrosphere
13(1)
Atmosphere
13(1)
Biosphere
14(1)
Solid Earth
14(1)
Earth As a System
14(3)
Earth System Science
14(1)
The Earth System
15(2)
Early Evolution of Earth
17(2)
Origin of Planet Earth
17(2)
Formation of Earth's Layered Structure
19(1)
Earth's Internal Structure
19(5)
Layers Defined by Composition
19(2)
Layers Defined by Physical Properties
21(1)
How Do We Know What We Know?
21(3)
The Face of Earth
24(2)
Major Features of the Continents
24(1)
Major Features of the Ocean Floor
25(1)
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
26(8)
Basic Rock Types
26(5)
The Rock Cycle: One of Earth's Subsystems
31
Box 1.1 Understanding Earth: Studying Earth from Space
10(2)
Box 1.2 Understanding Earth: Do Glaciers Move? An Application of the Scientific Method
12(22)
Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds
34(42)
Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time
37(6)
Fit of the Continents
38(1)
Fossil Evidence
39(2)
Rock Type and Structural Similarities
41(1)
Paleoclimatic Evidence
42(1)
The Great Debate
43(2)
Rejection of the Continental Drift Hypothesis
43(1)
Continental Drift and the Scientific Method
44(1)
Continental Drift and Paleomagnetism
45(3)
Earth's Magnetic Field and Fossil Magnetism
45(2)
Apparent Polar Wandering
47(1)
A Scientific Revolution Begins
48(5)
The Seafloor-Spreading Hypothesis
48(1)
Geomagnetic Reversals: Evidence for Seafloor Spreading
49(3)
The Last Piece of the Puzzle
52(1)
Plate Tectonics: The New Paradigm
53(4)
Earth's Major Plates
53(3)
Plate Boundaries
56(1)
Divergent Boundaries
57(1)
Oceanic Ridges and Seafloor Spreading
57(1)
Continental Rifting
58(1)
Convergent Boundaries
58(4)
Oceanic-Continental Convergence
60(1)
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence
60(2)
Continental-Continental Convergence
62(1)
Transform Fault Boundaries
62(2)
Testing the Plate Tectonics Model
64(3)
Evidence from Ocean Drilling
65(1)
Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
66(1)
Measuring Plate Motion
67(2)
Paleomagnetism and Plate Motions
67(1)
Measuring Plate Velocities from Space
68(1)
What Drives Plate Motions?
69(2)
Forces that Drive Plate Motion
69(1)
Models of Plate-Mantle Convection
70(1)
The Importance of the Plate Tectonics Theory
71(5)
Box 2.1 Understanding Earth: The Breakup of Pangaea
40(4)
Box 2.2 Understanding Earth: Alfred Wegener (1880-1930): Polar Explorer and Visionary
44(6)
Box 2.3 Understanding Earth: Priority in the Sciences
50(23)
Box 2.4 Understanding Earth: Sampling the Ocean Floor
73(3)
Matter and Minerals
76(32)
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks
78(2)
The Composition of Minerals
80(7)
Atomic Structure
80(2)
Bonding
82(4)
Isotopes and Radioactive Decay
86(1)
The Structure of Minerals
87(1)
Physical Properties of Minerals
88(5)
Primary Diagnostic Properties
89(3)
Other Properties of Minerals
92(1)
Mineral Groups
93(1)
The Silicates
94(2)
The Silicon--Oxygen Tetrahedron
94(1)
Other Silicate Structures
94(1)
Joining Silicate Structures
95(1)
Common Silicate Minerals
96(5)
The Light Silicates
98(2)
The Dark Silicates
100(1)
Important Nonsilicate Minerals
101(7)
Box 3.1 People and the Environment: Making Glass from Minerals
81(3)
Box 3.2 People and the Environment: Asbestos: What Are the Risks?
84(20)
Box 3.3 Understanding Earth: Gemstones
104(4)
Igneous Rocks
108(28)
Magma: The Parent Material of Igneous Rock
110(2)
The Nature of Magma
110(1)
From Magma to Crystalline Rock
111(1)
Igneous Textures
112(3)
Factors Affecting Crystal Size
112(1)
Types of Igneous Textures
113(2)
Igneous Compositions
115(4)
Granitic versus Basaltic Composition
116(1)
Other Compositional Groups
117(1)
Silica Content As an Indicator of Composition
117(2)
Naming Igneous Rocks
119(5)
Felsic (Granitic) Igneous Rocks
119(2)
Intermediate (Andesitic) Igneous Rocks
121(1)
Mafic (Basaltic) Igneous Rocks
121(1)
Pyroclastic Rocks
122(2)
Origin of Magma
124(4)
Generating Magma from Solid Rock
124(4)
How Magmas Evolve
128(4)
Bowen's Reaction Series and the Composition of Igneous Rocks
128(2)
Assimilation and Magma Mixing
130(2)
Partial Melting and Magma Formation
132(4)
Formation of a Basaltic Magma
132(1)
Formation of Andesitic and Granitic Magmas
132
Box 4.1 Understanding Earth: Pegmatites
116(2)
Box 4.2 Understanding Earth: Thin Sections and Rock Identification
118(13)
Box 4.3 Understanding Earth: A Closer Look at Bowen's Reaction Series
131(5)
Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity
136(46)
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
140(2)
Factors Affecting Viscosity
140(1)
Importance of Dissolved Gases
141(1)
Materials Extruded During an Eruption
142(5)
Lava Flows
144(1)
Gases
145(1)
Pyroclastic Materials
146(1)
Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles
147(7)
Anatomy of a Volcano
147(1)
Shield Volcanoes
148(3)
Cinder Cones
151(2)
Composite Cones
153(1)
Living in the Shadow of a Composite Cone
154(4)
The Lost Continent of Atlantis
154(1)
Eruption of Vesuvius A.D. 79
155(1)
Nuee Ardente: A Deadly Pyroclastic Flow
156(1)
Lahars: Mudflows on Active and Inactive Cones
157(1)
Other Volcanic Landforms
158(4)
Calderas
158(1)
Fissure Eruptions and Basalt Plateaus
159(2)
Lava Domes
161(1)
Volcanic Pipes and Necks
161(1)
Intrusive Igneous Activity
162(6)
Nature of Plutons
163(1)
Dikes
163(1)
Sills and Laccoliths
164(3)
Batholiths
167(1)
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
168(7)
Igneous Activity at Convergent Plate Boundaries
172(1)
Igneous Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
173(1)
Intraplate Igneous Activity
174(1)
Can Volcanoes Change Earth's Climate?
175(7)
The Basic Premise
176(1)
Three Modern Examples
177
Box 5.1 Understanding Earth: Anatomy of an Eruption
143(22)
Box 5.2 People and the Environment: Volcanic Crisis on Montserrat
165(13)
Box 5.3 Earth As a System: A Possible Link Between Volcanism and Climate Change in the Geologic Past
178(4)
Weathering and Soil
182(28)
Earth's External Processes
184(1)
Weathering
185(1)
Mechanical Weathering
185(2)
Frost Wedging
185(1)
Unloading
186(1)
Thermal Expansion
186(1)
Biological Activity
187(1)
Chemical Weathering
187(7)
Dissolution
187(2)
Oxidation
189(1)
Hydrolysis
190(3)
Alterations Caused by Chemical Weathering
193(1)
Rates of Weathering
194(2)
Rock Characteristics
195(1)
Climate
196(1)
Differential Weathering
196(1)
Soil
196(2)
An Interface in the Earth System
197(1)
What Is Soil?
197(1)
Controls of Soil Formation
198(2)
Parent Material
198(1)
Time
198(1)
Climate
199(1)
Plants and Animals
199(1)
Topography
200(1)
The Soil Profile
200(4)
Classifying Soils
204(1)
Soil Erosion
204(6)
How Soil Is Eroded
204(1)
Rates of Erosion
204(3)
Sedimentation and Chemical Pollution
207
Box 6.1 Understanding Earth: The Old Man of the Mountain
188(4)
Box 6.2 Earth As a System: Acid Precipitation---A Human Impact on the Earth System
192(13)
Box 6.3 People and the Environment: Clearing the Tropical Rain Forest---The Impact on its Soils
205(2)
Box 6.4 People and the Environment: Dust Bowl---Soil Erosion in the Great Plains
207(3)
Sedimentary Rocks
210(32)
What Is a Sedimentary Rock?
212(1)
Turning Sediment into Sedimentary Rock: Diagenesis and Lithification
212(2)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
214(1)
Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
214(6)
Shale
215(1)
Sandstone
216(2)
Conglomerate and Breccia
218(2)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
220(6)
Limestone
221(1)
Dolostone
222(1)
Chert
223(10)
Evaporites
233
Coal
225(1)
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
226(2)
Sedimentary Environments
228(7)
Types of Sedimentary Environments
232(3)
Sedimentary Facies
235(1)
Sedimentary Structures
235(7)
Box 7.1 Earth As a System: The Carbon Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks
220(9)
Box 7.2 Earth As a System: Using Seafloor Sediments to Unravel Past Climates
229(3)
Box 7.3 Understanding Earth: The Nature and Distribution of Seafloor Sediments
232(10)
Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
242(28)
Metamorphism
244(2)
Agents of Metamorphism
246(4)
Heat As a Metamorphic Agent
246(1)
Pressure and Differential Stress
247(2)
Chemically Active Fluids
249(1)
The Importance of Parent Rock
249(1)
Metamorphic Textures
250(3)
Foliation
250(1)
Foliated Textures
251(2)
Other Metamorphic Textures
253(1)
Common Metamorphic Rocks
253(3)
Foliated Rocks
254(1)
Nonfoliated Rocks
255(1)
Metamorphic Environments
256(6)
Contact or Thermal Metamorphism
257(1)
Hydrothermal Metamorphism
258(2)
Regional Metamorphism
260(1)
Other Metamorphic Environments
260(2)
Metamorphic Zones
262(2)
Textural Variations
262(1)
Index Minerals and Metamorphic Grade
262(2)
Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics
264(6)
Ancient Metamorphic Environments
265(1)
Box 8.1 Understanding Earth: Impact Metamorphism and Tektites
266(4)
Geologic Time
270(30)
Geology Needs a Time Scale
272(1)
Relative Dating---Key Principles
273(3)
Law of Superposition
273(1)
Principle of Original Horizontality
273(1)
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
274(1)
Inclusions
275(1)
Unconformities
275(1)
Using Relative Dating Principles
276(1)
Correlation of Rock Layers
276(1)
Fossils: Evidence of Past Life
277(7)
Types of Fossils
278(1)
Conditions Favoring Preservation
279(2)
Fossils and Correlation
281(3)
Dating with Radioactivity
284(9)
Reviewing Basic Atomic Structure
285(1)
Radioactivity
285(2)
Half-Life
287(1)
Radiometric Dating
287(3)
Dating with Carbon-14
290(1)
Importance of Radiometric Dating
291(2)
The Geologic Time Scale
293(1)
Structure of the Time Scale
293(1)
Precambrian Time
293(1)
Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale
294(6)
Box 9.1 Understanding Earth: Applying Relative Dating Principles to the Lunar Surface
283(1)
Box 9.2 Understanding Earth: The Burgess Shale
284(4)
Box 9.3 People and the Environment: Radon
288(2)
Box 9.4 Understanding Earth: Using Tree Rings to Date and Study the Recent Past
290(4)
Box 9.5 Earth As a System: Demise of the Dinosaurs
294(6)
Crustal Deformation
300(26)
Structural Geology: A Study of Earth's Architecture
302(1)
Deformation
302(5)
Force and Stress
302(1)
Types of Stress
302(2)
Strain
304(1)
How Rocks Deform
305(2)
Mapping Geologic Structures
307(1)
Strike and Dip
308(1)
Folds
308(4)
Types of Folds
308(3)
Domes and Basins
311(1)
Faults
312(9)
Dip-Slip Faults
314(1)
Strike-Slip Faults
314(7)
Joints
321(5)
Box 10.1 Understanding Earth: Naming Local Rock Units
309(13)
Box 10.2 People and the Environment: The San Andreas Fault System
322(4)
Earthquakes
326(34)
What Is an Earthquake?
329(2)
Earthquakes and Faults
330(1)
Elastic Rebound
331(1)
Foreshocks and Aftershocks
331(1)
Earthquake Rupture and Propagation
331(2)
San Andreas Fault: An Active Earthquake Zone
333(1)
Seismology
333(4)
Locating the Source of an Earthquake
337(3)
Earthquake Belts
338(1)
Earthquake Depths
338(2)
Measuring the Size of Earthquakes
340(4)
Intensity Scales
340(1)
Magnitude Scales
341(3)
Earthquake Destruction
344(6)
Destruction from Seismic Vibrations
344(1)
Tsunami
345(3)
Landslides and Ground Subsidence
348(1)
Fire
349(1)
Can Earthquakes Be Predicted?
350(5)
Short-Range Predictions
351(1)
Long-Range Forecasts
352(3)
Earthquakes: Evidence for Plate Tectonics
355(5)
Box 11.1 People and the Environment: Earthquakes East of the Rockies
339(7)
Box 11.2 Understanding Earth: Wave Amplification and Seismic Risks
346(3)
Box 11.3 People and the Environment: Tsunami Warning System
349(5)
Box 11.4 Understanding Earth: A Major Earthquake in Turkey
354(6)
Earth's Interior
360(20)
Probing Earth's Interior
362(1)
The Nature of Seismic Waves
362(1)
Seismic Waves and Earth's Structure
363(3)
Layers Defined by Composition
364(1)
Layers Defined by Physical Properties
364(2)
Discovering Earth's Major Boundaries
366(2)
The Moho
366(2)
The Core--Mantle Boundary
368(1)
Discovery of the Inner Core
368(1)
The Crust
368(2)
The Mantle
370(1)
The Core
371(2)
Density and Composition
371(1)
Origin
372(1)
Earth's Magnetic Field
373(1)
Earth's Internal Heat Engine
373(7)
Heat Flow in the Crust
373(1)
Mantle Convection
373
Box 12.1 Understanding Earth: Inge Lehmann---A Pioneering Geophysicist
370(4)
Box 12.2 Understanding Earth: Why Does Earth Have a Magnetic Field?
374(2)
Box 12.3 Understanding Earth: Seismic Tomography of the Mantle
376(4)
Divergent Boundaries: Origin and Evolution of the Ocean Floor
380(34)
An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor
382(3)
Mapping the Seafloor
382(2)
Viewing the Ocean Floor from Space
384(1)
Provinces of the Ocean Floor
385(1)
Continental Margins
385(4)
Passive Continental Margins
385(3)
Active Continental Margins
388(1)
Features of the Deep-Ocean Basins
389(2)
Deep-Ocean Trenches
389(1)
Abyssal Plains
390(1)
Seamounts, Guyots, and Oceanic Plateaus
390(1)
Anatomy of the Oceanic Ridge
391(2)
Origin of Oceanic Lithosphere
393(3)
Seafloor Spreading
393(3)
Why Are Oceanic Ridges Elevated?
396(1)
Spreading Rates and Ridge Topography
396(1)
The Structure of Oceanic Crust
396(3)
Formation of Oceanic Crust
397(2)
Interactions Between Seawater and Oceanic Crust
399(1)
Continental Rifting: The Birth of a New Ocean Basin
399(5)
Evolution of an Ocean Basin
399(4)
Mechanisms for Continental Rifting
403(1)
Destruction of Oceanic Lithosphere
404(3)
Why Oceanic Lithosphere Subducts
405(1)
Subducting Plates: The Demise of an Ocean Basin
406(1)
Opening and Closing Ocean Basins: The Supercontinent Cycle
407(7)
Before Pangaea
407(2)
Plate Tectonics into the Future
409
Box 13.1 Understanding Earth: Susan DeBari---A Career in Geology
387(5)
Box 13.2 Understanding Earth: Explaining Coral Atolls---Darwin's Hypothesis
392(8)
Box 13.3 Earth As a System: Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Biocommunities---Earth's First Life?
400(14)
Convergent Boundaries: Mountain Building and the Evolution of the Continents
414(30)
Mountain Building
417(1)
Convergence and Subducting Plates
418(4)
Major Features of Subduction Zones
418(4)
Dynamics at Subduction Zones
422(1)
Subduction and Mountain Building
422(3)
Island Arcs
422(1)
Mountain Building Along Andean-Type Margins
422(3)
Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges
425(1)
Continental Collisions
425(6)
The Himalayas
427(1)
The Appalachians
428(3)
Terranes and Mountain Building
431(4)
The Nature of Terranes
431(1)
Accretion and Orogenesis
431(4)
Fault-Block Mountains
435(1)
Basin and Range Province
436(1)
Vertical Movements of the Crust
436(3)
Isostacy
437(2)
Mantle Convection: A Cause of Vertical Crustal Movement
439(1)
The Origin and Evolution of the Continents
439(5)
Earth's First Continents
439(1)
How Continents Grow
440
Box 14.1 Understanding Earth: Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest
421(11)
Box 14.2 Understanding Earth: The Southern Rockies
432(6)
Box 14.3 Understanding Earth: Do Mountains Have Roots?
438(6)
Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity
444(22)
A Landslide Disaster in Peru
446(1)
Mass Wasting and Landform Development
447(1)
The Role of Mass Wasting
447(1)
Slopes Change Through Time
447(1)
Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting
448(3)
The Role of Water
448(1)
Oversteepened Slopes
448(1)
Removal of Vegetation
449(1)
Earthquakes as Triggers
450(1)
Landslides Without Triggers?
451(1)
Classification of Mass-Wasting Processes
451(3)
Type of Material
451(1)
Type of Motion
451(2)
Rate of Movement
453(1)
Slump
454(1)
Rockslide
454(3)
Debris Flow
457(2)
Debris Flows in Semi-arid Regions
457(2)
Lahars
459(1)
Earthflow
459(2)
Slow Movements
461(3)
Creep
461(1)
Solifluction
462(2)
Submarine Landslides
464(2)
Box 15.1 People and the Environment: The Vaiont Dam Disaster
449(6)
Box 15.2 People and the Environment: Real-Time Monitoring of Active Landslides
455(5)
Box 15.3 People and the Environment: Debris Flows on Alluvial Fans: A Case Study from Venezuela
460(2)
Box 15.4 Understanding Earth: The Sensitive Permafrost Landscape
462(4)
Running Water
466(36)
Earth As a System: The Hydrologic Cycle
468(2)
Running Water
470(1)
Streamflow
471(2)
Gradient and Channel Characteristics
471(1)
Discharge
472(1)
Changes from Upstream to Downstream
473(1)
Base Level and Graded Streams
474(1)
Stream Erosion
475(1)
Transport of Sediment by Streams
476(3)
Dissolved Load
477(1)
Suspended Load
478(1)
Bed Load
478(1)
Capacity and Competence
478(1)
Deposition of Sediment by Streams
479(5)
Channel Deposits
479(1)
Floodplain Deposits
480(1)
Alluvial Fans and Deltas
481(3)
Stream Valleys
484(4)
Narrow Valleys
485(1)
Wide Valleys
486(2)
Incised Meanders and Stream Terraces
488(1)
Drainage Networks
489(2)
Drainage Patterns
489(1)
Headward Erosion and Stream Piracy
489(1)
Formation of a Water Gap
490(1)
Floods and Flood Control
491(11)
Causes and Types of Floods
492(5)
Flood Control
497
Box 16.1 People and the Environment: Coastal Wetlands Are Vanishing on the Mississippi Delta
484(12)
Box 16.2 People and the Environment: Flash Floods
496(6)
Groundwater
502(28)
Importance of Underground Water
504(1)
Distribution of Underground Water
504(1)
The Water Table
505(2)
Variations in the Water Table
506(1)
Interaction Between Groundwater and Streams
507(1)
Factors Influencing the Storage and Movement of Groundwater
507(3)
Porosity
509(1)
Permeability, Aquitards, and Aquifers
509(1)
Movement of Groundwater
510(1)
Springs
511(1)
Hot Springs and Geysers
512(2)
Wells
514(1)
Artesian Wells
515(2)
Problems Associated with Groundwater Withdrawal
517(2)
Treating Groundwater As a Nonrenewable Resource
517(1)
Subsidence
517(1)
Saltwater Contamination
518(1)
Groundwater Contamination
519(2)
The Geologic Work of Groundwater
521(9)
Caverns
523(1)
Karst Topography
524
Box 17.1 Earth As a System: Drought Impacts the Hydrologic System
508(12)
Box 17.2 People and the Environment: The Ogallala Aquifer---How Long Will the Water Last?
520(2)
Box 17.3 People and the Environment: Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley
522(8)
Glaciers and Glaciation
530(36)
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles
532(1)
Types of Glaciers
533(3)
Valley (Alpine) Glaciers
533(1)
Ice Sheets
533(1)
Other Types of Glaciers
534(1)
What If the Ice Melted?
535(1)
Formation of Glacial Ice
536(1)
Movement of a Glacier
536(5)
Rates of Glacial Movement
539(1)
Budget of a Glacier
540(1)
Glacial Erosion
541(1)
Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion
542(5)
Glaciated Valleys
543(1)
Aretes and Horns
543(4)
Roches Moutonnees
547(1)
Glacial Deposits
547(1)
Landforms Made of Till
548(6)
Lateral and Medial Morraines
548(1)
End and Ground Morraines
549(2)
Drumlins
551(3)
Landforms Made of Stratified Drift
554(1)
Outwash Plains and Valley Trains
554(1)
Ice Contact Deposits
555(1)
Glacial Theory and the Ice Age
555(1)
Some Indirect Effects of Ice-Age Glaciers
556(2)
Causes of Glaciation
558(8)
Plate Tectonics
558(3)
Variations in Earth's Orbit
561
Box 18.1 Understanding Earth: The Collapse of Antarctic Ice Shelves
535(24)
Box 18.2 Understanding Earth: Rivers Before and After the Ice Age
559(1)
Box 18.3 Understanding Earth: Glacial Ice---A Storehouse of Climate Data
560(6)
Deserts and Winds
566(24)
Distribution and Causes of Dry Lands
569(3)
Low-Latitude Deserts
569(2)
Middle-Latitude Deserts
571(1)
Geologic Processes in Arid Climates
572(3)
Weathering
572(2)
The Role of Water
574(1)
Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Desert Landscape
575(3)
Transportation of Sediment by Wind
578(1)
Bed Load
578(1)
Suspended Load
578(1)
Wind Erosion
579(4)
Deflation, Blowouts, and Desert Pavement
580(1)
Ventifacts and Yardangs
581(2)
Wind Deposits
583(7)
Sand Deposits
583(1)
Types of Sand Dunes
584(2)
Loess (Silt) Deposits
586
Box 19.1 Understanding Earth: What Is Meant by ``Dry''?
569(4)
Box 19.2 People and the Environment: The Disappearing Aral Sea
573(4)
Box 19.3 Understanding Earth: Australia's Mount Uluru
577(5)
Box 19.4 People and the Environment: Deserts Are Expanding
582(8)
Shorelines
590(32)
The Shoreline: A Dynamic Interface
592(1)
The Coastal Zone
592(2)
Waves
594(2)
Wave Characteristics
594(1)
Circular Orbital Motion
595(1)
Waves in the Surf Zone
595(1)
Wave Erosion
596(1)
Sand Movement on the Beach
597(5)
Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline
597(3)
Wave Refraction
600(1)
Beach Drift and Longshore Currents
600(2)
Shoreline Features
602(2)
Erosional Features
602(1)
Depositional Features
603(1)
The Evolving Shore
604(1)
Stabilizing the Shore
604(9)
Hard Stabilization
605(4)
Alternatives to Hard Stabilization
609(2)
Erosion Problems Along U.S. Coasts
611(2)
Coastal Classification
613(1)
Emergent Coasts
614(1)
Submergent Coasts
614(1)
Tides
614(8)
Causes of Tides
615(1)
Monthly Tidal Cycle
616(1)
Tidal Patterns
617(1)
Tidal Currents
617(1)
Tides and Earth's Rotation
618
Box 20.1 People and the Environment: Hurricanes---The Ultimate Coastal Hazard
598(14)
Box 20.2 People and the Environment: The Move of the Century---Relocating the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse
612(1)
Box 20.3 People and the Environment: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise
613(9)
Energy and Mineral Resources
622(35)
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
624(1)
Energy Resources
625(1)
Coal
625(2)
Oil and Natural Gas
627(2)
Petroleum Formation
627(1)
Oil Traps
628(1)
Some Environmental Effects of Burning Fossil Fuels
629(6)
Urban Air Pollution
629(2)
Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming
631(4)
Oil Sands and Oil Shale---Petroleum for the Future?
635(1)
Oil Sands
635(1)
Oil Shale
636(1)
Alternate Energy Sources
636(8)
Nuclear Energy
637(1)
Solar Energy
638(2)
Wind Energy
640(1)
Hydroelectric Power
640(1)
Geothermal Energy
641(2)
Tidal Power
643(1)
Mineral Resources
644(1)
Mineral Resources and Igneous Processes
644(4)
Magmatic Segregation
645(1)
Diamonds
645(1)
Hydrothermal Solutions
646(2)
Mineral Resources and Metamorphic Processes
648(1)
Weathering and Ore Deposits
649(1)
Bauxite
650(1)
Other Deposits
650(1)
Placer Deposits
650(1)
Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
651(6)
Building Materials
652(1)
Industrial Minerals
652
Box 21.1 Understanding Earth: Gas Hydrates---A Fuel from Ocean-Floor Sediments
628(6)
Box 21.2 People and the Environment: Aerosols from the ``Human Volcano''
634(12)
Box 21.3 Understanding Earth: Bingham Canyon, Utah---The Largest Open-Pit Mine
646(11)
Planetary Geology
657(28)
The Planets: An Overview
658(3)
The Interiors of the Planets
659(1)
The Atmospheres of the Planets
659(2)
Earth's Moon
661(5)
The Lunar Surface
665(1)
Lunar History
665(1)
The Planets: A Brief Tour
666(11)
Mercury: The Innermost Planet
666(1)
Venus: The Veiled Planet
666(1)
Mars: The Red Planet
667(4)
Jupiter: Lord of the Heavens
671(2)
Saturn: The Elegant Planet
673(2)
Uranus and Neptune: the Twins
675(2)
Pluto: Planet X
677(1)
Minor Members of the Solar System
677(8)
Asteroids: Microplanets
677(1)
Comets
678(3)
Meteoroids
681
Box 22.1 Understanding Earth: Pathfinder---The First Geologist on Mars
668(10)
Box 22.2 Understanding Earth: Is Pluto Really a Planet?
678(1)
Box 22.3 Earth As a System: Is Earth on a Collision Course?
679(6)
Appendix A Metric and English Systems Compared 685(1)
Appendix B Landforms of the Conterminous United States 686(2)
Glossary 688(17)
Index 705


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