9780495013280

Earth Lab Exploring the Earth Sciences

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  • ISBN13:

    9780495013280

  • ISBN10:

    0495013285

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/20/2005
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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List Price: $197.00

Summary

Utilizing graphs and simple calculations, this clearly written lab manual complements the study of earth science or physical geology. Engaging activities are designed to help you develop data-gathering skills (e.g., mineral and rock identification) and data-analysis skills. You'll learn how to understand aerial and satellite images; to perceive the importance of stratigraphic columns, geologic sections, and seismic waves; and more.

Table of Contents

SECTION 1 Earth Materials
Introduction
Physical Properties of Minerals
1(18)
Definition of a Mineral
1(1)
Properties
2(8)
Determining the Properties of Minerals
10(9)
Common Minerals
19(16)
Classification of Minerals
20(1)
Strategy for Mineral Identification
21(1)
Using the Mineral Identification Tables
22(7)
Recognition of Minerals
29(1)
Silicate Minerals
30(3)
Geologic Resources and Minerals
33(2)
Igneous Rocks
35(20)
Mineralogical and Chemical Composition of Igneous Rocks
35(3)
Igneous Textures Reveal How Igneous Rocks Form
38(11)
Classification and Identification of Igneous Rocks
49(6)
Sedimentary Rocks
55(30)
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
55(4)
Structures of Sedimentary Rocks
59(4)
Fossils
63
Structures of Sedimentary Environments
59(10)
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
69(3)
Biochemical and Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
72(5)
Identification and Description of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
77(8)
Metamorphic Rocks
85(22)
Metamorphic Processes and Types of Metamorphism
85(2)
Textures of Metamorphic Rocks
87(5)
Composition of Metamorphic Rocks
92(3)
Choosing a Classification for a Metamorphic Rock
95(3)
Temperature and Pressure of Metamorphism
98(9)
SECTION 2 Maps and Time
Introduction to Maps
107(22)
Types of Maps
107(4)
Map Legend
111(1)
Scale
112(2)
Directions
114(2)
Pace and Compass Mapping Exercise
116(2)
Global Location System: Latitude and Longitude
118(3)
Map Grids and Orientation
121(2)
Projections
123(4)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
127(2)
Topographic Maps
129(18)
Topography and Contours
129(2)
Topography and Profiles
131(4)
Using and Constructing Topographic Maps
135(5)
Air Photos Give a View of the Third Dimension
140(7)
Rock Structures
147(24)
Deformation of Rock Masses
147(2)
Introduction to Geologic Maps and Cross Sections
149(4)
Structures and Deformation
153(1)
Types of Igneous Rock Masses
153(15)
Metamorphic Rock Masses
168(1)
Rocks in a Cross Section
169(2)
Geologic Time and Geologic History
171(28)
Relative Age
171(12)
Geologic History
183(4)
Determination of Astronomic (Numerical) Dates
187(9)
Geologic Time Scale
196(3)
Geologic Maps
199(32)
Relationships between Contour Lines and Contacts
199(6)
Folds on Geologic Maps
205(8)
Faults on Geologic Maps
213(4)
Unconformities on Geologic Maps
217(2)
Igneous Rocks and Contacts on Geologic Maps
219(1)
Interpreting Geologic History from Geologic Maps and Cross Sections
220(5)
Drawing a Cross Section
225(1)
Making Geologic Maps from Field Investigations
226(2)
Mapmaking Simulation
228(3)
SECTION 3 Earth's Dynamic Interior
Earthquakes and Seismology
231(24)
Earthquake Hazards
232(9)
The Origin of Earthquakes
241(3)
Magnitude
244(3)
Locating an Earthquake
247(8)
Earth's Structure and Plate Tectonics
255(32)
The Structure of Earth's Interior
255(4)
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
259(21)
Geometric Fit of Continents
280(7)
SECTION 4 Earth's Surface
Landslides and Mass Movements
287(30)
Mass Wasting Is Hazardous
287(1)
Factors Influencing Mass Wasting
288(6)
Types of Mass Wasting
294(23)
Streams and Rivers
317(32)
Stream Gradient and Sinuosity
318(9)
Stream Erosion and Its Stages
327(16)
Flooding
343(6)
Groundwater and Karst Topography
349(30)
Porosity
350(1)
Permeability and Flow Rate
351(3)
Water Table, Groundwater Flow, and Wells
354(7)
Groundwater Flow
361(1)
Groundwater Depletion
362(1)
Groundwater Contamination
363(4)
Groundwater Causes Erosion by Solution
367(12)
Shorelines and Oceans
379(30)
The Edge of the Oceans
379(5)
Shorelines
384(7)
Ocean Currents
391(5)
Ocean Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents
396(2)
Nutrients in Seawater
398(1)
El Nino-La Nina
398(11)
SECTION 5 Weather, Climate, and Their Effects
Wind and the Atmosphere
409(40)
The Earth-Sun Relationship
410(3)
Weather
413(17)
Wind and Coriolis Effect
430(5)
Atmospheric Chemistry
435(14)
Glaciers, Glaciation, and Climate Change
449(30)
Glacier Types and Their Movement
450(7)
Landforms Resulting from Glaciation
457(17)
Climate Changes and Glaciers
474(5)
Deserts and Arid Landscapes
479(34)
Types of Deserts
479(3)
Wind Transport and Erosion
482(5)
Erosional Desert Landforms
487(5)
Depositional Desert Landforms
492(13)
Desertification
505(8)
Section 6 Resources
Resources
513(34)
Fossil Fuels as Resources
513(14)
Carbon Cycle
527(7)
Mineral Resources
534(9)
APPENDIX
Scientific Methods
543(2)
Special Features of the Earth Sciences
545(1)
Apply Scientific Method to Your Own Life
545(2)
Glossary 547

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