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Earth Science

by ; ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780131497511

ISBN10:
0131497510
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/8/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $130.60

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Summary

For introductory courses in Earth Science in departments of Geology, Geography, Atmospheric Sciences, and Education. The eleventh edition of Earth Science offers a user-friendly overview of our physical environment with balanced, up-to-date coverage of geology, oceanography, astronomy, and meteorology for the undergraduate student with little background in science. The emphasis is on readability, with clear example-driven explanations. The eleventh edition takes full advantage of the subjects visual appeal, with discussions reinforced by incredible color photos and superb illustrations by Earth science illustrator Dennis Tasa.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction to Earth Science
1(28)
What Is Earth Science?
2(1)
Earth Science, People, and the Environment
3(3)
Resources
3(1)
Population Growth
4(1)
Environmental Problems
4(2)
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
6(3)
Hypothesis
7(1)
Theory
7(1)
Scientific Methods
8(1)
Scales of Space and Time in Earth Science
9(1)
Early Evolution of Earth
10(2)
Earth's Spheres
12(2)
Hydrosphere
12(1)
Atmosphere
13(1)
Biosphere
13(1)
Geosphere
14(1)
A Closer Look at the Geosphere
14(6)
Earth's Internal Structure
15(1)
The Mobile Geosphere
16(2)
The Face of Earth
18(2)
Earth As a System
20(9)
Earth System Science
20(2)
The Earth System
22(7)
UNIT ONE Earth Materials
29(54)
Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
29(22)
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks
30(2)
Elements: The Building Blocks of Minerals
32(2)
Atoms
32(2)
Isotopes and Radioactive Decay
34(1)
Why Atoms Bond
34(2)
Ionic Bonds: Electrons Transferred
35(1)
Covalent Bonds: Electrons Shared
35(1)
Properties of Minerals
36(4)
Primary Diagnostic Properties
36(4)
Other Properties of Minerals
40(1)
Mineral Groups
40(5)
Silicate Minerals
41(2)
Important Nonsilicate Minerals
43(2)
Mineral Resources
45(6)
Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
51(32)
Earth As a System: The Rock Cycle
52(2)
The Basic Cycle
54(1)
Alternative Paths
54(1)
Igneous Rocks: ``Formed by Fire''
54(7)
Magma Crystallizes to Form Igneous Rocks
55(1)
Igneous Textures
56(1)
Igneous Compositions
57(1)
Classifying Igneous Rocks
58(1)
How Different Igneous Rocks Form
59(2)
Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment
61(8)
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
62(5)
Lithification of Sediment
67(1)
Features of Sedimentary Rocks
67(2)
Metamorphic Rocks: New Rock from Old
69(5)
Agents of Metamorphism
70(2)
Metamorphic Textures
72(1)
Common Metamorphic Rocks
72(2)
Resources from Rocks and Minerals
74(9)
Metallic Mineral Resources
75(2)
Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
77(6)
UNIT TWO Sculpturing Earth's Surface
83(104)
Weathering, Soil, and Mass Wasting
83(31)
Earth's External Processes
84(1)
Weathering
84(1)
Mechanical Weathering
85(1)
Frost Wedging
85(1)
Unloading
85(1)
Biological Activity
86(1)
Chemical Weathering
86(3)
Water and Carbonic Acid
86(1)
How Granite Weathers
87(1)
Weathering of Silicate Minerals
88(1)
Spheroidal Weathering
88(1)
Rates of Weathering
89(1)
Rock Characteristics
89(1)
Climate
90(1)
Differential Weathering
90(1)
Soil
90(3)
An Interface in the Earth System
91(1)
What Is Soil?
91(1)
Soil Texture and Structure
92(1)
Controls of Soil Formation
93(2)
Parent Material
93(1)
Time
93(1)
Climate
94(1)
Plants and Animals
94(1)
Topography
95(1)
The Soil Profile
95(1)
Classifying Soils
96(1)
Soil Erosion
97(4)
How Soil Is Eroded
98(1)
Rates of Erosion
99(2)
Sedimentation and Chemical Pollution
101(1)
Weathering Creates Ore Deposits
101(1)
Bauxite
102(1)
Other Deposits
102(1)
Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity
102(1)
Mass Wasting and Landform Development
103(1)
The Role of Mass Wasting
103(1)
Slopes Change Through Time
103(1)
Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting
103(2)
The Role of Water
103(1)
Oversteepened Slopes
103(1)
Removal of Vegetation
104(1)
Earthquakes as Triggers
104(1)
Classifying Mass-Wasting Processes
105(1)
Type of Motion
105(1)
Rate of Movement
105(1)
Slump
106(1)
Rockslide
107(1)
Debris Flow
107(2)
Debris Flows in Semiarid Regions
107(2)
Lahars
109(1)
Earthflow
109(1)
Slow Movements
109(5)
Creep
111(1)
Solifluction
111(3)
Running Water and Groundwater
114(39)
Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle
116(1)
Running Water
117(2)
Drainage Basins
118(1)
River Systems
118(1)
Streamflow
119(2)
Gradient and Channel Characteristics
119(1)
Discharge
120(1)
Changes from Upstream to Downstream
120(1)
The Work of Running Water
121(1)
Erosion
121(1)
Transportation
121(1)
Deposition
122(1)
Stream Channels
122(2)
Bedrock Channels
123(1)
Alluvial Channels
123(1)
Base Level and Stream Erosion
124(2)
Shaping Stream Valleys
126(2)
Valley Deepening
126(1)
Valley Widening
126(1)
Changing Base Level and Incised Meanders
127(1)
Depositional Landforms
128(2)
Deltas
128(1)
Natural Levees
129(1)
Alluvial Fans
130(1)
Drainage Patterns
130(1)
Floods and Flood Control
131(2)
Causes of Floods
131(1)
Flood Control
132(1)
Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface
133(3)
The Importance of Groundwater
134(1)
Groundwater's Geological Roles
135(1)
Distribution and Movement of Groundwater
136(2)
Distribution
136(1)
Factors Influencing the Storage and Movement of Groundwater
137(1)
Groundwater Movement
137(1)
Springs
138(2)
Hot Springs
138(1)
Geysers
139(1)
Wells
140(1)
Artesian Wells
141(1)
Environmental Problems Associated with Groundwater
142(3)
Treating Groundwater as a Nonrenewable Resource
142(1)
Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Withdrawal
142(1)
Groundwater Contamination
143(2)
The Geologic Work of Groundwater
145(8)
Caverns
145(1)
Karst Topography
146(7)
Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind
153(34)
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles in the Earth System
154(2)
Valley (Alpine) Glaciers
154(1)
Ice Sheets
154(1)
Other Types of Glaciers
155(1)
How Glaciers Move
156(3)
Observing and Measuring Movement
156(1)
Budget of a Glacier
157(2)
Glacial Erosion
159(4)
How Glaciers Erode
159(1)
Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion
160(3)
Glacial Deposits
163(5)
Types of Glacial Drift
163(2)
Moraines, Outwash Plains, and Kettles
165(2)
Drumlins, Eskers, and Kames
167(1)
Glaciers of the Ice Age
168(1)
Some Indirect Effects of Ice Age Glaciers
169(1)
Causes of Glaciation
170(3)
Plate Tectonics
170(1)
Variations in Earth's Orbit
171(1)
Other Factors
172(1)
Deserts
173(1)
Geologic Processes in Arid Climates
174(1)
Weathering
174(1)
The Role of Water
174(1)
Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Mountainous Desert Landscape
175(3)
Wind Erosion
178(2)
Wind Deposits
180(7)
Loess
180(1)
Sand Dunes
180(1)
Types of Sand Dunes
181(6)
UNIT THREE Forces Within
187(122)
Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
187(28)
What Is an Earthquake?
189(3)
Earthquakes and Faults
189(1)
Discovering the Cause of Earthquakes
189(2)
Foreshocks and Aftershocks
191(1)
San Andreas Fault: An Active Earthquake Zone
192(1)
Seismology: The Study of Earthquake Waves
193(1)
Locating an Earthquake
194(2)
Measuring the Size of Earthquakes
196(3)
Intensity Scales
196(1)
Magnitude Scales
197(2)
Destruction from Earthquakes
199(5)
Destruction from Seismic Vibrations
200(1)
Tsunami
200(3)
Landslides and Ground Subsidence
203(1)
Fire
204(1)
Can Earthquakes Be Predicted?
204(2)
Short-Range Predictions
204(1)
Long-Range Forecasts
205(1)
Earth's Layered Structure
206(9)
Layers Defined by Composition
207(1)
Layers Defined by Physical Properties
207(2)
Discovering Earth's Major Layers
209(1)
Discovering Earth's Composition
209(6)
Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Theory Unfolds
215(34)
Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time
217(5)
Evidence: The Continental Jigsaw Puzzle
217(2)
Evidence: Fossils Match Across the Seas
219(1)
Evidence: Rock Types and Structures Match
220(1)
Evidence: Ancient Climates
221(1)
The Great Debate
222(1)
Plate Tectonics: The New Paradigm
222(4)
Earth's Major Plates
222(1)
Plate Boundaries
223(3)
Divergent Boundaries
226(2)
Oceanic Ridges and Seafloor Spreading
226(1)
Continental Rifting
227(1)
Convergent Boundaries
228(3)
Oceanic-Continental Convergence
229(1)
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence
230(1)
Continental-Continental Convergence
231(1)
Transform Fault Boundaries
231(2)
Testing the Plate Tectonics Model
233(7)
Evidence: Ocean Drilling
233(2)
Evidence: Hot Spots
235(2)
Evidence: Paleomagnetism
237(3)
Measuring Plate Motion
240(1)
What Drives Plate Motion?
241(2)
Forces that Drive Plate Motion
241(2)
Models of Plate-Mantle Convection
243(1)
Plate Tectonics into the Future
243(6)
Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity
249(34)
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
251(3)
Factors Affecting Viscosity
253(1)
Importance of Dissolved Gases in Magma
253(1)
What Is Extruded During Eruptions?
254(1)
Lava Flows
254(1)
Gases
254(1)
Pyroclastic Materials
255(1)
Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles
255(6)
Anatomy of a Volcano
255(2)
Shield Volcanoes
257(2)
Cinder Cones
259(1)
Composite Cones
260(1)
Living in the Shadow of a Composite Cone
261(2)
Nuee Ardente: A Deadly Pyroclastic Flow
262(1)
Lahars: Mudflows on Active and Inactive Cones
262(1)
Other Volcanic Landforms
263(4)
Calderas
263(2)
Fissure Eruptions and Lava Plateaus
265(1)
Volcanic Pipes and Necks
266(1)
Intrusive Igneous Activity
267(3)
Dikes
269(1)
Sills and Laccoliths
269(1)
Batholiths
270(1)
Origin of Magma
270(3)
Generating Magma from Solid Rock
271(2)
Partial Melting and Magma Compositions
273(1)
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
273(10)
Igneous Activity at Convergent Plate Boundaries
275(3)
Igneous Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
278(1)
Intraplate Igneous Activity
279(4)
Mountain Building
283(26)
Rock Deformation
284(1)
Temperature and Confining Pressure
284(1)
Rock Type
285(1)
Time
285(1)
Folds
285(3)
Types of Folds
286(1)
Domes and Basins
287(1)
Faults
288(6)
Dip-Slip Faults
288(3)
Strike-Slip Faults
291(3)
Joints
294(1)
Mountain Building
294(1)
Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
295(3)
Island Arcs
295(1)
Mountain Building Along Andean-Type Margins
296(2)
Collisional Mountain Ranges
298(3)
Terranes and Mountain Building
298(2)
Continental Collisions
300(1)
Fault-Block Mountains
301(1)
Vertical Movements of the Crust
302(7)
Isostasy
303(1)
How High Is Too High?
304(5)
UNIT FOUR Deciphering Earth's History
309(50)
Geologic Time
309(26)
Geology Needs a Time Scale
310(1)
A Brief History of Geology
311(1)
Birth of Modern Geology
311(1)
Geology Today
312(1)
Relative Dating---Key Principles
312(4)
Law of Superposition
313(1)
Principle of Original Horizontality
313(1)
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
314(1)
Inclusions
314(1)
Unconformities
315(1)
Using Relative Dating Principles
316(1)
Correlation of Rock Layers
316(1)
Fossils: Evidence of Past Life
317(5)
Types of Fossils
317(4)
Conditions Favoring Preservation
321(1)
Fossils and Correlation
321(1)
Dating with Radioactivity
322(5)
Reviewing Basic Atomic Structure
322(1)
Radioactivity
323(1)
Half-Life
324(1)
Radiometric Dating
324(1)
Dating with Carbon-14
325(2)
Importance of Radiometric Dating
327(1)
The Geologic Time Scale
327(2)
Structure of the Time Scale
327(1)
Precambrian Time
327(2)
Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale
329(6)
Earth's History: A Brief Summary
335(24)
Precambrian Time: Vast and Enigmatic
336(5)
Precambrian Rocks
337(1)
Earth's Atmosphere Evolves
338(1)
Precambrian Fossils
339(2)
Paleozoic Era: Life Explodes
341(5)
Early Paleozoic History
341(1)
Early Paleozoic Life
342(2)
Late Paleozoic History
344(1)
Late Paleozoic Life
344(2)
Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaurs
346(3)
Mesozoic History
346(2)
Mesozoic Life
348(1)
Cenozoic Era: Age of Mammals
349(10)
Cenozoic North America
349(3)
Cenozoic Life
352(7)
UNIT FIVE The Global Ocean
359(76)
The Ocean Floor
359(24)
The Vast World Ocean
360(1)
Geography of the Oceans
360(1)
Comparing the Oceans to the Continents
361(1)
An Emerging Picture of the Ocean Floor
361(3)
Mapping the Seafloor
361(2)
Viewing the Ocean Floor from Space
363(1)
Provinces of the Ocean Floor
364(1)
Continental Margins
364(5)
Passive Continental Margins
364(3)
Active Continental Margins
367(2)
The Ocean Basin Floor
369(1)
Deep-Ocean Trenches
369(1)
Abyssal Plains
369(1)
Seamounts, Guyots, and Oceanic Plateaus
369(1)
The Oceanic Ridge
370(4)
Seafloor Sediments
374(3)
Types of Seafloor Sediments
374(1)
Distribution of Seafloor Sediments
375(1)
Seafloor Sediments and Climate Change
376(1)
Resources from the Seafloor
377(6)
Energy Resources
377(1)
Other Resources
378(5)
Ocean Water and Ocean Life
383(19)
Composition of Seawater
384(2)
Salinity
384(1)
Sources of Sea Salts
384(1)
Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity
385(1)
Ocean Temperature Variation
386(2)
Temperature Variation with Depth
386(1)
Ocean Temperature Change Over Time
387(1)
Ocean Density Variation
388(1)
Factors Affecting Seawater Density
388(1)
Density Variation with Depth
388(1)
Ocean Layering
389(1)
The Diversity of Ocean Life
389(5)
Classification of Marine Organisms
390(1)
Marine Life Zones
391(3)
Oceanic Productivity
394(3)
Productivity in Polar Oceans
394(1)
Productivity in Tropical Oceans
394(1)
Productivity in Temperate Oceans
395(2)
Oceanic Feeding Relationships
397(5)
Trophic Levels
398(1)
Transfer Efficiency
398(1)
Food Chains and Food Webs
398(4)
The Dynamic Ocean
402(33)
Surface Circulation
404(5)
Ocean Circulation Patterns
404(3)
The Gulf Stream
407(1)
Ocean Currents and Climate
408(1)
Upwelling
408(1)
Deep-Ocean Circulation
409(1)
The Shoreline: A Dynamic Interface
410(1)
The Coastal Zone
410(1)
Waves
411(3)
Wave Characteristics
412(1)
Circular Orbital Motion
413(1)
Waves in the Surf Zone
414(1)
Wave Erosion
414(1)
Sand Movement on the Beach
415(2)
Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline
416(1)
Wave Refraction
417(1)
Longshore Transport
417(1)
Shoreline Features
417(4)
Erosional Features
417(1)
Depositional Features
418(2)
The Evolving Shore
420(1)
Stabilizing the Shore
421(4)
Hard Stabilization
422(1)
Alternatives to Hard Stabilization
423(1)
Erosion Problems Along U.S. Coasts
424(1)
Coastal Classification
425(1)
Emergent Coasts
425(1)
Submergent Coasts
425(1)
Tides
426(9)
Causes of Tides
426(1)
Monthly Tidal Cycle
427(1)
Tidal Patterns
428(1)
Tidal Currents
428(7)
UNIT SIX Earth's Dynamic Atmosphere
435(150)
The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature
435(30)
Weather and Climate
436(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere
437(3)
Major Components
438(1)
Variable Components
438(2)
Height and Structure of the Atmosphere
440(3)
Pressure Changes
440(1)
Temperature Changes
441(2)
Earth---Sun Relationships
443(5)
Earth's Motions
443(1)
Seasons
443(1)
Earth's Orientation
444(1)
Solstices and Equinoxes
445(3)
Energy, Heat and Temperature
448(1)
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
448(2)
Conduction
448(1)
Convection
449(1)
Radiation
449(1)
The Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation
450(2)
Reflection and Scattering
451(1)
Absorption
452(1)
Heating the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect
452(2)
For the Record: Air Temperature Data
454(1)
Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature
455(4)
Land and Water
456(1)
Altitude
457(1)
Geographic Position
458(1)
Cloud Cover and Albedo
458(1)
World Distribution of Temperature
459(6)
Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
465(36)
Water's Changes of State
466(2)
Ice, Liquid Water, and Water Vapor
466(1)
Latent Heat
467(1)
Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
468(5)
Saturation
468(1)
Mixing Ratio
469(1)
Relative Humidity
469(1)
Dew-Point Temperature
470(2)
Measuring Humidity
472(1)
The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling
473(1)
Fog and Dew vs. Cloud Formation
473(1)
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
473(1)
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
473(1)
Processes that Lift Air
474(2)
Orographic Lifting
475(1)
Frontal Wedging
475(1)
Convergence
475(1)
Localized Convective Lifting
476(1)
The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
476(4)
Types of Stability
476(3)
Stability and Daily Weather
479(1)
Condensation and Cloud Formation
480(7)
Types of Clouds
482(5)
Fog
487(2)
Fogs Caused by Cooling
487(1)
Evaporation Fogs
488(1)
How Precipitation Forms
489(3)
Precipitation from Cold Clouds: The Bergeron Process
489(2)
Precipitation from Warm Clouds: The Collision-Coalescence Process
491(1)
Forms of Precipitation
492(2)
Rain
492(1)
Snow
492(1)
Sleet and Glaze
493(1)
Hail
493(1)
Rime
494(1)
Measuring Precipitation
494(7)
Measurement Errors
494(1)
Measuring Snowfall
495(1)
Precipitation Measurement by Weather Radar
495(6)
Air Pressure and Wind
501(26)
Understanding Air Pressure
502(1)
Measuring Air Pressure
503(1)
Factors Affecting Wind
504(4)
Pressure-Gradient Force
504(1)
Coriolis Effect
505(1)
Friction with Earth's Surface
506(2)
Highs and Lows
508(2)
Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Winds
508(1)
Weather Generalizations About Highs and Lows
509(1)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
510(2)
Circulation on a Nonrotating Earth
510(1)
Idealized Global Circulation
511(1)
Influence of Continents
512(1)
The Westerlies
512(2)
Local Winds
514(3)
Land and Sea Breezes
515(1)
Mountain Valley and Breezes
515(1)
Chinook and Santa Ana Winds
516(1)
How Wind Is Measured
517(1)
El Nino and La Nina
518(4)
Global Distribution of Precipitation
522(5)
Weather Patterns and Severe Storms
527(32)
Air Masses
528(3)
What Is an Air Mass?
528(1)
Source Regions
529(1)
Weather Associated with Air Masses
529(2)
Fronts
531(3)
Warm Fronts
532(1)
Cold Fronts
532(1)
Stationary Fronts and Occluded Fronts
533(1)
The Middle-Latitude Cyclone
534(5)
Life Cycle
534(4)
Idealized Weather
538(1)
The Role of Airflow Aloft
538(1)
What's In a Name?
539(1)
Thunderstorms
540(2)
Thunderstorm Occurrence
540(1)
Stages of Thunderstorm Development
541(1)
Tornadoes
542(7)
Tornado Occurrence and Development
544(2)
Tornado Destruction
546(1)
Tornado Forecasting
547(2)
Hurricanes
549(10)
Profile of a Hurricane
549(2)
Hurricane Formation and Decay
551(1)
Hurricane Destruction
552(7)
Climate
559(26)
The Climate System
560(1)
World Climates
560(1)
Climate Classification
560(3)
Humid Tropical (A) Climates
563(3)
The Wet Tropics
563(3)
Tropical Wet and Dry
566(1)
Dry (B) Climates
566(3)
Low-Latitude Deserts and Steppes
566(2)
Middle- Latitude Deserts and Steppes
568(1)
Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters (C Climates)
569(1)
Humid Subtropics
569(1)
Marine West Coast
569(1)
Dry-Summer Subtropics
570(1)
Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Severe Winters (D Climates)
570(2)
Humid Continental
570(1)
Subarctic
571(1)
Polar (E) Climates
572(1)
Highland Climates
572(1)
Human Impact on Global Climate
573(1)
Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Global Warming
574(3)
CO2 Levels Are Rising
575(1)
The Atmosphere's Response
576(1)
The Role of Trace Gases
577(1)
Climate-Feedback Mechanisms
577(1)
How Aerosols Influence Climate
578(1)
Some Possible Consequences of Global Warming
579(6)
Water Resources and Agriculture
580(1)
Sea-Level Rise
580(1)
The Potential for ``Surprises''
580(5)
UNIT SEVEN Earth's Place in the Universe
585(98)
Origin of Modern Astronomy
585(26)
Ancient Astronomy
586(4)
Early Greeks
586(2)
The Ptolemaic System
588(2)
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
590(7)
Nicolaus Copernicus
590(1)
Tycho Brahe
591(1)
Johannes Kepler
592(1)
Galileo Galilei
593(3)
Sir Isaac Newton
596(1)
Constellations
597(1)
Positions in the Sky
597(3)
Motions of Earth
600(3)
Rotation
600(1)
Revolution
600(1)
Precession
601(2)
Motions of the Earth-Moon System
603(8)
Phases of the Moon
603(1)
Lunar Motions
603(1)
Eclipses
604(7)
Touring Our Solar System
611(28)
The Planets: An Overview
612(3)
The Interiors of the Planets
613(1)
The Atmospheres of the Planets
614(1)
Earth's Moon
615(4)
The Lunar Surface
615(2)
Lunar History
617(2)
The Planets: A Brief Tour
619(10)
Mercury: The Innermost Planet
619(1)
Venus: The Veiled Planet
619(1)
Mars: The Red Planet
620(3)
Jupiter: Lord of the Heavens
623(2)
Saturn: The Elegant Planet
625(2)
Uranus and Neptune: The Twins
627(1)
Pluto: The Outermost Planet?
628(1)
Is Pluto Really a Planet?
629(1)
Minor Members of the Solar System
629(10)
Asteroids: Microplanets
629(1)
Comets: Dirty Snowballs
630(3)
Meteoroids: Visitors to Earth
633(6)
Light, Astronomical Observations, and the Sun
639(20)
The Study of Light
640(3)
Nature of Light
640(1)
Spectroscopy
641(1)
The Doppler Effect
642(1)
Astronomical Tools
643(6)
Refracting Telescopes
643(1)
Reflecting Telescopes
644(1)
Properties of Optical Telescopes
644(3)
Detecting Invisible Radiation
647(2)
The Sun
649(10)
Structure of the Sun
649(3)
The Active Sun
652(2)
The Solar Interior
654(5)
Beyond Our Solar System
659(24)
Properties of Stars
660(3)
Measuring Distances to the Stars
660(1)
Stellar Brightness
661(1)
Stellar Color and Temperature
662(1)
Binary Stars and Stellar Mass
662(1)
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
663(2)
Variable Stars
665(1)
Interstellar Matter
666(1)
Stellar Evolution
667(5)
Star Birth
668(1)
Protostar Stage
668(1)
Main-Sequence Stage
669(1)
Red Giant Stage
669(1)
Burnout and Death
669(2)
H-R Diagrams and Stellar Evolution
671(1)
Stellar Remnants
672(3)
White Dwarfs
672(1)
Neutron Stars
673(1)
Black Holes
674(1)
The Milky Way Galaxy
675(3)
Structure of the Milky Way Galaxy
675(1)
Galaxies
676(1)
Types of Galaxies
677(1)
Galactic Clusters
677(1)
Red Shifts
678(1)
Expanding Universe
678(1)
The Big Bang
679(4)
Appendix A: Metric and English Units Compared 683(1)
Appendix B: Earth's Grid System 684(2)
Appendix C: Relative Humidity and Dew Point Tables 686(2)
Appendix D: Landforms of the Conterminous United States 688(2)
Glossary 690(19)
Index 709


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