9780393924671

Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics (Second Edition)

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780393924671

  • ISBN10:

    039392467X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Textbook Paperback
  • Copyright: 12/17/2003
  • Publisher: W W NORTON

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Summary

The Second Edition also benefits from new artwork that clearly illustrates complex concepts. New to the Second Edition:New Chapter: 15, "Geophysical Imaging," by Frederick Cook Within Chapters 21 and 22, four new essays on "Regional Perspectives" discuss the European Alps, the Altaids, the Appalachians, and the Cascadia Wedge. New and updated art for more informative illustration of concepts. The Second Edition now has 570 black & white figures.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART A FUNDAMENTALS
1(112)
Overview
2(12)
Introduction
2(2)
Classification of Geologic Structures
4(2)
Stress, Strain, and Deformation
6(2)
Structural Analysis and Scales of Observation
8(2)
Some Guidelines for Structural Interpretation
10(2)
Closing Remarks
12(2)
Additional Reading
12(2)
Primary and Nontectonic Structures
14(26)
Introduction
14(1)
Sedimentary Structures
14(12)
The Use of Bedding in Structural Analysis
16(1)
Graded Beds and Cross Beds
17(2)
Surface Markings
19(1)
Disrupted Bedding
19(1)
Conformable and Unconformable Contacts
19(4)
Compaction and Diagenetic Structures
23(1)
Penecontemporaneous Structures
24(2)
Salt Structures
26(4)
Why Halokinesis Occurs
26(1)
Geometry of Salt Structures and Associated Processes
27(2)
Gravity-Driven Faulting and Folding
29(1)
Practical Importance of Salt Structures
30(1)
Igneous Structures
30(5)
Structures Associated with Sheet Intrusions
31(1)
Structures Associated with Plutons
32(1)
Structures Associated with Extrusion
33(2)
Cooling Fractures
35(1)
Impact Structures
35(3)
Closing Remarks
38(2)
Additional Reading
38(2)
Force and Stress
40(22)
Introduction
40(2)
Units and Fundamental Quantities
42(1)
Force
43(1)
Stress
44(1)
Two-Dimensional Stress: Normal Stress and Shear Stress
44(1)
Three-Dimensional Stress: Principal Planes and Principal Stresses
45(3)
Stress at a Point
46(1)
The Components of Stress
46(1)
Stress States
47(1)
Deriving Some Stress Relationships
48(1)
Mohr Diagram for Stress
49(3)
Constructing the Mohr Diagram
50(1)
Some Common Stress States
51(1)
Mean Stress and Deviation Stress
52(1)
The Stress Tensor
53(1)
A Brief Summary of Stress
54(1)
Stress Trajectories and Stress Fields
55(1)
Methods of Stress Measurement
56(4)
Present-Day Stress
56(1)
Paleostress
57(1)
Stress in Earth
57(3)
Closing Remarks
60(2)
Additional Reading
60(2)
Deformation and Strain
62(28)
Introduction
62(1)
Deformation and Strain
63(2)
Homogenous Strain and the Strain Ellipsoid
65(1)
Strain Path
66(1)
Coaxial and Non-Coaxial Strain Accumulation
67(2)
Superimposed Strain
69(1)
Strain Quantities
70(3)
Longitudinal Strain
70(1)
Volumetric Strain
71(1)
Angular Strain
71(1)
Other Strain Quantities
71(2)
The Mohr Circle for Strain
73(2)
Strain States
75(1)
Representation of Strain
75(3)
Orientation
75(1)
Shape and Intensity
76(2)
Finite Strain Measurement
78(11)
What Are We Really Measuring in Strain Analysis
79(2)
Initially Spherical Objects
81(1)
Initially Nonspherical Objects
82(1)
Center-to-Center Method
83(1)
Rf/Φmethod
83(1)
Objects with Known Angular Relationships or Lengths
84(1)
Angular Changes
84(1)
Length Changes
85(1)
Rock Textures and Other Strain Guages
86(1)
What Do We Learn from Strain Analysis?
87(2)
Closing Remarks
89(1)
Additional Reading
89(1)
Rheology
90(23)
Introduction
90(2)
Strain Rate
91(1)
General Behavior: The Creep Curve
92(1)
Rheologic Relationships
93(7)
Elastic Behavior
93(3)
Viscous Behavior
96(1)
Visoelastic Behavior
97(1)
Elastico-Viscous Behavior
97(1)
General Linear Behavior
98(1)
Nonlinear Behavior
98(2)
Adventures with Natural Rocks
100(8)
The Deformation Apparatus
101(1)
Confining Pressure
102(1)
Temperature
103(1)
Strain Rate
104(1)
Pore-Fluid Pressure
105(1)
Work Hardening---Work Softening
106(1)
Significance of Experiments to Natural Conditions
107(1)
Confused by the Terminology?
108(3)
Closing Remarks
111(2)
Additional Reading
112(1)
PART B BRITTLE STRUCTURES
113(90)
Brittle Deformation
114(24)
Introduction
114(1)
Vocabulary of Brittle Deformation
114(3)
What is Brittle Deformation?
117(1)
Tensile Cracking
118(5)
Stress Concentration and Griffith Cracks
118(3)
Exploring Tensile Crack Development
121(1)
Modes of Crack-Surface Displacement
122(1)
Processes of Brittle Faulting
123(1)
Slip by Growth of Fault-Parallel Veins
123(1)
Cataclasis and Cataclastic Flow
123(1)
Formation of Shear Fractures
124(2)
Predicting Initiation of Brittle Deformation
126(6)
Tensile Cracking Criteria
126(1)
Shear-Fracture Criteria and Failure Envelopes
127(5)
Frictional Sliding
132(2)
Frictional Sliding Criteria
132(1)
Will New Fractures Form or Will Existing Fractures Slide?
133(1)
Effect of Environmental Factors in Failure
134(2)
Effect of Fluids on Tensile Crack Growth
134(2)
Effect of Dimensions on Tensile Strength
136(1)
Effect of Pore Pressure on Shear Failure and Frictional Sliding
136(1)
Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress on Shear Rupture
136(1)
Closing Remarks
136(2)
Additional Reading
137(1)
Joints and Veins
138(28)
Introduction
138(2)
Surface Morphology of Joints
140(4)
Plumose Structure
140(1)
Why Does Plumose Structure Form?
141(3)
Twist Hackle
144(1)
Joint Arrays
144(5)
Systematic versus Nonsystematic Joints
144(1)
Joint Sets and Joint Systems
145(1)
Cross-Cutting Relations Between Joints
146(1)
Joint Spacing in Sedimentary Rocks
147(2)
Joint Studies in the Field
149(3)
Dealing with Field Data About Joints
150(2)
Origin and Interpretation of Joints
152(6)
Joints Related to Uplift and Unroofing
152(1)
Formation of Sheeting Joints
153(1)
Natural Hydraulic Fracturing
154(1)
Joints Related to Regional Deformation
155(1)
Orthogonal Joint Systems
156(1)
Conjugate Joint Systems
157(1)
Joint Trend as Paleostress Trajectory
158(1)
Limits on Joint Growth
158(1)
Veins and Vein Arrays
159(4)
Formation of Vein Arrays
160(1)
Vein Fill: Blocky and Fibrous Veins
160(2)
Interpretation of Fibrous Veins
162(1)
Lineaments
163(1)
Closing Remarks
163(3)
Additional Reading
165(1)
Faults and Faulting
166(37)
Introduction
166(3)
Fault Geometry and Displacement
169(10)
Basic Vocabulary
169(3)
Representation of Faults on Maps and Cross Sections
172(2)
Fault Separation and Determination of Net Slip
174(2)
Fault Bends
176(1)
Fault Terminations and Fault Length
177(2)
Characteristics of Faults and Fault Zones
179(8)
Brittle Fault Rocks
179(3)
Slickensides and Slip Lineations
182(2)
Subsidiary Fault and Fracture Geometries
184(1)
Fault-Related Folding
184(3)
Shear-Sense Indicators of Brittle Faults--A Summary
187(1)
Recognizing and Interpreting Faults
187(4)
Recognition of Faults from Subsurface Data
189(1)
Changes in Fault Character with Depth
190(1)
Relation of Faulting to Stress
191(4)
Formation of Listric Faults
192(1)
Fluids and Faulting
192(1)
Stress and Faulting---A Continuing Debate
193(2)
Fault Systems
195(3)
Geometric Classification of Fault Arrays
195(1)
Normal Fault systems
196(1)
Reverse Fault Systems
196(1)
Strike-Slip Fault Systems
197(1)
Inversion of Fault Systems
197(1)
Fault Systems and Paleostress
197(1)
Faulting and Society
198(3)
Faulting and Resources
199(1)
Faulting and Earthquakes
199(2)
Closing Remarks
201(2)
Additional Reading
201(2)
PART C DUCTILE STRUCTURES
203(132)
Ductile Deformation Processes
204(34)
Introduction
204(2)
Cataclastic Flow
206(1)
Crystal Defects
207(3)
Point Defects
207(1)
Line Defects or Dislocations
207(3)
Crystal Plasticity
210(7)
Dislocation Glide
210(1)
Cross-Slip and Climb
210(3)
Mechanical Twinning
213(3)
Strain-Producing versus Rate-Controlling Mechanisms
216(1)
Where Do Dislocations Come From?
216(1)
Diffusional Mass Transfer
217(2)
Volume Diffusion and Grain-Boundary Diffusion
218(1)
Pressure Solution
218(1)
Constitutive Equations or Flow Laws
219(1)
A Microstructural View of Laboratory Behavior
220(1)
Imaging Dislocations
221(1)
Deformation Microstructures
222(7)
Recovery
222(3)
Recrystallization
225(1)
Mechanisms of Recrystallization
226(2)
Superplastic Creep
228(1)
Deformation Mechanism Maps
229(5)
How to Construct a Deformation Mechanism Map
232(1)
A Note of Caution
233(1)
Closing Remarks
234(4)
Additional Reading
234(2)
Appendix: Dislocation Decoration
236(2)
Folds and Folding
238(32)
Introduction
238(1)
Anatomy of a Folded Surface
239(4)
Fold Facing: Antiform, Synform, Anticline, and Syncline
241(2)
Fold Classification
243(3)
Fold Orientation
244(1)
Fold Shape in Profile
245(1)
Fold Systems
246(4)
The Enveloping Surface
247(1)
Folds Symmetry and Fold Vergence
248(2)
Some Special Fold Geometries
250(2)
Superposed Folding
252(5)
The Priciple of Fold Superposition
252(2)
Fold Interference Patterns
254(1)
Fold Style
255(2)
A Few Philosophical Points
257(1)
The Mechanics of Folding
257(5)
Passive Folding and Active Folding
257(2)
Buckle Folds
259(3)
Folded Multilayers
262(1)
Kinematic Models of Folding
262(4)
Flexural Slip/Flow Folding
262(1)
Neutral-Surface Folding
263(1)
Shear Folding
264(1)
Fold Shape Modification
265(1)
A Natural Example
265(1)
A Possible Sequence of Events
266(2)
Closing Remarks
268(2)
Additional Reading
269(1)
Fabrics: Foliations and Lineations
270(24)
Introduction
270(1)
Fabric Terminology
270(2)
Foliations
272(12)
What is Cleavage?
273(1)
Disjunctive Cleavage
274(3)
Pencil Cleavage
277(1)
Slaty Cleavage
278(1)
Phyllitic Cleavage and Schistosity
278(2)
Crenulation Cleavage
280(2)
Gneissic Layering and Migmatization
282(2)
Mylonitic Foliation
284(1)
Cleavage and Strain
284(1)
Foliations in Folds and Fault Zones
285(3)
Lineations
288(4)
Form Lineations
288(1)
Surface Lineations
289(1)
Mineral Lineations
290(1)
Tectonic Interpretation of Lineations
290(2)
Other Physical Properties of Fabrics
292(1)
Closing Remarks
292(2)
Additional Reading
293(1)
Ductile Shear Zones, Textures, and Transposition
294(22)
Introduction
294(2)
Mylonites
296(2)
Type Mylonites
297(1)
Shear-Sense Indicators
298(6)
Plane of Observation
298(1)
Grain-Tail Complexes
299(1)
Fractured Grains and Mica Fish
299(3)
Foliations: C-S and C-C' Structures
302(1)
A Summary of Shear-Sense Indicators
303(1)
Strain in Shear Zones
304(3)
Rotated Grains
304(1)
Deflected Foliations
305(2)
Textures or Crystallographic-Preferred Fabrics
307(4)
The Symmetry Principle
308(2)
Textures as Shear-Sense Indicators
310(1)
Fold Transposition
311(2)
Sheath Folds
313(1)
Closing Remarks
313(3)
Additional Reading
315(1)
Deformation, Metamorphism, and Time
316(19)
Introduction
316(1)
Field Observations and Study Goals
316(3)
Pressure and Temperature
319(3)
Status Report I
321(1)
Deformation and Metamorphism
322(3)
Status Report II
324(1)
Time
325(4)
The Isochron Equation
325(2)
The Isotopic Closure Temperature
327(1)
Dating Deformation
328(1)
Status Report III
329(1)
D-P-T-t Paths
329(4)
Temperature-Time (T-t) History
331(1)
Pressure-Temperature (P-T) History
331(1)
Pressure-Time (P-t) History
331(1)
The Geothermal Gradient
331(2)
The Deformational Setting
333(1)
Closing Remarks
333(2)
Additional Reading
333(2)
PART D TECTONICS
335(166)
Whole-Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics
336(32)
Introduction
336(1)
Studying Earth's Internal Layering
337(1)
Seismically Defined Layers of the Earth
337(5)
The Crust
342(6)
Oceanic Crust
342(1)
Continental Crust
342(6)
The Moho
348(1)
The Mantle
348(2)
Internal Structure of the Mantle
348(2)
Mantle Plumes
350(1)
The Core
350(1)
Defining Earth Layers Based on Rheologic Behavior
350(5)
The Lithosphere
351(2)
The Asthenosphere
353(1)
Isostasy
353(2)
The Tenets of Plate Tectonics Theory
355(4)
Basic Plate Kinematics
359(5)
Absolute Plate Velocity
359(1)
Relative Plate Velocity
360(1)
Using Vectors to Describe Relative Plate Velocity
361(3)
Triple Junctions
364(1)
Plate-Driving Forces
364(2)
The Supercontinent Cycle
366(1)
Closing Remarks
367(1)
Additional Reading
367(1)
Geophysical Imaging of the Continental Lithosphere
368(14)
Frederick A. Cook
Introduction
368(1)
What is Seismic Imaging?
368(2)
How are Data Interpreted?
370(1)
Some Examples
370(2)
The Crust---Mantle Transition
372(2)
The Importance of Regional Profiles---Longer, Deeper, More Detailed
374(1)
An Example from Northwestern Canada
375(4)
Other Geophysical Techniques
379(2)
Closing Remarks
381(1)
Additional Reading
381(1)
Rifting, Seafloor Spreading, and Extensional Tectonics
382(30)
Introduction
382(3)
Cross-Sectional Structure of a Rift
385(5)
Normal Fault Systems
385(4)
Pure-Shear versus Simple-Shear Models of Rifting
389(1)
Examples of Rift Structure in Cross Section
389(1)
Cordilleran Metamorphic Core Complexes
390(4)
Formation of a Rift System
394(2)
Controls on Rift Orientation
396(1)
Rocks and Topographic Features of Rifts
397(5)
Sedimentary-Rock Assemblages in Rifts
397(1)
Igneous-Rock Assemblage of Rifts
397(2)
Active Rift Topography and Rift-Margin Uplifts
399(3)
Tectonics of Midocean Ridges
402(3)
Passive Margins
405(3)
Causes of Rifting
408(2)
Closing Remarks
410(2)
Additional Reading
410(2)
Convergence and Collision
412(32)
Introduction
412(2)
Convergent Plate Margins
414(15)
The Downgoing Slab
415(3)
The Trench
418(2)
The Accretionary Prism
420(4)
The Forearc Basin and the Volcanic Arc
424(1)
The Backarc Region
425(3)
Curvature of Island Arcs
428(1)
Coupled versus Uncoupled Convergent Margins
428(1)
Basic Stages of Collisional Tectonics
429(7)
Stage 1: Precollision and Initial Interaction
431(2)
Stage 2: Abortive Subduction and Suturing
433(2)
Stage 3: Crustal Thickening and Extensional Collapse
435(1)
Other Consequences of Collisional Tectonics
436(6)
Regional Strike-Slip Faulting and Lateral Escape
436(2)
Plateau Uplift
438(1)
Continental Interior Fault-and-Fold Zones
438(2)
Crustal Accretion (Accetionary Tectonics)
440(2)
Deep Structure of Collisional Orogens
442(1)
Insights from Modeling Studies
442(1)
Closing Remarks
443(1)
Additional Reading
443(1)
Fold-Thrust Belts
444(32)
Stephen Marshak
M. Scott Wilkerson
Introduction
444(4)
Fold-Thrust Belts in a Regional Context
448(4)
Tectonic Settings of Fold-Thrust Belts
448(4)
Mechanical Stratigraphy
452(1)
Geometry of Thrusts and Thrust Systems
452(7)
A Cross-Sectional Image of a Thrust Fault
452(3)
Thrust Systems
455(2)
Overall Fold-Thrust Belt Architecture
457(2)
Thrust-Related Folding
459(6)
Mesoscopic- and Microscopic-Scale Strain in Thrust Sheets
465(1)
Fold-Thrust Belts in Map View
465(3)
Balanced Cross Sections
468(2)
Mechanics of Fold-Thrust Belts
470(4)
Closing Remarks
474(2)
Additional Reading
474(2)
Strike-Slip Tectonics
476(25)
Introduction
476(3)
Transform versus Transcurrent Faults
479(3)
Transform Faults
479(2)
Transcurrent Faults
481(1)
Structural Features of Major Continental Strike-Slip Faults
482(11)
Description of Distributed Deformation in Strike-Slip Zones
482(2)
The Causes of Structural Complexity in Strike-Slip Zones
484(3)
Map-View Block Rotation in Strike-Slip Zones
487(1)
Transpression and Transtension
487(3)
Restraining and Releasing Bends
490(2)
Strike-Slip Duplexes
492(1)
Deep-Crustal Strike-Slip Fault Geometry
492(1)
Tectonic Setting of Continental Strike-Slip Faults
493(4)
Oblique Convergence and Collision
493(1)
Strike-Slip Faulting in Fold-Thrust Belts
493(1)
Strike-Slip Faulting in Rifts
493(2)
Continental Transform Faults
495(2)
Oceanic Transforms and Fracture Zones
497(1)
Closing Remarks
498(3)
Additional Reading
498(3)
PART E REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
501(127)
A Global View
502(7)
Introduction
502(1)
Global Deformation Patterns
503(1)
What Can We Learn from Regional Perspectives?
504(2)
Some Speculation on Contrasting Orogenic Styles
506(1)
Closing Remarks and Outline
507(2)
Additional Reading
508(1)
Eastern Hemisphere
509(47)
The Tectonic Evolution of the European Alps and Forelands
510(15)
Stefan M. Schmid
Introduction
510(1)
The Major Tectonic Units of the European Alps
510(2)
The Major Paleogeographic Units of the Alps
512(2)
Three Alpine Transects and Their Deep Structure
514(3)
Inferences Concerning Rheologic Behavior
517(1)
Evolution of the Alpine System and Its Forelands in Time Slices
517(5)
Recent Movements in the Upper Rhine Graben
522(1)
Closing Remarks
523(1)
Additional Reading
524(1)
The Tibetan Plateau and Surrounding Regions
525(10)
Leigh H. Royden
B. Clark Burchfiel
Introduction
525(1)
Precollisional History
525(2)
Postcollisional Convergent Deformation
527(3)
Crustal Shortening and Strike-Slip Faulting
530(2)
Extension of the Tibetan Plateau
532(1)
Closing Remarks
533(1)
Additional Reading
533(2)
Tectonics of the Altaids: An Example of a Turkic-type Orogen
535(12)
A. M. Celal Sengor
Boris A. Natal'in
Introduction
535(3)
The Present Structure of the Altaids
538(1)
Evolution of the Altaids
539(6)
Implications for Continental Growth
545(1)
Closing Remarks
545(1)
Additional Reading
545(2)
The Tasman Orogenic Belt, Eastern Australia: An Example of Paleozoic Tectonic Accretion
547(9)
David R. Gray
David A. Foster
Introduction
547(1)
Crustal Structure and Main Tectonic Elements
548(3)
Timing of Deformation and Regional Events
551(3)
Mechanics of Deformation in Accretionary Orogens
554(1)
Additional Reading
555(1)
Western Hemisphere
556(72)
The North American Cordillera
557(9)
Elizabeth L. Miller
Introduction
557(1)
Precambrian and Paleozoic History
558(1)
Mesozoic History
559(1)
Cenozoic History
560(4)
Closing Remarks
564(1)
Additional Reading
565(1)
The Cascadia Subduction Wedge: The Role of Accretion, Uplift, and Erosion
566(9)
Mark T. Brandon
Introduction
566(1)
Accretionary Flux
566(1)
Wedges, Taper, and Stability
567(1)
Double-Sided Wedges
567(1)
Subduction Polarity and Pro-Side Accretion
568(1)
The Cascadia Subduction Zone
569(5)
Comparison between the Cascadia and Alpine Wedges
574(1)
Additional Reading
574(1)
The Central Andes: A Natural Laboratory for Noncollisional Mountain Building
575(7)
Richard W. Allmendinger
Teresa E. Jordan
Introduction
575(1)
The Andean Orogeny
575(2)
Late Cenozoic Tectonics of the Andes
577(3)
Crustal Thickening and Lithospheric Thinning
580(1)
Closing Remarks
581(1)
Additional Reading
581(1)
The Appalachian Orogen
582(11)
James P. Hibbard
Introduction
582(1)
Overview
582(1)
Tectonic Components
583(4)
Assembly
587(4)
Closing Remarks
591(1)
Additional Reading
591(2)
The Caledonides
593(14)
Kevin T. Pickering
Alan G. Smith
Introduction
593(4)
Late Precambrian---Cambrian Extension and Passive Margins
597(1)
Late Precambrian---Cambrian Arcs, Northern and Northwestern Gondwana
597(1)
Early-Middle Ordovician Arcs, Marginal Basins, and Ophiolites
598(1)
Early Ordovician Breakup of the Northwest Margin of Gondwana
599(1)
Middle-Late Ordovician Subduction, Continental Fragmentation, and Collisions
600(1)
Middle Ordovician---Silurian Closure of the Eastern Iapetus Ocean
601(2)
Late Ordovician Icehouse
603(1)
Ordovician-Silurian Magmatic Arcs Elsewhere in Europe
604(1)
Postorogenic Continental Sedimentation and Igneous Activity
605(1)
Closing Remarks
605(1)
Additional Reading
606(1)
Tectonic Genealogy of North America
607(8)
Paul F. Hoffman
Introduction
607(1)
Phanerozoic (545-0 Ma) Orogens and Pangea
608(1)
Neoproterozoic (1000-545 Ma) Orogens and Gondwanaland
608(1)
Mesoproterozoic (1600-1000 Ma) Orogens and Rodinia
609(1)
Paleoproterozoic (2500-1600 Ma) Collisional Orogens and Nuna
610(1)
Paleoproterozoic Accretionary Orogens Add to Nuna
611(1)
Archean Cratons and Kenorland
612(1)
Closing Remarks
613(1)
Additional Reading
613(2)
Phanerozoic Tectonics of the United States Midcontinent
615(13)
Introduction
615(1)
Classes of Structures in the Midcontinent
616(7)
Some Causes of Epeirogeny
623(2)
Speculations on Midcontinent Fault-and-Fold Zones
625(1)
Closing Remarks
626(1)
Additional Reading
627(1)
Appendix 1 Spherical Projections 628(3)
Appendix 2 Geologic Timescale 631(2)
Credits 633(8)
Index 641

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