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The Earth Through Time,9781118254677
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The Earth Through Time

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9781118254677

ISBN10:
1118254678
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/14/2013
Publisher(s):
John Wiley & Sons Inc

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What version or edition is this?
This is the 10th edition with a publication date of 1/14/2013.
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Summary

The 10th edition of Earth Through Time, by Levine, offers many new and enhanced features including more than a hundred new figures, 75 new questions at end of chapter "Questions for Review and Discussion", and additional "Enrichment Boxes". Furthermore, new sections, including, A Variety of Paleozoic Living Strategies, The Theropod Ancestry of Birds, Cenozoic Climates: Warming Then Cooling, and What Lies Ahead for Humanity have been added. Revised and brought up-to-date discussions are also included such as: Geology Lives in the Present and in the Past; When the Mediterranean was a Desert; Geologic background of Charles Darwin; and Ferdinand Hayden and the geological exploration of the American West to name a few. Revised Geological Time Scale is also included to conform to most recent recommendation of the International Congress on Stratigraphic Nomenclature. As well as revised figures Pathway Through the Proterozoic, Pathway Through the Paleozoic, Pathway Through the Mesozoic, and Pathway Through the Cenozoic which summarize the events described in an Era's history.

Table of Contents

C H A P T E R 1 The Science of Historical Geology 1

Why Study Earth History? 2

Geology Lives in the Present and the Past 2

A Way to Solve Problems: The Scientific Method 3

E N R I C H M E N T Scientific Discoveries Must be Tested 5

Three Great Themes in Earth History 7

What Lies Ahead? 9

C H A P T E R 2 Early Geologists Tackle History’s Mysteries 13

The Intrigue of Fossils 14

An Early Scientist Discovers Some Basic Rules 15

European Researchers Unravel the Succession of Strata 17

Neptunists and Plutonists Clash 18

Uniformitarianism: James Hutton Recognizes that the Present is Key to the Past 18

The Principle of Fossil Succession 20

The Great Uniformitarianism–Catastrophism Controversy 21

The Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships 21

Evolution: How Organisms Change Through Time 23

Earth History in America 24

C H A P T E R 3 Time and Geology 29

Finding the Age of Rocks: Relative Versus Actual Time 29

A Scale of Geologic Time 30

Actual Geologic Time: Clocks in the Rocks 34

Radioactivity Provides a Way to Date Rocks 36

What Occurs When Atoms Decay? 37

The Principal Radioactive Timekeepers 41

How Old is Earth? 45

C H A P T E R 4 Rocks and Minerals: Documents That Record Earth’s History 49

Minerals as Documents of Earth History 50

Minerals and Their Properties 50

Common Minerals that Form Rocks 52

Earth’s Three Great Rock Families and How They Formed 57

Igneous Rocks: “Fire-Formed” 58

Sedimentary Rocks: Layered Pages of History 67

Metamorphic Rocks: Changed without Melting 72

C H A P T E R 5 The Sedimentary Archives 81

Tectonic Setting is the Biggest Factor in Sediment Deposition 82

Environments Where Deposition Occurs 83

What Rock Color Tells Us 89

What Rock Texture Tells Us 91

E N R I C H M E N T You Are the Geologist 93

What Sedimentary Structures Tell Us 94

What Four Sandstone Types Reveal About Tectonic Setting 98

Limestones and How They Form 99

Organizing Strata to Solve Geologic Problems 103

Sea-Level Change Means Dramatic Environmental Change 106

Stratigraphy and the Correlating of Rock Bodies 107

Unconformities: Something is Missing 109

Depicting the Past 112

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N UME N T S

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 118

C H A P T E R 6 Life on Earth: What Do Fossils Reveal? 125

Fossils: Surviving Records of Past Life 126

E N R I C H M E N T Amber, the Golden Preservative 129

E N R I C H M E N T The Mazon Creek Lagerst€atte 131

Figuring Out How Life is Organized 132

Evolution: Continuous Changes in Life 133

The Case for Evolution 141

E N R I C H M E N T Earbones Through the Ages 142

Fossils and Stratigraphy 144

Fossils Indicate Past Environments 151

How Fossils Indicate Paleogeography 155

How Fossils Indicate Past Climates 158

An Overview of the History of Life 159

Life on Other Planets: Are We Alone? 163

C H A P T E R 7 Plate Tectonics Underlies All Earth History 169

Earthquake Waves Reveal Earth’s Mysterious Interior 170

Earth’s Internal Zones 172

Earth’s Two Types of Crust 175

Plate Tectonics Ties It All Together 177

Drifting Continents 178

Evidence for Continental Drift 179

Paleomagnetism: Ancient Magnetism Locked Into Rocks 182

Today’s Plate Tectonics 184

What Happens At Plate Margins? 189

What Drives Plate Tectonics? 194

Verifying Plate Tectonics Theory 195

E N R I C H M E N T Rates of Plate Movement 201

Thermal Plumes, Hotspots, and Hawaii 202

Exotic Terranes 202

Broken, Squeezed, or Stretched Rocks Produce Geologic Structures 205

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D M O N U M E N T S

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 210

C H A P T E R 8 The Earth’s Formative Stages and the Archean Eon 215

Earth in Context: A Little Astronomy 216

E N R I C H M E N T The Origin of the Universe 221

A Solar System Tour, From Center to Fringe 221

Following Accretion, Earth Differentiates 228

The Primitive Atmosphere— Virtually No Oxygen 229

The Primitive Ocean and the Hydrologic Cycle 232

Origin of Precambrian “Basement” Rocks 232

The Origin of Life 238

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D M O N U M E N T S

Voyageurs National Park 246

In Retrospect 247

C H A P T E R 9 The Proterozoic: Dawn of a More Modern World 251

Highlights of the Paleoproterozoic (2.5 to 1.6 billion years ago) 253

E N R I C H M E N T The 18.2-Hour Proterozoic Day 255

Highlights of the Mesoproterozoic (1.6 to 1.0 billion years ago) 257

E N R I C H M E N T BIF: Civilization’s Indispensable Treasure 258

Highlights of the Neoproterozoic (1.0 to 542 million years ago) 259

Proterozoic Rocks South of the Canadian Shield 260

E N R I C H M E N T Heliotropic Stromatolites 262

Proterozoic Life 263

C H A P T E R 1 0 Early Paleozoic Events 275

Dance of the Continents 277

Some Regions Tranquil, Others Active 277

Identifying the Base of the Cambrian 281

Early Paleozoic Events 281

Cratonic Sequences: The Seas Come in, the Seas Go Out 282

The Sauk and Tippecanoe Sequences 284

Way Out West: Events in the Cordillera 287

Deposition in the Far North 288

Dynamic Events in the East 289

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S Jasper National Park 290

E N R I C H M E N T A Colossal Ordovician Ash Fall: Was it a Killer? 292

The Caledonian Orogenic Belt 296

E N R I C H M E N T The Big Freeze in North Africa 297

Aspects of Early Paleozoic Climate 298

C H A P T E R 1 1 Late Paleozoic Events 303

The Seas Come in, the Seas Go Out 306

Unrest Along the Western Margin of the Craton 309

E N R I C H M E N T The Wealth of Reefs 312

To the East, A Clash of Continents 315

Sedimentation and Orogeny in the West 323

Europe During the Late Paleozoic 326

Gondwana During the Late Paleozoic 327

Climates of the Late Paleozoic 327

Mineral Products of the Late Paleozoic 328

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N U M E N T S

Acadia National Park 329

C H A P T E R 1 2 Life of the Paleozoic 335

Animals with Shells Proliferate—and So Does Preservation 337

The Cambrian Explosion of Life: Amazing Fossil Sites in Canada and China 338

The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event 343

A Variety of Living Strategies 343

Protistans: Creatures of a Single Cell 343

Marine Invertebrates Populate the Seas 344

E N R I C H M E N T The Eyes of Trilobites 360

Advent of the Vertebrates 363

The Rise of Fishes 364

Conodonts: Valuable But Enigmatic Fossils 370

Advent of Tetrapods 370

Plants of the Paleozoic 374

E N R I C H M E N T A Walk Through an Ancient Rainforest 377

Mass Extinctions 377

C H A P T E R 1 3 Mesozoic Events 385

The Breakup of Pangea 386

The Mesozoic in Eastern North America 387

The Mesozoic in Western North America 390

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N U M E N T S

Zion National Park 394

E N R I C H M E N T Did Seafloor Spreading Cause Cretaceous Epicontinental Seas? 401

The Tethys Sea in Europe 406

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N U M E N T S

Grand Staircase–Escalante National Monument 407

Gondwana Events 410

E N R I C H M E N T Chunneling Through the Cretaceous 411

C H A P T E R 1 4 Life of the Mesozoic 417

Climate Controls It All 418

Mesozoic Invertebrates 421

Mesozoic Vertebrates 426

Dinosaurs: “Terrifying Lizards” 429

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N U M E N T S

Dinosaur National Monument 430

Dinosaurs: Cold-blooded, Warm-blooded, or Both? 444

Dinosaur Parenting 445

E N R I C H M E N T Can We Bring Back the Dinosaurs? 445

Flying Reptiles 446

Dragons of the Seas 448

The Rise of Modern Birds 449

E N R I C H M E N T The Archaeopteryx Controversy 450

The Mammalian Vanguard 451

Sea Plants and Phytoplankton 455

Land Plants 457

Late Cretaceous Catastrophe 459

E N R I C H M E N T Bolides and Modern Day Catastrophism 463

C H A P T E R 1 5 Cenozoic Events 469

The Tectonics–Climate Connection 470

Stability and Erosion Along the North American Eastern Margin 472

Gulf Coast: Transgressing and Regressing Sea 473

The Mighty Cordillera 473

E N R I C H M E N T Oil Shale 477

Creating the Basin and Range Province 478

G E O L O G Y O F N A T I O N A L P A R K S A N D MO N UME N T S

Badlands National Park, South Dakota 479

E N R I C H M E N T Hellish Conditions in the Basin and Range Province 482

Colorado Plateau Uplift 482

Columbia Plateau and Cascades Volcanism 482

Sierra Nevada and California 485

The New West Coast Tectonics 487

Meanwhile, Drama Overseas  488

Big Freeze: The Pleistocene Ice Age 491

What Caused the Ice Age? 497

Cenozoic Climates: Global Warming Then Cooling 501

C H A P T E R 1 6 Life of the Cenozoic 505

Grasslands Expand, Mammals Respond 507

Plankton 508

Marine Invertebrates 509

Vertebrates 512

Mammals 517

Monotremes 519

Marsupials 519

Placental Mammals 520

E N R I C H M E N T How the Elephant Got Its Trunk 536

Demise of the Pleistocene Giants 539

C H A P T E R 1 7 Human Origins 543

Primates 544

Modern Primates 546

Primate Beginnings 547

The Early Anthropoids 550

The Australopithecine Stage and the Emergence of Hominins 552

A Species in Transition: Australopithecus Sediba 554

The Homo Erectus Stage 556

Final Stages of Human Evolution 557

E N R I C H M E N T Being Upright: Good News, Bad News 558

E N R I C H M E N T Neandertal or Neanderthal? 559

E N R I C H M E N T Neandertal Ritual 560

Humans Arrive in the Americas 563

Human Population: 7 Billion and Growing 565

What Lies Ahead? 566

I n d e x 000



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