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With a unique three-part organization, this non-quantitative, carefully illustrated book introduces the scientific, historical, and personal safety aspects of earthquakes. It provides the basic scientific facts about earthquakes, explaining how the study of earthquakes has progressed through time, offering details on the development of earthquake instruments, and covering immediately practical aspects such as personal safety, building and living in areas prone to earthquakes, and earthquake geography. Earthquake prediction is discussed, including past and present attempts at prediction and the techniques available. A handbook for personal safety vs. earthquakes is provided, outlining the steps to take before, during, and after an earthquake. It assumes no scientific background. Earthquakes: Myths, Legends, and Logic; Measuring Earthquakes; Faults and Earthquakes; Earthquake Size and Location; The Earthquake Process; Plate Tectonics; Journey to the Center of the Earth; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Earthquake Triggering; Great Historic Earthquakes; Earthquakes in the United States; Earthquake Prediction; What to do Before, During, and After an Earthquake; Building for Earthquake Safety. A useful reference for anyone interested in learning more about earthquakes.
Dr. David S. Brumbaugh received his Ph.D. from Indiana University with a specialty in Geophysics. He is Professor at Northern Arizona University and Director of the Arizona Earthquake Information Center. His research interests include the mechanics of normal and thrust faulting; earthquake source mechanics; Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Colorado Plateau and transition zone; earthquake studies of the North Anatolian fault zone, Turkey, and the Aleutian plate boundary.
Table of Contents
|Earthquake Basics||p. 1|
|Earthquakes: Myths, Legends, and Logic||p. 3|
|Myths, Legends, and Gods: Early Ideas on the Origin of Earthquakes||p. 3|
|The Natural World and Earthquakes||p. 7|
|The Age of Reason: The Eighteenth Century||p. 9|
|The Elastic Rebound Theory||p. 12|
|Measuring Earthquakes||p. 17|
|Intensity of Ground Shaking||p. 17|
|Development of Early Mechanical Seismographs||p. 24|
|Seismographs and Earthquake Waves||p. 37|
|Development of Modern Seismic Observatories and Networks||p. 42|
|Digital Networks and Arrays||p. 46|
|IRIS and ANSS||p. 47|
|Faults and Earthquakes||p. 50|
|An Introduction to Faults and Faulting||p. 50|
|Not All Faults Are Alike||p. 51|
|Fault Surfaces and Processes||p. 54|
|Fault Behavior and Time||p. 59|
|Faults and Topography||p. 63|
|Hidden Faults||p. 68|
|Earthquake Data Analysis and Its Contributions to Science||p. 71|
|Earthquake Size and Location||p. 73|
|Earthquake Location||p. 73|
|Earthquake Depth||p. 79|
|Earthquake Size||p. 80|
|The Earthquake Process||p. 87|
|An Important Clue: First Motion of the Ground||p. 87|
|The Fault Plane Solution: A Most Powerful Tool||p. 90|
|Focus Versus Fault: Earthquake Modeling||p. 94|
|Fault Plane Solution Versus Earthquake Modeling||p. 98|
|The Hidden Is Revealed||p. 100|
|Plate Tectonics||p. 104|
|Puzzles and Pieces||p. 104|
|The Engine That Couldn't||p. 108|
|Convection and a Mobile Seafloor||p. 109|
|Magnets, Poles, and Submarines: The Great Discovery||p. 111|
|Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics||p. 114|
|Journey to the Center of Earth||p. 120|
|Caves and Hollow Places Below: Ideas About Earth's Interior||p. 120|
|Solid As a Rock||p. 121|
|A Layered Earth: P-Wave Echos||p. 123|
|Structure of Earth's Interior||p. 128|
|X-Rays into Earth: Through a Glass Darkly||p. 130|
|Earthquakes and Tsunami||p. 136|
|What Is a Tsunami?||p. 136|
|Sumatra (2004)||p. 139|
|New Guinea (1998)||p. 140|
|Lituya Bay, Alaska (1958)||p. 142|
|Earthquake Triggering||p. 146|
|The Clues Were There||p. 146|
|Landers (1992): Earthquakes As Triggers||p. 148|
|A Record of Triggering||p. 151|
|Earthquakes, Earthquake Geography, and Safety||p. 155|
|Great Historic Earthquakes||p. 157|
|New Madrid||p. 165|
|Sonora, Mexico||p. 168|
|San Francisco||p. 168|
|Mexico City||p. 178|
|Earthquakes in the United States||p. 186|
|The Western United States||p. 186|
|The Eastern United States||p. 199|
|Earthquake Prediction||p. 207|
|Snakes, Yaks, and Cockroaches||p. 207|
|New Madrid: A False Alarm||p. 208|
|Earthquake Prediction: The Long and Short of It||p. 209|
|Short-Term Prediction: Precursors, Successes, and Failures||p. 213|
|The Dilatant-Diffusion Theory||p. 214|
|Parkfield: The Earthquake Prediction Experiment||p. 217|
|PRENLAB: An Interesting Success Story||p. 218|
|Fossil Earthquakes: Rocks Tell Tales||p. 219|
|California and the Big One||p. 221|
|Emergency Preparedness||p. 222|
|What to Do Before, During, and After an Earthquake||p. 224|
|Earthquake Hazards||p. 224|
|Preparation Before an Earthquake||p. 226|
|During an Earthquake||p. 230|
|After an Earthquake||p. 230|
|Case Histories: Luck Plays a Part||p. 231|
|Building for Earthquake Safety||p. 234|
|The Basics: What Is a Building?||p. 235|
|Site Selection||p. 235|
|The Role of Design in Safety||p. 242|
|Ornamental Design and Chimneys||p. 243|
|Mobile Homes||p. 245|
|Government Emergency Services and Geoscience Organizations||p. 247|
|Computer-Based Earthquake Information||p. 250|
|Suggested Readings||p. 251|
|Illustration Credits||p. 257|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|