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The Ecology of Plants

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780878932948

ISBN10:
0878932941
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Sinauer Associates Inc
List Price: $117.95

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Table of Contents

The Science of Plant Ecology
1(16)
Ecology as a Science
1(8)
The Genesis of Scientific Knowledge
2(2)
Objectivity, Subjectivity, Choice, and Chance in Scientific Research
4(1)
Experiments: The Heart of Research
4(4)
Testing Theories
8(1)
Specific Results versus General Understanding
9(1)
Science and Other Ways of Knowing, Revisited
9(1)
Scale and Heterogeneity
9(2)
The Structure and History of Plant Ecology
11(2)
Questions for Further Study
13(1)
Additional Readings
13(4)
PART I THE INDIVIDUAL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
Photosynthesis and the Light Environment
17(26)
The Process of Photosynthesis
18(2)
Photosynthetic Rates
20(5)
Limitations Caused by Light Levels
20(3)
Limitations on Carbon Uptake
23(1)
Variation in Photosynthetic Rates Within and Between Habitats
24(1)
The Three Photosynthetic Pathways
25(5)
C3 Photosynthesis
25(1)
C4 Photosynthesis
25(1)
Box 2A Photorespiration
26(1)
Box 2B Stable Isotopes and Photosynthesis
27(2)
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM Photosynthesis)
29(1)
Evolution of the Three Photosynthetic Pathways
30(2)
Phylogeny of the Photosynthetic Pathways
30(1)
Photosynthesis through Evolutionary Time
31(1)
Growth Form, Phenology, and Distribution of C3, C4, and CAM Plants
32(4)
Growth Forms and Habitats
32(2)
Phenology
34(1)
Geographic Distributions
34(2)
Adaptations to the Light Environment
36(5)
Sun and Shade Leaves
36(1)
Species' Adaptations to High-Light and Low-Light Habitats
37(1)
Box 2C Leaf Iridescence and Structural Coloration
38(1)
Do Sun and Shade Adaptations Exist Within Species?
39(1)
Day Length: Responses and Adaptations
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
Questions for Further Study
41(1)
Additional Readings
41(2)
Water Relations and Energy Balance
43(28)
Adapting to Life on Land
44(1)
Water Potential
44(1)
The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
45(3)
Box 3A Measuring Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water Potential
46(2)
Transpiration and the Control of Water Loss
48(13)
Strategies for Coping with Different Water Availability Conditions
49(1)
Water Use Efficiency
50(1)
Whole-Plant Adaptations to Low Water Availability
50(2)
Physiological Adaptations
52(2)
Anatomical and Morphological Adaptations
54(7)
The Energy Balance of Leaves
61(7)
Radiant Energy
62(1)
Box 3B Why the Sky Is Blue and the Setting Sun Is Red
63(1)
Conduction and Convection
64(1)
Latent Heat Exchange
65(1)
Putting It All Together: Leaf and Whole-Plant Temperature
65(2)
Adaptations to Extreme Temperature Regimes
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
Questions for Further Study
69(1)
Additional Readings
69(2)
Soils, Mineral, Nutrition, and Belowground Interactions
71(30)
Soil Composition and Structure
71(9)
Soil Texture
72(2)
Soil pH
74(1)
Horizons and Profiles
75(2)
Origins and Classification
77(3)
Organic Matter and the Role of Organisms
80(1)
Water Movement within Soils
80(2)
Plant Mineral Nutrition
82(10)
The Stoichiometry of Nutrients
82(1)
Nitrogen in Plants and Soils
83(1)
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
84(2)
Box 4A Symbioses and Mutualisms
86(2)
Phosphorus in Soils
88(1)
Nutrient Use Efficiency
88(2)
Leaf Life Span and Evergreen versus Deciduous Leaves
90(2)
Mycorrhizae
92(4)
Major Groups of Mycorrhizae
92(1)
The Role of Mycorrhizae in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition
93(1)
Other Functions of Mycorrhizae
94(1)
Orchids and Their Mycorrhizal Associations
95(1)
Mutualism or Parasitism?
95(1)
Effects of Mycorrhizae on Plant Interactions
95(1)
Summary
96(1)
Questions for Further Study
97(1)
Additional Readings
97(4)
PART II POPULATIONS AND EVOLUTION
Population Structure, Growth, and Decline
101(28)
Some Issues in the Study of Plant Population Growth
102(1)
Population Structure
103(3)
Some Population Structure Issues Specific to Plants
105(1)
Sources of Population Structure
106(1)
Studying Population Growth and Decline
106(13)
Life Cycle Graphs
107(1)
Box 5A Life Table Calculations
108(1)
Box 5B Borrowing the Mark-Recapture Method from Animal Ecology
109(1)
Box 5C Constructing Matrix Models
110(1)
Matrix Models
110(1)
Box 5D Demography of an Endangered Cactus
111(1)
Box 5E Multiplying a Population Vector by a Matrix
111(1)
Analyzing Matrix Models
112(1)
But Real Plants Live in Variable Environments
113(1)
Lifetime Reproduction: The Net Reproductive Rate
113(1)
Reproductive Value: The Contribution of Each Stage to Population Growth
113(1)
Box 5F Reproductive Value
114(1)
Box 5G How Do Changes in the Transition Probabilities Affect the Population Growth Rate?
115(1)
Sensitivity and Elasticity
115(1)
Life Table Response Experiments
116(1)
Age and Stage, Revisited
117(1)
Other Approaches to Modeling Plant Demography
118(1)
Demographic Studies of Long-Lived Plants
119(3)
Random Variation in Population Growth and Decline
122(4)
Causes of Random Variation
122(1)
Long-Term Growth Rates
123(2)
Studying Variable Population Growth
125(1)
Summary
126(1)
Questions for Further Study
127(1)
Additional Readings
127(2)
Evolutionary Processes and Outcomes
129(26)
Natural Selection
130(3)
Variation and Natural Selection
130(1)
The Factors Necessary for Natural Selection
131(2)
Heritability
133(4)
Resemblance among Relatives
133(1)
Partitioning Phenotypic Variation
134(1)
Box 6A A Simple Genetic System and the Resemblance of Relatives
135(1)
Genotype-Environment Interactions
136(1)
Gene-Environment Covariation
136(1)
Patterns of Adaptation
137(5)
Heavy-Metal Tolerance
137(3)
Adaptive Plasticity
140(2)
Levels of Selection
142(1)
Other Evolutionary Processes
143(2)
Processes that Increase Variation
143(1)
Processes that Decrease Variation
143(2)
Variation among Populations
145(1)
Ecotypes
145(4)
Speciation
149(2)
Adaptation and Speciation through Hybridization
151(1)
Summary
152(1)
Questions for Further Study
153(1)
Additional Readings
153(2)
Growth and Reproduction of Individuals
155(30)
Plant Growth
155(2)
Ecology of Growth
157(3)
Plant Architecture and Light Interception
157(1)
Growth of Clonal Plants
158(2)
Plant Reproduction
160(3)
Vegetative Reproduction
160(1)
Seeds Produced Asexually
161(1)
Sexual Life Cycles of Plants
161(2)
Pollination Ecology
163(9)
Wind Pollination
163(2)
Attracting Animal Visitors: Visual Displays
165(1)
Attracting Animal Visitors: Floral Odors and Acoustic Guides
166(2)
Limiting Unwanted Visits
168(1)
Pollination Syndromes
168(1)
Box 7A Specialized Plants and Pollinators
169(1)
Aquatic Plants and Pollination
170(1)
Box 7B Some Complex Plant-Pollinator Interactions
171(1)
Who Mates with Whom?
172(7)
Plant Gender
172(1)
Box 7C Pollination Experiments
173(1)
Competition for Pollinators and among Pollen Grains
173(1)
Pollen Dispersal and Its Consequences
174(2)
Assortative Mating
176(1)
Frequency-Dependent Selection
176(1)
Factors that Shape Plant Mating Systems
177(1)
Applications of Pollination and Mating System Ecology
178(1)
The Ecology of Fruits and Seeds
179(4)
Seed Dispersal Patterns
180(3)
Seed Banks
183(1)
Summary
183(1)
Questions for Further Study
184(1)
Additional Readings
184(1)
Plant Life Histories
185(20)
Size and Number of Seeds
185(3)
Life History Strategies
188(7)
Life Span
189(1)
r- and K-selection
190(1)
Grime's Triangular Model
191(2)
Demographic Life History Theory
193(1)
Reproductive Allocation
193(1)
Difficulties in Measuring Trade-Offs
194(1)
Variation among years
195(3)
Consequences of Variable Environments
195(1)
Seed Germination
195(1)
Masting
196(2)
Phenology: Within-Year Schedules of Growth and Reproduction
198(3)
Vegetative Phenology
198(1)
Reproductive Phenology: Abiotic Factors
199(2)
Reproductive Phenology: Biotic Factors
201(1)
Summary
201(1)
Questions for Further Study
202(1)
Additional Readings
202(3)
PART III COMMUNITIES AND THEIR CAUSES
Community Properties
205(20)
What Is a Community?
205(7)
The History of a Controversy
206(1)
Box 9A Communities, Taxa, Guilds, and Functional Groups
207(3)
A Modern Perspective on the Issues in Contention
210(1)
Are Communities Real?
211(1)
Box 9B A Deeper Look at Some Definitions: Abiotic Factors and Emergent Properties
212(1)
Describing Communities
212(9)
Species Richness
213(2)
Diversity, Evenness, and Dominance
215(2)
Sampling Methods and Parameters for Describing Community Composition
217(2)
Physiognomy
219(2)
Long-Term Studies
221(1)
Summary
221(1)
Box 9C The Long-Term Ecological Research Network
222(1)
Questions for Further Study
222(1)
Additional Readings
223(2)
Competition and Other Interactions Among Plants
225(32)
Competition at the Level of Individuals
226(7)
Seedlings: Density, Size, Inequality, and Timing of Emergence
226(3)
Seedlings: Density and Mortality
229(1)
Mechanisms of Competition for Resources
230(2)
Size and Resource Competition
232(1)
Experimental Methods for Studying Competition
233(4)
Greenhouse and Garden Experiments
233(1)
Box 10A How Competition Is Measured, and Why That Matters
234(2)
Field Experiments
236(1)
From Interspecific Competition to Allelopathy to Facilitation
237(7)
Trade-offs and Strategies
237(2)
Competitive Hierarchies
239(1)
Allelopathy
240(2)
Facilitation
242(2)
Modeling Competition and Coexistence
244(4)
Equilibrium Models
245(1)
Nonequilibrium Approaches to Modeling Competition
246(2)
Effects of Competition on Species Coexistence and Community Composition
248(1)
Competition along Environmental Gradients
249(6)
Conceptual Models of Competition in Habitats with Differing Productivities
249(2)
Experimental Evidence
251(2)
Evidence from Research Syntheses
253(2)
Resolution of Differing Results
255(1)
Summary
255(1)
Questions for Further Study
256(1)
Additional Readings
256(1)
Herbivory and Plant-Pathogen Interactions
257(26)
Herbivory at the Level of Individuals
258(1)
Herbivory and Plant Populations
259(4)
Herbivory and Spatial Distribution of Plants
260(1)
Granivory
261(1)
Biological Control
261(2)
Effects of Herbivory at the Community Level
263(4)
Consequences of Herbivore Behavior
263(1)
Apparent Competition
263(1)
Introduced and Domesticated Herbivores
264(1)
Effects of Native Herbivores
265(2)
Generality
267(1)
Plant Defenses against Herbivory
267(7)
Physical Defenses
267(2)
Plant Secondary Chemistry
269(2)
Constitutive versus Induced Defenses
271(1)
Evolutionary Consequences of Plant-Herbivore Interactions
272(2)
Parasitic Plants
274(1)
Pathogens
275(5)
Effects of Disease on Individual Plants
275(1)
Box 11A Effects of Plant Disease on Humans: Potato Blight and the Irish Potato Famine
276(1)
Physiological and Evolutionary Responses to Pathogens
277(1)
Effects of Pathogens at the Population and Community Level
278(1)
More Complex Interactions
279(1)
Summary
280(1)
Questions for Further Study
280(1)
Additional Readings
280(3)
Disturbance and Succession
283(24)
Theories of the Mechanisms of Succession
284(1)
Disturbance
285(8)
Gaps
286(1)
Fire
287(4)
Wind
291(1)
Water
292(1)
Animals
292(1)
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
293(1)
Disease
293(1)
Humans
293(1)
Colonization
293(1)
Determining the Nature of Succession
294(8)
Interaction between Methodology and Understanding
294(3)
Mechanisms Responsible for Successional Change
297(3)
The Predictability of Succession
300(1)
Community Restoration
301(1)
Primary Succession
302(1)
Climax Revisited
303(1)
Summary
304(1)
Questions for Further Study
305(1)
Additional Readings
305(2)
Local Abundance, Diversity, and Rarity
307(20)
Dominance
307(2)
Are Dominant Species Competitively Superior?
308(1)
Abundance Curves
308(1)
Rarity and Commonness
309(4)
The Nature of Rarity
309(1)
Patterns of Rarity and Commonness
310(1)
Causes of Rarity and Commonness
311(2)
Invasive Species and Community Susceptibility to Invasion
313(4)
Why Do Some Species Become Invasive?
314(1)
What Makes a Community Susceptible to Invasion?
315(2)
Abundance and Community Structure
317(4)
Productivity and Diversity
318(2)
Niche Differentiation, Environmental Heterogeneity, and Diversity
320(1)
Gaps, Disturbance, and Diversity
321(1)
Effects of Increasing Diversity
321(3)
Testing the Effects of Diversity on Ecosystems
322(1)
Diversity and Stability
323(1)
Regional Processes
323(1)
Summary
324(1)
Questions for Further Study
324(1)
Additional Readings
324(3)
PART IV ECOSYSTEMS AND LANDSCAPES
Ecosystem Processes
327(26)
Biogeochemical Cycles: Quantifying Pools and Fluxes
328(2)
The Global Water Cycle
330(2)
Carbon in Ecosystems
332(10)
Productivity
332(3)
Methods for Estimating Productivity
335(2)
Decomposition and Soil Food Webs
337(3)
Carbon Storage
340(1)
Models of Ecosystem Carbon Cycles
341(1)
Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle at Ecosystem and Global Levels
342(5)
Nitrogen Fixation
342(1)
Other Sources of Nitrogen Input to Living Organisms
343(1)
Nitrogen Mineralization
344(1)
Denitrification and Leaching of Nitrogen
345(1)
Decomposition Rates and Nitrogen Immobilization
345(1)
Plant Uptake of Nitrogen
346(1)
Phosphorus in Terrestrial Ecosystems
347(1)
Ecosystem Nutrient Cycling and Plant Diversity
348(1)
Ecosystem Processes for Some Other Elements
348(2)
Sulfur
348(1)
Calcium
349(1)
Box 14A Serpentine Soils
349(1)
Summary
350(1)
Questions for Further Study
351(1)
Additional Readings
351(2)
Communities in Landscapes
353(16)
Comparing Communities
353(4)
Non-numerical Techniques
354(1)
Univariate Techniques
354(1)
Multivariate Techniques
354(3)
Landscape Patterns
357(7)
Ordination: Describing Patterns
357(1)
Determining Causes of Patterns
358(2)
Types of Data
360(1)
Classification
360(3)
Box 15A Differentiating Vegetation Based on Spectral Quality
363(1)
Views on Continuous versus Discrete Landscapes
364(1)
Landscape Diversity
364(2)
Differentiation Diversity
364(1)
Pattern Diversity
365(1)
Summary
366(1)
Questions for Further Study
366(1)
Additional Readings
367(2)
Landscape Ecology
369(22)
Spatial Patterns
370(5)
Six Types of Species-Area Curves
371(2)
Defining Patches
373(1)
Quantifying Patch Characteristics and Interrelationships
373(1)
The Effects of Spatial Patterns on Ecological Processes
374(1)
Scale
375(4)
Definitions and Concepts
375(2)
Process and Scale
377(1)
Spatial and Ecological Scale
377(1)
Quantifying Aspects of Spatial Pattern and Scale
378(1)
Toward a Theoretical Basis for Landscape Patterns: Island Biogeography Theory
379(5)
Metapopulation Theory
380(1)
Box 16A Metapopulation Models
381(1)
Metapopulation Patterns
381(2)
Species-Time-Area Relationships
383(1)
Landscape Ecology and Conservation
384(3)
Reserve Design
384(1)
Fragmentation
385(1)
Edges, Connectivity, and Nestedness
386(1)
Summary
387(1)
Questions for Further Study
388(1)
Additional Readings
388(3)
PART V GLOBAL PATTERNS AND PROCESSES
Climate and Physiognomy
391(26)
Climate and Weather
391(1)
Temperature
392(6)
Short-Term Variation in Radiation and Temperature
393(4)
Long-Term Cycles
397(1)
Precipitation
398(13)
Global Patterns
399(1)
Box 17A The Coriolis Effect
400(3)
Continental-Scale Patterns
403(3)
Seasonal Variation in Precipitation
406(1)
The El Nino Southern Oscillation
407(3)
Predictability and Long-Term Change
410(1)
Plant Physiognomy across the Globe
411(4)
Forests
411(1)
Tree Line
412(1)
Grasslands and Woodlands
413(1)
Shrublands and Deserts
414(1)
Summary
415(1)
Questions for Further Study
416(1)
Additional Readings
416(1)
Biomes
417(28)
Categorizing Vegetation
417(3)
Converging Biomes and Convergent Evolution
420(3)
Moist Tropical Forests
423(2)
Tropical Rainforest
423(2)
Tropical Montane Forest
425(1)
Seasonal Tropical Forests and Woodlands
425(3)
Tropical Deciduous Forest
426(1)
Thorn Forest
427(1)
Tropical Woodland
427(1)
Temperate Deciduous Forest
428(1)
Other Temperate Forests and Woodlands
429(3)
Temperate Rainforest
429(2)
Temperate Evergreen Forest
431(1)
Temperate Woodland
432(1)
Taiga
432(1)
Temperate Shrubland
433(2)
Grasslands
435(3)
Temperate Grassland
435(1)
Tropical Savanna
436(2)
Deserts
438(1)
Hot Desert
438(1)
Cold Desert
439(1)
Alpine and Arctic Vegetation
439(3)
Alpine Grassland and Shrubland
439(2)
Tundra
441(1)
Summary
442(1)
Questions for Study and Thought
443(1)
Additional Readings
443(2)
Regional and Global Diversity
445(24)
Large-Scale Patterns of Species-Richness
446(1)
General Factors Affecting Diversity
447(5)
Levels of Explanation
447(1)
Null Models
448(1)
The Importance of Available Energy
449(3)
Contributions of α, β, and γ Diversity
452(1)
Diversity along Ecological Gradients
452(1)
Productivity and Scale
453(2)
Diversity along Latitudinal Gradients
455(2)
An Array of Explanations
455(2)
The Role of β Diversity
457(1)
Continental Differences
457(2)
Other Geographic Patterns
459(2)
Species Diversity and Patterns of Overlap
459(1)
Endemism, Centers of Diversification, and Isolation
460(1)
Relationships between Regional and Local Diversity
461(3)
Box 19A The Fynbos and the Cape Region of Africa
462(2)
Noisy Data and Limits to Methodology
464(2)
Summary
466(1)
Questions for Further Study
466(1)
Additional Readings
467(2)
Paleoecology
469(16)
The Paleozoic Era
470(3)
The Mesozoic Era
473(2)
The Dominance of Gymnosperms
473(1)
The Breakup of Pangaea and the Rise of the Angiosperms
474(1)
The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary
475(1)
The Cenozoic Era
475(1)
Paleoecology Methods
476(1)
The Recent Past
477(7)
At the Glacial Maximum
478(2)
Glacial Retreat
480(2)
Climatic Fluctuations in the Recent Past
482(2)
Summary
484(1)
Questions for Further Study
484(1)
Additional Readings
484(1)
Global Change: Humans and Plants
485(30)
Carbon and Plant-Atmosphere Interactions
486(2)
The Global Carbon Cycle
486(1)
Direct Effects of Increasing CO2 on Plants
487(1)
Anthropogenic Global Climate Change
488(10)
The Greenhouse Effect
488(2)
Global Climate Change: Evidence
490(3)
Global Climate Change: Predictions
493
Box 21A Modeling Climate
492(3)
Biotic Consequences of Climate Change
495(3)
Anthropogenic Effects on the Global Carbon Cycle
498(4)
Deforestation
498(1)
Fossil Fuel Combustion
499(2)
Box 21B Daily Human Activities and CO2 Generation
501(1)
Acid Precipitation and Nitrogen Deposition
502(2)
Declining Global Biodiversity and Its Causes
504(8)
Habitat Fragmentation and Loss
504(4)
Other Threats to Rare and Common Species in a Range of Communities
508(1)
Invasive Species as Threats to Biodiversity
509(1)
Human Populations and Land Use Patterns
509(3)
A Ray of Hope?
512(1)
Summary
512(1)
Questions for Further Study
513(1)
Additional Readings
513(2)
Appendix: A Statistics Primer 515(4)
Glossary 519(11)
Photo Credits 530(1)
Literature Cited 531(23)
Index 554


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