9780130911025

Ecology: Theories and Applications

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130911025

  • ISBN10:

    013091102X

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-01-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div

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Summary

Presents a comprehensive, yet concise and clear, overview of ecology--evolutionary, behavioral, population, community and applied. TheThird Edition retains a broad scope and completely integrates the applied sections into the theories of ecology -- showing how the theories are applied in the real world. Emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Discusses what is currently known about a topic as well as what is yet unknown--emphasizing that future study in the discipline can lead to important contributions. Completely new first chapter, introduction--Discusses the four main sections of the book: behavioral, population, community, and ecosystems ecology. Expanded coverage of behavioral and ecosystems ecology includes a new chapter which features sections on mating systems, sex ratios, habitat selection, dispersal and age structure. Includes discussions on energy flow; features a new, independent chapter for nutrient cycles; separate chapters on species richness, diversity, stability, succession and biogeography. Discusses non-equilibrium theories in coverage of stability and touches on cluster analysis and ordination in discussion of diversity. Broad discussion of evolutionary biology to put conservation and biodiversity in perspective. For ecolgists and environmental scientists.

Author Biography

Peter Stiling is a professor of biology at the University of South Florida at Tampa

Table of Contents

Preface xi
SECTION ONE Introduction 1(64)
Why and How to Study Ecology
2(18)
What Is Ecology?
2(8)
Behavioral Ecology
7(1)
Population Ecology
8(1)
Community Ecology
8(2)
Ecosystems Ecology
10(1)
Ecological Methods
10(6)
Spatial Scale
16(4)
Applied Ecology
The Value of the World's Natural Services
4(14)
Summary
18(1)
Discussion Questions
18(2)
SECTION TWO Evolution and Behavioral Ecology
Genetics and Ecology
20(10)
Evolutionary History
20(1)
Genetic Mutation
21(1)
Measuring Genetic Variation
22(2)
Genetic Variation and Population Size
24(6)
Inbreeding
24(2)
Genetic Drift
26(1)
Neighborhoods and Effective Population Size
27
Applied Ecology
Can Cloning Help Save Endangered Species?
23(6)
Summary
29(1)
Discussion Questions
29(1)
Extinction
30(12)
The Extinction Crisis
30(1)
Patterns of Extinction
31(3)
Endangered Species
34(5)
Species Characteristics and Extinction
39(3)
Summary
41(1)
Discussion Questions
41(1)
Group Selection and Individual Selection
42(12)
Group and Individual Selection
42(2)
Altruism
44(5)
Kin Selection
45(2)
Altruism between Unrelated Individuals
47(1)
Altruism in Social Insects
47(2)
Group Living
49(5)
The ``Many-Eyes'' Hypothesis
50(1)
The Selfish-Herd Theory
50
Applied Ecology
The Tragedy of the Commons
45(7)
Summary
52(1)
Discussion Questions
53(1)
Life History Strategies
54(11)
Reproductive Strategies
54(1)
Age Structure
55(1)
Mating Systems
56(3)
Polygyny
57(2)
Polyandry
59(1)
Life History Strategies
59(6)
Applied Ecology
Life Histories and Risk of Extinction
61(2)
Summary
63(1)
Discussion Questions
64(1)
SECTION THREE Population Ecology 65(162)
Population Growth
66(23)
Life Tables
66(6)
Age-Specific Life Tables Follow an Entire Cohort of Individuals from Birth to Death
70(2)
Reproductive Rate
72(2)
Deterministic Models: Geometric Growth
74(15)
Human Population Growth
76(2)
Overlapping Generations
78(2)
Logistic Growth Occurs in Populations in Which Resources are or Can Be Limiting
80(5)
Stochastic Models
85
Applied Ecology
Human Population Growth and the Use of Contraceptives
78(10)
Summary
88(1)
Discussion Questions
88(1)
Physical Environment
89(19)
Physical Variables
89(14)
Temperature
89(4)
High Temperatures
93(1)
Fires
94(1)
Global Warming
94(4)
Computer Models and Predictions
98(1)
The Environmental Impact of Global Warming
98(1)
Natural Ecosystems
98(3)
Wind
101(1)
Salt
102(1)
PH
102(1)
Water
102(1)
Physical Factors and Species Abundance
103(2)
Physical Factors and Numbers of Species
105(3)
Applied Ecology
Diseases and Global Climate Change
100(7)
Summary
107(1)
Discussion Questions
107(1)
Competition and Coexistence
108(27)
Species Interaction
109(1)
Intraspecific Competition
110(2)
Interspecific Competition: Laboratory Experiments
112(5)
Interspecific Competition: Natural Systems
114(3)
The Frequency of Competition
117(5)
Modeling Competition
122(5)
Coexistence of Species
127(8)
Applied Ecology
Is the Release of Multiple Species of Biological Control Agents Beneficial?
114(2)
The Effects of Exotic Competitors on Native Fauna
116(2)
Profiles
Joe Connell, University of California, Santa Barbara
118(15)
Summary
133(1)
Discussion Questions
134(1)
Mutualism
135(15)
Plant-Pollinator Mutualism
135(3)
Seed Dispersal
138(2)
A Variety of Mutualisms
140(4)
Mutualisms and Resources
140(1)
Mutualism and Protection from Natural Enemies
141(1)
Mutualism and Herbivory
142(1)
Obligate Mutualism
143(1)
Modeling Mutualism
144(1)
Mutualisms and Community Process
145(2)
Commensalism
147(3)
Applied Ecology
Humans in Mutualistic Relationships
136(3)
Profiles
Judith Bronstein, University of Arizona
139(10)
Summary
149(1)
Discussion Questions
149(1)
Predation
150(20)
Antipredator Adaptations
151(4)
Predator-Prey Models
155(5)
Functional Response
158(2)
Field Studies of Predator-Prey Interactions
160(3)
Introduced Predators
163(3)
Field Experiments with Natural Systems
166(4)
Applied Ecology
The Maximum-Sustainable-Yield Problem
159(6)
Humans as Predators-Whaling
165
Profiles
Rick Karban, University California Davis
154(14)
Andrew Sih, University of Kentucky
168(1)
Summary
169(1)
Discussion Questions
169(1)
Herbivory
170(19)
Plant Defenses
170(8)
Modeling Herbivory
178(2)
Effects of Herbivores on Plants
180(4)
Removal Experiments
181(1)
Biological Control
182(1)
Beneficial Herbivory
183(1)
Effects of Plants on Herbivores
184(3)
Herbivory Affects Community Structure
187(2)
Applied Ecology
Secondary Chemicals and Medicinal Uses
174(11)
Pest Control
185(3)
Summary
188(1)
Discussion Questions
188(1)
Parasitism
189(17)
Defining Parasites
189(5)
Defense against Parasites
194(2)
Modeling Parasitism
196(1)
Parasites Affect Host Populations
197(5)
Natural Systems
200(2)
Parasites Affect Communities
202(1)
Parasites and Biological Control
203(3)
Applied Ecology
Diseases and the World's Top 10 Killers
195
Profiles
Janice Moore, Colorado State University
192(13)
Summary
205(1)
Discussion Questions
205(1)
Evaluating the Controls on Population Size
206(21)
Comparing the Strengths of Mortality Factors
207(6)
Key Factors
207(6)
Density Dependence
213(4)
Metapopulations
217(4)
Conceptual Models of Population Control
221(6)
Bottom-Up Factors, or Trophodynamics
221(1)
Top-Down Factors
221(2)
Environmental Stress
223
Profiles
Susan Harrison, University of California, Davis
218(6)
Mark Hunter, University of Georgia
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Discussion Questions
225(2)
SECTION FOUR Community Ecology 227(108)
The Main Types of Communities
228(21)
Are Communities More than the Organisms They Comprise?
228(2)
Climate and Community Structure
230(6)
Classification of Communities
236(1)
Terrestrial Communities
237(7)
Tropical Forests
237(2)
Temperate Forests
239(1)
Deserts
240(2)
Grasslands
242(1)
Taiga
242(1)
Tundra
243(1)
Other Biomes
243(1)
Aquatic Communities
244(5)
Marine Habitats
244(1)
Freshwater
245
Applied Ecology
The Distribution of Threatened Species among Biomes
238(10)
Summary
248(1)
Discussion Questions
248(1)
Global Patterns in Species Richness
249(24)
Explanations of Species Richness Gradients
250(8)
Biotic Explanations
252(2)
Abiotic Theories
254(4)
Community Similarity
258(4)
Global Species Richness
262(2)
Preserving Species Richness
264(3)
Species Richness and Community Function
267(6)
Applied Ecology
Loss in Species Richness Weakens Community Resistance to Invasion by Exotic Species
271
Profiles
Shahid Naeem, University of Washington
268(4)
Summary
272(1)
Discussion Questions
272(1)
Species Diversity
273(16)
Diversity Indices
273(7)
Dominance Indices
275(1)
Information-Statistic Indices
276(1)
Shannon Index
276(1)
Brillouin Index
276(4)
Rank Abundance Diagrams
280(4)
Community Similarity
284(2)
Jaccard Coefficient
285(1)
Sorensen Coefficient
285(1)
Cluster Analysis
286(3)
Applied Ecology
Weighting Biodiversity Indices: The Use of Ordinal Indices
279(8)
Summary
287(1)
Discussion Questions
288(1)
Stability, Equilibrium, and Nonequilibrium
289(14)
Community Stability
289(3)
Is There a Link between Diversity and Stability?
292(2)
Experimental Tests of the Diversity- Stability Hypothesis
294(5)
Field Tests of the Diversity-Stability Hypothesis
296(3)
The Intermediate-Disturbance Hypothesis
299(4)
Applied Ecology
Can Marine Communities Recover after Oil Spills?
293(8)
Profiles
Sir Robert M. May, Oxford University
301(1)
Summary
302(1)
Discussion Questions
302(1)
Succession
303(15)
Development of Communities
304(1)
Facilitation
305(3)
Inhibition
308(2)
Tolerance and Other Patterns of Succession
310(2)
Patterns in Species Richness during Succession
312(3)
Biotic Interactions and Succession
315(3)
Applied Ecology
Restoration Ecology
313(4)
Summary
317(1)
Discussion Questions
317(1)
Island Biogeography
318(17)
Theory of Island Biogeography
319(3)
Species-Area Effects
322(6)
Oceanic Islands
322(1)
Habitat ``Islands''
323(2)
Species as Islands
325(3)
The Effect of Distance on Island Immigration
328(2)
Species Turnover
330(5)
Applied Ecology
The Theory of National Park Design
332(1)
Summary
333(1)
Discussion Questions
333(2)
SECTION FIVE Ecosystems Ecology 335(38)
Trophic Structure
336(12)
Food Web Complexity
336(2)
Food Web Patterns
338(2)
Problems with Food Web Patterns
340(1)
Guilds
341(3)
Patterns Found in Guild Analysis
343(1)
Keystone Species
344(4)
Summary
347(1)
Discussion Questions
347(1)
Energy Flow
348(12)
Measuring Production
348(2)
Limits to Primary Production
350(4)
Aquatic Systems
352(2)
Patterns in Primary Production
354(1)
Efficiency of Primary Production
354(1)
Global Distribution of Primary Production
355(1)
Secondary Production
355(3)
Efficiency of Secondary Production
355(3)
The Limits to Secondary Production
358(1)
Applied Ecology
Biomass Fuels
356(3)
Summary
359(1)
Discussion Questions
359(1)
Nutrients
360(13)
Soils
360(5)
Nutrient Availability
365(4)
The Nutrient Recovery Hypothesis
368(1)
Light
369(1)
Organismal Effects on Nutrient Availability
370(1)
Applied Ecology
Food Webs and the Passage of Pesticides
366(5)
Summary
371(1)
Discussion Questions
371(2)
Glossary 373(7)
Literature Cited 380(11)
Photo Credits 391(2)
Index 393

Excerpts

Preface Ecology is a fascinating science. It is the most valuable discipline for learning what causes the distribution of plants and animals on Earth. Knowledge of ecology is vital in taking conservation measures and in attempting to restore the planet after the ravages of pollution. Ecology provides the conceptual framework upon which environmental science is built. Indeed, ecology is to environmental science as physics is to engineering. That is, an engineer cannot build a bridge without knowing the physical principles underlying its construction, and similarly, environmental scientists cannot understand the environment without a sound knowledge of ecological principles. Ecology is also a broad discipline. It borrows from many areas: from mathematics to build models of population growth, from physiology to understand how organisms live in their environments, from geology to understand soils, from chemistry to understand the chemical defenses of plants, and from genetics to understand the extinction of species. From all these fields, ecology has emerged as a science vital to the very preservation of our planet. Ecology is now a household word; this book will help you understand its every facet. The changes to the fourth edition are substantial. The introduction has been completely rewritten to introduce students to the disciplines of evolutionary and behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology, the four pillars upon which this book is built. The introduction also discusses the methods used in ecological studies, giving examples of how investigators proceed from observation through experimentation to analysis. The section on evolutionary and behavioral ecology has been completely stripped down and refocused on ecology. The population ecology section maintains its focus on factors affecting population growth, but more space has been allotted to mutualism and commensalism and to parasitism, in order to give balance to the chapters on competition and predation. The community ecology section has been simplified: Complex subjects such as ordination have been omitted, and the focus is now more on worked examples, using actual data sets. In the ecosystems section, I have again reworked all chapters. Here, Chapter 22, on nutrients, addresses the role of chemicals in the distribution of organisms and does not center on the nutrient cycles themselves. There have been many pedagogical changes. Each chapter starts with its ownRoad Map, set of brief statements that give a one-sentence outline of what each section in the chapter is about. Many of the tables and figures have been replaced and redrawn using voice balloons, so that the student is instantly alerted to the main point each graphic is making. Nearly 50% of the diagrams in this edition are new, in addition to the scores of new color photographs, each carefully chosen to illustrate a particular point raised in the text. The format of the chapters in the fourth edition remains similar to that of the last edition. Each chapter begins with an explanation of a concept, followed by examples well illustrated with data, figures, and tables. For example, in Chapter 13, a discussion of indispensable mortality is followed by how this concept relates to sea turtle conservation and how the protection of a few adult sea turtles may actually be much more profitable than protecting dozens of eggs on the beach. Following the examples is a synthesis of the preceding material in the section, with details of a review or a mathematical model, or both, that tell us where the preponderance of the evidence lies and which concept or theory is best supported. A summary at the end of the chapter reiterates the main points and should be a valuable study aid. Supplements Instructor's Resource CD-ROM(0-13-092639-6) andTransparency Acetates(0-13-061637-0). Prentice Hall's commitment to a four-c

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