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The Economics of Health and Health Care,9780132279420
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The Economics of Health and Health Care

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780132279420

ISBN10:
0132279428
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This clear, step-by-step best-selling introduction to the economics of health and health care thoroughly develops and explains economic ideas and models to reflect the full spectrum of the most current health economics literature.This book uses core economic themes as basic as supply and demand, as venerable as technology or labor issues, and as modern as the economics of information. Chapter topics include health care, health capital, information, health insurance markets, managed care, nonprofit firms, hospitals, physicians and labor, the pharmaceutical industry, government intervention and regulation, and epidemiology and economics.Useful as a reference work for health service researchers, government specialists, and physicians and others in the health care field.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
PART I: BASIC ECONOMICS TOOLS
1(88)
Introduction
1(19)
The Relevance of Health Economics
1(7)
The Size and Scope of the Health Economy
2(1)
Health Care's Share of GDP in the United States
2(1)
Health Care Spending in Other Countries
3(1)
Importance of the Health Economy in Personal Spending
4(1)
Importance of the Health Economy to the Labor Force
4(1)
Capital Investment in the Health Economy
5(1)
Time---The Ultimate Resource
6(1)
The Importance Attached to Economic Problems of Health Care Delivery
6(1)
Inflation
7(1)
Access
7(1)
Quality
7(1)
The Economic Side to Other Health Issues
7(1)
Economic Methods and Examples of Analysis
8(2)
Features of Economic Analysis
8(1)
Examples of Health Economics Analysis
9(1)
Does Economics Apply to Health and Health Care?
10(1)
An Example: Does Price Matter?
11(1)
Is Health Care Different?
11(3)
Presence and Extent of Uncertainty
12(1)
Prominence of Insurance
12(1)
Problems of Information
13(1)
Large Role of Nonprofit Firms
13(1)
Restrictions on Competition
14(1)
Role of Equity and Need
14(1)
Government Subsidies and Public Provision
14(1)
New Challenges to Health Economists--Managed Care, Health Care Costs, and Health Insurance
14(3)
Conclusions
17(1)
Summary
17(1)
Discussion Questions
18(1)
Exercises
18(2)
Microeconomic Tools for Health Economics
20(31)
Scarcity and the Production Possibilities Frontier
21(3)
Practice with Supply and Demand
24(3)
The Demand Curve and Demand Shifters
24(1)
The Supply Curve and Supply Shifters
25(1)
Equilibrium
26(1)
Comparative Statics
26(1)
Functions and Curves
27(2)
Linear Functions
27(1)
Demand Functions
28(1)
Derived Demand
29(1)
Consumer Theory: Ideas Behind the Demand Curve
29(5)
Utility
29(2)
Indifference Curves
31(1)
Budget Constraints
32(1)
Consumer Equilibrium
33(1)
Individual and Market Demands
34(1)
Elasticities
35(1)
Production and Market Supply
36(7)
The Production Function
37(1)
Production Functions
38(2)
Isocost Curves
40(1)
Cost Minimization or Output Maximization
41(1)
Marginal and Average Cost Curves
42(1)
The Firm Supply Curve Under Perfect Competition
43(2)
Monopoly and Other Market Structures
45(1)
Welfare Losses
46(2)
Conclusions
48(1)
Summary
49(1)
Discussion Questions
49(1)
Exercises
50(1)
Statistical Tools for Health Economics
51(17)
Hypothesis Testing
52(1)
Difference of Means
53(4)
The Variance of a Distribution
53(1)
Standard Error of the Mean
54(2)
Hypotheses and Inferences
56(1)
Regression Analysis
57(4)
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regressions
58(1)
A Demand Regression
59(1)
Estimating Elasticities
60(1)
Multiple Regression Analysis
61(3)
Interpreting Regression Coefficients
61(1)
Dummy Variables
62(2)
Statistical Inference in the Sciences and Social Sciences
64(1)
Conclusions
65(1)
Summary
65(1)
Discussion Questions
66(1)
Exercises
66(2)
Economic Efficiency and Cost Benefit Analysis
68(21)
Economic Efficiency
68(3)
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Background
71(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Basic Principles
72(8)
Measuring Costs
72(1)
Risk Equity Versus Equality of Marginal Costs per Life Saved
73(1)
Marginal Analysis in CBA
73(1)
Discounting
74(2)
Risk Adjustment and CBA
76(1)
Distributional Adjustments
77(1)
Inflation
77(1)
Valuing Human Life
77(2)
Cost-Benefit Analyses of Disease-Screening Programs
79(1)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
80(1)
Advantages of CEA
81(1)
Cost-Utility Analysis, QALYs, and DALYs
81(2)
An Ace Inhibitor Application of Cost Effectiveness Analysis
82(1)
Is CUA Consistent with CBA?
83(1)
Extra-Welfarism
83(1)
The Ageism Critique of QALYs
84(1)
Conclusions
84(1)
Summary
85(1)
Discussion Questions
86(1)
Exercises
86(2)
Appendix--Discounting
88(1)
PART II: SUPPLY AND DEMAND
89(110)
The Production of Health
89(22)
The Production Function of Health
89(3)
The Historical Role of Medicine and Health Care
92(7)
The Rising Population and the Role of Medicine
92(2)
What Caused the Mortality Rate Declines?
94(1)
On the Role of Public Health and Nutrition
95(2)
What Lessons Are Learned from the Medical Historian?
97(1)
What Does Health Care Contribute?
98(1)
The Production Function of Health in the Modern Day
99(7)
Preliminary Issues
99(1)
The Contribution of Health Care to Population Health: The Modern Era
99(1)
Is Health Care Worth It?
100(1)
Issues of Race and Gender
101(1)
Prenatal Care Works
101(1)
The World's Pharmacies
102(1)
Morbidity Studies
102(1)
How Does Health Care Affect Other Measures of Health?
103(1)
On the Importance of Lifestyle and Environment
104(1)
Cigarettes and Health
105(1)
The Family as Producer of Health
105(1)
Environmental Pollution
106(1)
Income and Health
106(1)
The Role of Schooling
106(2)
Two Different Theories About the Role of Schooling
107(1)
Empirical Studies on the Role of Schooling in Health
107(1)
Conclusions
108(1)
Summary
109(1)
Discussion Questions
109(1)
Exercises
110(1)
The Production, Cost, and Technology of Health Care
111(26)
Production and the Possibilities for Substitution
112(4)
Substitution
112(1)
What Degree of Substitution Is Possible?
113(1)
Elasticity of Substitution
114(1)
Estimates for Hospital Care
115(1)
Costs in Theory and Practice
116(8)
Deriving the Cost Function
116(1)
Cost Minimization
116(2)
Economies of Scale and Scope
118(1)
Why Would Economies of Scale and Scope Be Important?
119(2)
Empirical Cost-Function Studies
121(1)
Differences Among Hospital Cost Studies
121(1)
Difficulties Faced by All Hospital Cost Studies
122(2)
Summarizing Cost Studies
124(1)
Technical and Allocative Inefficiency
124(4)
Technical Inefficiency
124(1)
Allocative Inefficiency
125(1)
Frontier Analysis
126(2)
Technological Changes and Costs
128(4)
Technological Change: Cost Increasing or Decreasing?
129(1)
Health Care Price Increases When Technological Change Occurs
129(3)
Diffusion of New Health Care Technologies
132(2)
Who Adopts and Why?
132(1)
Other Factors That May Affect Adoption Rates
133(1)
Diffusion of Technology and Managed Care
133(1)
Conclusions
134(1)
Summary
134(1)
Discussion Questions
135(1)
Exercises
135(2)
Demand for Health Capital
137(16)
The Demand for Health
137(2)
The Consumer as Health Producer
137(2)
Time Spent Producing Health
139(1)
Labor-Leisure Trade-Offs
139(2)
Trading Leisure for Wages
139(1)
Preferences Between Leisure and Income
140(1)
The Investment/Consumption Aspects of Health
141(2)
Production of Healthy Days
141(1)
Production of Health and Home Goods
142(1)
Investment over Time
143(1)
The Cost of Capital
143(1)
The Demand for Health Capital
144(1)
Marginal Efficiency of Investment (MEI) and Rate of Return
144(1)
The Decreasing MEI
144(1)
Changes in Equilibrium: Age, Wage, Education, and Uncertainty
145(3)
Age
145(1)
Wage Rate
146(1)
Education
147(1)
Uncertainty
148(1)
Empirical Analyses Using Grossman's Model
148(3)
Conclusions
151(1)
Summary
151(1)
Discussion Questions
151(1)
Exercises
152(1)
Demand and Supply of Health Insurance
153(23)
What Is Insurance?
153(2)
Insurance Versus Social Insurance
154(1)
Insurance Terminology
154(1)
Risk and Insurance
155(3)
Expected Value
156(1)
Marginal Utility of Wealth and Risk Aversion
156(2)
Purchasing Insurance
158(1)
The Demand for Insurance
158(4)
How Much Insurance?
158(1)
Changes in Premiums
159(2)
Changes in Expected Loss
161(1)
Changes in Wealth
161(1)
The Supply of Insurance
162(2)
Competition and Normal Profits
162(2)
The Case of Moral Hazard
164(4)
Demand for Care and Moral Hazard
165(1)
Effects of Coinsurance and Deductibles
166(2)
Health Insurance and the Efficient Allocation of Resources
168(5)
The Impact of Coinsurance
168(3)
The Demand for Insurance and the Price of Care
171(1)
The Welfare Loss of Excess Health Insurance
172(1)
Conclusions
173(1)
Summary
173(1)
Discussion Questions
174(1)
Exercises
174(2)
Consumer Choice and Demand
176(23)
Applying the Standard Budget Constraint Model
176(5)
The Consumer's Equilibrium
178(1)
Demand Shifters
179(2)
Health Status and Demand
181(1)
Two Additional Demand Shifters---Time and Coinsurance
181(4)
The Role of Time
181(2)
The Role of Coinsurance
183(2)
Issues in Measuring Health Care Demand
185(3)
Individual and Market Demand Functions
186(1)
Measurement and Definitions
186(1)
Differences in the Study Populations
186(1)
Data Sources
187(1)
Experimental and Nonexperimental Data
187(1)
Empirical Measurements of Demand Elasticities
188(5)
Price Elasticities
188(1)
Individual Income Elasticities
189(1)
Income Elasticities Across Countries
190(1)
Insurance Elasticities
191(2)
Impacts of Insurance on Aggregate Expenditures
193(1)
Other Variables Affecting Demand
193(2)
Ethnicity and Gender
193(1)
Urban Versus Rural
194(1)
Education
194(1)
Age, Health Status, and Uncertainty
195(1)
Conclusions
195(1)
Summary
196(1)
Discussion Questions
197(1)
Exercises
197(2)
PART III: INFORMATION AND INSURANCE MARKETS
199(95)
Asymmetric Information and Agency
199(16)
Overview of Information Issues
200(1)
Asymmetric Information
200(4)
On the Extent of Information Problems in the Health Sector
201(1)
Asymmetric Information in the Used-Car Market: The Lemons Principle
202(2)
Application of the Lemons Principle: Health Insurance
204(2)
Inefficiencies of Adverse Selection
205(1)
Experience Rating and Adverse Selection
206(1)
The Agency Relationship
206(2)
Agency and Health Care
207(1)
Consumer Information, Prices, and Quality
208(3)
Consumer Information and Prices
208(1)
Consumer Information and Quality
209(1)
Other Quality Indicators
210(1)
Conclusions
211(1)
Summary
212(1)
Discussion Questions
213(1)
Exercises
213(2)
The Organization of Health Insurance Markets
215(26)
Loading Costs and the Behavior of Insurance Firms
215(3)
Impacts of Loading Costs
216(1)
Insurance for Heart Attacks and Hangnails
217(1)
Loading Costs and the Uninsured
217(1)
Employer Provision of Health Insurance: Who Pays?
218(6)
Spousal Coverage: Who Pays?
220(1)
How the Tax System Influences Health Insurance Demand
221(1)
Who Pays---Empirical Tests
222(1)
Other Impacts of Employer Provision of Health Insurance
223(1)
Employer-Based Health Insurance and Labor Supply
224(2)
Health Insurance and Retirement
224(1)
Health Insurance and Mobility
224(2)
The Market for Insurance
226(3)
The Market for Private Insurance
226(1)
Insurance Practices
226(2)
The Past 20 Years
228(1)
The Uninsured: An Analytical Framework
229(5)
The Working Uninsured
230(3)
The Impacts of Mandated Coverage
233(1)
Insurance, Technological Change, and Higher Costs
234(2)
The Cost-Increasing Bias Hypothesis
234(1)
The Goddeeris Model
235(1)
Evidence on Insurance, Technological Change, and Inflation
236(1)
Does Induced Technological Change Make the Patient Better Off?
237(1)
Conclusions
237(1)
Summary
238(1)
Discussion Questions
238(1)
Exercises
239(2)
Managed Care
241(29)
What Is the Organizational Structure?
243(1)
What Are the Economic Characteristics?
243(2)
The Emergence of Managed Care Plans
245(4)
Employer-Sponsored Managed Care
245(1)
Medicaid Managed Care Plans
246(1)
Managed Care Contracts with Physicians
247(1)
Managed Care Contracts with Hospitals
248(1)
Development and Growth of Managed Care: Why Did It Take So Long?
249(2)
Federal Policy and the Growth of Managed Care
249(1)
The Economics of Managed Care
250(1)
Modeling Managed Care
251(5)
Modeling Individual HMOs
251(1)
How Much Care?
252(1)
What Types of Care?
253(1)
Framework for Prediction
253(1)
Where Managed Care Differs from FFS---Dumping, Creaming, and Skimping
254(1)
Equilibrium and Adverse Selection in a Market with HMOs
254(2)
How Does Managed Care Differ?---Empirical Results
256(3)
Methodological Issues---Selection Bias and Quality of Care
257(1)
Comparative Utilization and Costs
257(1)
The Rand Study: A Randomized Experiment
258(1)
The Most Recent Evidence
259(1)
Growth in Spending
259(3)
Competitive Effects
262(4)
Theoretical Issues
262(1)
Managed Care Competition in Hospital Markets
263(1)
Managed Care Competition in Insurance Markets
264(1)
Managed Care and Technological Change
265(1)
Conclusions
266(1)
Summary
267(1)
Discussion Questions
268(1)
Exercises
268(2)
Nonprofit Firms
270(24)
An Introduction to Nonprofits
270(1)
Why Nonprofits Exist and Why They Are Prevalent in Health Care
271(7)
Nonprofits as Providers of Unmet Demands for Public Goods
271(1)
The Public Good-Private Good Aspect of Donations
272(2)
Relevance to Health Care Markets
274(1)
Nonprofits as a Response to Contract Failure
275(1)
Applications of Contract Failure to Nursing Home Care
275(1)
Relevance of Contract Failure to Hospitals and Other Firms
276(1)
The Role of Physicians in the Hospital Industry
276(1)
Financial Matters and the Nonprofit
277(1)
Summary of the Reasons for the Prevalence of Nonprofits
277(1)
Models of Nonprofit Hospital Behavior
278(10)
The Quality-Quantity Nonprofit Theory
278(2)
The Hospital as a Physicians' Cooperative
280(1)
Maximizing Net Revenue per Physician
281(1)
A Comparison of the Quantity-Quality and the Physicians' Cooperative Theories
282(2)
The Evidence: Do Nonprofit Hospitals Differ from For-Profit Hospitals?
284(1)
The Harris Model
285(1)
Summary of Models of Hospital Behavior
286(1)
What Causes Conversion of Nonprofits into For-Profits?
287(1)
The Relative Efficiency of Nonprofits Versus For-Profits
288(3)
Property Rights Theory and Its Application to Nonprofits
288(2)
Are Nonprofit Health Care Firms Less Efficient?---Hospital and Nursing Home Studies
290(1)
Conclusions
291(1)
Summary
292(1)
Discussion Questions
293(1)
Exercises
293(1)
PART IV: KEY PLAYERS IN THE HEALTH CARE SECTOR
294(89)
Hospitals and Long-Term Care
294(19)
Background and Overview of Hospitals
294(4)
History
295(1)
Organization
296(1)
Regulation and Accreditation
297(1)
Hospital Utilization and Costs
298(5)
Competition and Costs
299(3)
Closures, Mergers, and Restructuring in the Hospital Industry
302(1)
Nursing Homes
303(6)
Background and Costs
303(2)
Quality of Care
305(1)
Excess Demand
306(1)
Financing Long-Term Care
307(2)
Hospice, Home Health, and Informal Care
309(1)
Conclusions
310(1)
Summary
310(1)
Discussion Questions
311(1)
Exercises
311(2)
The Physician's Practice
313(18)
A Benchmark Model of the Physician's Practice
313(3)
Supplier-Induced Demand (SID)
316(5)
The Supply and Demand Model
316(1)
The Target Income Hypothesis
317(1)
The Benchmark Model as a Synthesis
318(1)
The Parallel Between Inducement and Advertising
319(1)
What Do the Data Say About Supplier-Induced Demand?
320(1)
Physician Fees, Fee Tests, and Fee Controls
320(1)
Small Area Variations (SAV)
321(5)
Contributions to These Variations
322(1)
The Physician Practice Style Hypothesis
323(1)
Checking the Practice Style Hypothesis Against the Data
323(1)
SAV and the Social Cost of Inappropriate Utilization
324(1)
SAV Analysis in Other Applications
325(1)
Other Physician Issues and Policy Puzzles
326(2)
Physician Pricing and Price Discrimination
326(1)
Paying for Outcomes
327(1)
Conclusions
328(1)
Summary
328(1)
Discussion Questions
329(1)
Exercises
330(1)
Health Care Labor Markets and Professional Training
331(27)
The Demand for and Supply of Health Care Labor
331(5)
Production Functions and Isoquants
332(1)
Marginal Productivity of Labor
333(1)
Factor Substitution and Labor Demand
334(1)
The Supply of Labor
334(2)
Factor Productivity and Substitution Among Factors
336(2)
Measurement of Physician Productivity
336(1)
The Efficient Utilization of Physician Assistants: Substitution Among Inputs
337(1)
Health Manpower Availability and the Meaning of Shortages
338(6)
Availability of Physicians
338(2)
Economic Definitions of Shortages of Health Professionals
340(2)
The Role of Monopsony Power: Shortages of Registered Nurses
342(2)
Medical Education Issues and the Question of Control
344(5)
Sources of Medical School Revenues
345(1)
Capital Market Imperfections Justify Subsidies
345(1)
Teaching Hospitals, Medical Schools, and Joint Production
345(1)
Foreign Medical School Graduates (FMGs)
346(1)
The Control of Medical Education
347(1)
Control over Entry
348(1)
Another View: The Donor Preference Hypothesis
348(1)
Licensure and Monopoly Rents
349(4)
Public Interest or Self-Interest
350(1)
Licensure and Quality
351(2)
Other Physician Labor Issues
353(1)
Specialization
353(1)
Physician Income by Gender
353(1)
Conclusions
354(1)
Summary
355(1)
Discussion Questions
355(1)
Exercises
356(2)
The Pharmaceutical Industry
358(25)
Structure and Regulation
360(3)
Competition
360(1)
Barriers to Entry
361(1)
Regulation
362(1)
The Production of Health and Substitutability
363(5)
Least-Cost Production
365(1)
Insurance and Substitutability
366(1)
Technological Change
366(2)
Drug Pricing and Profits
368(4)
Monopoly Pricing
369(1)
Price Discrimination
370(1)
Behavior Other Than Profit-Maximizing Behavior
371(1)
Monopsony Pricing and Price Controls
371(1)
Competition and Generic Entry
372(1)
R&D and Innovation
372(3)
Investment Decisions
373(1)
R&D Spending
374(1)
Firm Size and Innovation
375(1)
Cost Containment
375(4)
Copayments
377(1)
Generic Substitutes
378(1)
Drug Formularies
378(1)
Conclusions
379(1)
Summary
380(1)
Discussion Questions
380(1)
Exercises
381(2)
PART V: SOCIAL INSURANCE
383(142)
Equity, Efficiency, and Need
383(24)
Efficiency and Competitive Markets
384(5)
The Concept of Pareto Efficiency (Optimality)
384(2)
Trading Along the Budget Line
386(1)
The Competitive Equilibrium
386(1)
The First Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics
387(1)
Redistribution of the Endowment
387(1)
Price Discrimination
388(1)
Trade-offs Between Equity and Efficiency
389(1)
Deviations from the Competitive Model in the Health Care Sector
389(2)
The Assumptions Under Perfect Competition
389(2)
Promoting Competition in the Health Care Sector
391(1)
The Theorem of the Second Best
391(1)
An Economic Efficiency Rationale for Health Care Programs Based on Externalities
392(2)
Need and Need-Based Distributions
394(5)
Health Care Needs and the Social Welfare Function
395(2)
Norman Daniels's Concept of Health Care Need
397(2)
Economic Criticisms of Need-Based Distributions
399(1)
Horizontal Equity and Need
399(2)
Comparing Horizontal Equity Among Countries
400(1)
The Results
400(1)
Theories of Social Justice
401(3)
Utilitarianism
401(1)
Rawls and Justice as Fairness
402(1)
Liberalism, Classical and Modern
403(1)
Conclusions
404(1)
Summary
405(1)
Discussion Questions
405(1)
Exercises
406(1)
Government Intervention in Health Care Markets
407(23)
Economic Rationale for Government Intervention
407(5)
Monopoly Power
408(1)
Public Goods
409(2)
Externalities
411(1)
Other Rationales for Government Intervention
412(1)
Forms of Government Intervention
412(3)
Commodity Taxes and Subsidies
412(2)
Public Provision
414(1)
Transfer Programs
414(1)
Regulation
415(1)
Government Involvement in Health Care Markets
415(5)
Support of Hospitals
416(1)
The Hill-Burton Act
416(1)
The Veterans Administration and CHAMPUS
416(1)
Food and Drug Administration
417(1)
Mandated Health Insurance Benefits
417(1)
Tax Policy
417(1)
Public Health
418(1)
Other Government Programs
418(2)
Government Failure
420(3)
Who Does the Regulator Represent?
420(2)
Bureaucracy and Efficiency
422(1)
Competitive Strategies
423(5)
Increased Cost Sharing
424(1)
Development of Alternative Delivery Systems
424(1)
Consumer-Driven Health Plans and Health Savings Accounts
425(2)
Representation of the Competitive Approach
427(1)
Conclusions
428(1)
Summary
428(1)
Discussion Questions
429(1)
Exercises
429(1)
Government Regulation: Principal Regulatory Mechanisms
430(31)
Do the Laws of Supply and Demand Apply?
430(1)
Objectives of Regulation
431(2)
Regulatory Policy
432(1)
Regulatory Instruments in Health Care
432(1)
Regulation of the Hospital Sector
433(5)
Rate Regulation, Utilization Review, and Certificate of Need
433(1)
Empirical Findings on Regulation
434(4)
Prospective Payment
438(2)
Description of PPS
438(2)
The Theory of Yardstick Competition and DRGs
440(8)
On the Effects of Medicare's Prospective Payment System
444(4)
Prospective Payment: Recent Evidence
448(1)
Regulation of Physician Payment
449(2)
UCR Reimbursement, Assignment, and Alternative Payment Mechanisms
449(1)
Relative Value Scales
449(2)
Antitrust
451(6)
Enforcement
451(1)
Exemptions
451(2)
Measuring Monopoly Power
453(1)
Antitrust Procedures
454(2)
The Elzinga-Hogarty (EH) Criterion
456(1)
Conclusions
457(1)
Summary
458(1)
Discussion Questions
458(1)
Exercises
459(2)
Social Insurance
461(30)
Social Insurance Policies and Social Programs
461(2)
Program Features
462(1)
Historical Roots of Social Insurance
463(2)
European Beginnings
463(1)
Early Experience in the United States
464(1)
The Establishment of Medicare and Medicaid
465(1)
Medicare and Medicaid in the United States
465(9)
Medicare
466(5)
Medicaid Overview
471(1)
Medicaid Eligibility
471(3)
The Medicaid-Medicare Relationship
474(1)
State Children's Health Insurance Program
474(1)
Public Insurance and Health
474(3)
The Effects of Medicare and Medicaid
477(9)
Costs and Inflation
477(5)
Health Status
482(1)
Medicare: Recent Changes and Future Prospects
483(3)
Criticisms of the U.S. Health Care System
486(1)
Conclusions
487(1)
Summary
488(1)
Discussion Questions
488(1)
Exercises
489(2)
Comparative Health Care Systems and Health System Reform
491(34)
Contemporary Health Care Systems
491(1)
A Typology of Contemporary Health Care Systems
491(1)
National Health Programs: United Kingdom and Germany
492(10)
The United Kingdom: The National Health Service
494(4)
Germany
498(4)
The Canadian Health Care System
502(6)
Background
503(2)
Physician Fees and Quantity
505(1)
Why Are Fees and Hospital Costs Lower in Canada?
505(1)
Administrative Costs
506(1)
A Comparison
506(2)
Different Systems: The Public's Evaluation
508(2)
Differences in Health Care Spending Across Countries
510(4)
A Simple Model of Health Expenditures Shares
511(3)
National Health Insurance
514(2)
Different Kinds of National Health Insurance (NHI) Plans
514(1)
The Costs of NIII
515(1)
Ensuring Access to Care
516(5)
Employer Versus Individual Mandates
516(2)
Separation of Health Insurance from Employment
518(1)
Single Payer Versus Multiple Insurers
518(2)
Health Care Reform and International Competitiveness
520(1)
Conclusions
521(1)
Summary
521(1)
Discussion Questions
522(1)
Exercises
523(2)
PART VI: SPECIAL TOPICS
525(34)
The Health Economics of Bads
525(16)
An Introduction to Bads
526(1)
Models of Addiction
527(3)
Imperfectly Rational Addiction Models
527(1)
Myopic Addiction Models
527(1)
Rational Addiction
528(2)
Rationales for Public Intervention
530(1)
Other Interventions
531(1)
Advertising Restrictions on Cigarettes and Alcohol
531(4)
Theories of Advertising
532(1)
The Possible Effects of Brand Switching
533(1)
Increased Demand or Brand Switching?
534(1)
Advertising and Alcohol Consumption
535(1)
Excise Taxes and Consumption of Cigarettes and Alcohol
535(4)
The Consumption-Reducing Effects of Excise Taxes in Theory
535(1)
Excise Taxes and Cigarette Consumption in Practice
536(2)
Excise Taxes and Alcohol Consumption
538(1)
Conclusions
539(1)
Summary
539(1)
Discussion Questions
539(1)
Exercises
540(1)
Epidemiology and Economics: HIV/AIDS in Africa
541(18)
Concepts from Epidemiology
541(2)
Economic Epidemiology
543(5)
Rational Epidemics
543(1)
The Prevalence Elasticity of Demand for Prevention
544(1)
The Economic Consequences of Epidemics
545(1)
The Difficulty of Eradicating Diseases
546(1)
Information
547(1)
The Role of Government in Battling Epidemics
547(1)
Case Study: HIV/AIDS in Africa
548(7)
HIV/AIDS
548(2)
Costs of AIDS
550(1)
Fighting AIDS
551(4)
Economic Theory and African Reality
555(1)
Conclusions
555(1)
Summary
556(1)
Discussion Questions
556(1)
Exercises
556(3)
Glossary 559(7)
References 566(28)
Name Index 594(4)
Subject Index 598


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