9780190620851

The Economics of Women, Men, and Work

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190620851

  • ISBN10:

    0190620854

  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-07-14
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

The Economics of Women, Men, and Work, Eighth Edition, is the most current and comprehensive source available for research, data, and analysis on women, gender, and economics. Blau and Winkler are widely known for their research and contributions on the study of the economics of gender. The eighth edition includes fully updated data and research, and analyzes the consequences of recent developments in the labor market for men and women. These developments include the declining gender wage gap, rising wage inequality, and the growing divide in labor market and family outcomes by educational attainment.

Author Biography


Francine D. Blau is Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University; and Research Associate of the NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) and Research Fellow of IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor). She is a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and the Labor and Employment Relations Association; and has served as president of the Society of Labor Economists and of the Labor and Employment Relations Association, and vice president of the American Economic Association. Professor Blau has written extensively on gender issues, wage inequality, immigration, and international comparisons of labor market outcomes. In addition to refereed journal articles, she is author of Equal Pay in the Office and Gender, Inequality, and Wages, and, with Lawrence Kahn, At Home and Abroad: U.S. Labor Market Performance in International Perspective.

Anne E. Winkler is Professor of Economics and Public Policy Administration at the University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL). She is also a Research Fellow at IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor). She serves on the Editorial Boards of Social Science Quarterly and Journal of Labor Research. Her work has appeared in economics and broader social science journals including Journal of Human Resources, Research in Labor Economics, Monthly Labor Review, Demography, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Journal of Urban Economics, Management Science, and IZA World of Labor.

Table of Contents


Preface
Acknowledgments

Part I. Introduction and Historical Perspectives

Chapter 1. Introduction
What Economics Is About
Uses of Economic Theory
The Scope of Economics
Individuals, Families, and Households
A Further Note on Terminology
Outline of the Book
Questions for Review and Discussion
Key Terms
Appendix 1A: A Review of Supply and Demand in the Labor Market

Chapter 2. Women and Men: Historical Perspectives
The Source of Gender Differences: Nature versus Nurture-The Ongoing Debate
Factors Influencing Women's Relative Status
Women's Roles and Economic Development
The U.S. Experience
BOX: Economic Incentives: An Engine of Change for Women's Property Rights
Historical Evidence on Occupations and Earnings
BOX: College Educated Women Over the Last 100 Years: Work, Family or Both?
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms


Part II. The Allocation of Time between the Household and the Labor Market

Chapter 3. The Family as an Economic Unit: Theoretical Perspectives
The Simple Neoclassical Model: Specialization and Exchange
Comparative Advantage
Specialization and Exchange: Numerical Examples
Decreasing Gains to Specialization and Exchange and the Shift Away from the Traditional Family
Disadvantages of Specialization
Lack of Sharing of Housework
Life Cycle Changes
Costs of Interdependence
Tastes and Bargaining Power
Domestic Violence
Advantages of Families beyond Specialization
Economies of Scale
Public Goods
Externalities in Consumption
Gains from Shared Consumption
Marriage-Specific Investments
Risk Pooling
Institutional Advantages
Transaction Cost and Bargaining Approaches
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms
Appendix 3A: Specialization and Exchange: A Graphical Analysis

Chapter 4. The Family as an Economic Unit: Evidence
Time Spent in Nonmarket Work
Time Spent in Housework
Time Spent with Children
Time Spent in Volunteer Work
Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Production
BOX: The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001: Just Compensation?The American Family in the Twenty-First Century
BOX: The State of Unions in the United States
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 5. The Labor Force: Definitions and Trends
The Labor Force: Some Definitions
Trends in Labor Force Participation
Broad Labor Force Trends by Gender: 1890 to Present
Labor Force Trends by Race/Ethnicity
Labor Force Trends over the Life Cycle
Trends in Labor Force Attachment of Women
Trends in Hours Worked
Trends in Gender Differences in Unemployment
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 6. The Labor Supply Decision
The Labor Supply Decision
The Budget Constraint
Indifference Curves
The Labor Force Participation Decision
The Value of Nonmarket Time
The Value of Market Time
The Hours Decision
Empirical Evidence on the Responsiveness of Labor Supply to Wages and Income
BOX: Labor Supply Elasticities
Economic Conditions
Some Applications of the Theory: Taxes, Child Care Costs, and Labor Supply
Taxes and the Decision to Work
Government Subsidies of Child Care and Women's Labor Force Participation
Other Factors Affecting Child Care Costs and Women's Labor Force Participation
Analyzing the Long-Term Growth in Women's Labor Force Participation
Factors Influencing the Value of Market Time
Factors Influencing the Value of Nonmarket Time
BOX: The World II Experience: Women's Surge in Labor Force Participation
Recent Trends in Women's Labor Force Participation: Has the Engine of Growth Stalled?
Analyzing Trends in Men's Labor Force Participation
Black and White Participation Differentials: Serious Employment Problems for Black Men
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms
Appendix 6A: The Income and Substitution Effects: A Closer Look


Part III. Labor Market Outcomes: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Chapter 7. Evidence on Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
Gender Differences in Occupations
Overview of Gender Differences in Occupations
Measuring Occupational Segregation
Hierarchies within Occupations
Evaluating the Extent of Occupational Segregation
Trends in Occupational Segregation by Sex
BOX: Women in the Military: No Positions Are Off Limits as of 2016
The Gender Pay Ratio
BOX: The Gender Pay Gap in the News
Gender Differences in Union Membership
Gender Differences in Self-Employment
Gender Differences in Nonstandard Work
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 8. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Theory and Evidence
Supply and Demand Explanations: An Overview
What Is Human Capital?
Gender Differences in Levels of Educational Attainment
Gender Differences in High School Coursework and College Field of Study
The Educational Investment Decision
BOX: Calculating the Net Present Value of a Human Capital Investment
The Rising College Wage or Earnings Premium
Education and Productivity
Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: The Human Capital Explanation
BOX: Where are the Women Economics Majors?
Gender Differences in Educational Investment Decisions: Social Influences and Anticipation of Discrimination
Socialization
Biased Evaluations
Subtle Barriers: Role Models, Mentoring, and Networking
The Impact of Title IX-Sports, Academics,Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Violence
Explaining Women's Rising Educational Attainment
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 9. Other Supply-Side Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes: On-the-Job Training, Family Gaps, Psychological Attributes, and Math Test Scores
On-the-Job Training and Labor Market Experience
Gender Differences in Labor Market Experience
The On-the-Job Training Investment Decision
General Training
Firm-Specific Training
Why Do Firms Pay Tuition Benefits?
Experience and Productivity
Gender Differences in Training Investment Decisions
Expected Work Life
Discrimination
Occupations and Earnings
Temporal Flexibility and the Gender Wage Gap
Family-Related Earnings Gaps
Traditional Gender Roles and Gender Wage Gaps
Wage Penalties and Premiums Associated with Marriage and Parenthood
Gender Differences in Psychological Attributes
Attitudes toward Negotiating
Attitudes toward Competition
Attitudes toward Risk
Gender Differences in the "Big Five" Personality Traits
A Closer Look at Gender Differences in Math Test Scores
BOX: Women, Men and Stereotype Threat
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 10. Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupations: Supply-Side Factors versus Labor Market Discrimination
Labor Market Discrimination: A Definition
Analyzing the Sources of Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
Empirical Evidence on the Sources of Gender Differences in Earnings
Evidence from Statistical Analyses: Labor Market-wide Evidence
Biases in the Estimate of Discrimination
Evidence on Possible Sources of the Unexplained Gender Wage Gap
BOX: The Effect of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity on Earnings
Further Evidence from Statistical Analyses: A Look at Subgroups of College Graduates, Lawyers, and MBAs
Evidence on Discrimination from Experiments
Evidence on Discrimination from Court Cases
Evidence on Discrimination: An Assessment
The Declining Gender Pay Gap
The Context: Widening Wage Inequality
BOX: The Minimum Wage: What is It?
Determinants of Trends in the Gender Wage Gap
Explaining the Decline in the Gender Wage Gap
Minorities Fared Less Well in Narrowing the Wage Gap with Whites
Empirical Evidence on the Causes and Consequences of Gender Differences in Occupations
Consequences of Occupational Segregation
Causes of Occupational Segregation
Is There a Glass Ceiling?
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms
Appendix 10A: Regression Analysis and Empirical Estimates of Labor Market Discrimination

Chapter 11. Labor Market Discrimination: Theory
Theories of Labor Market Discrimination: An Overview
Tastes for Discrimination
Employer Discrimination
Employee Discrimination
Customer Discrimination
Subtle Barriers
Statistical Discrimination
Perceptions of Average Gender Differences Can Result in a Pay Gap
Statistical Discrimination and Feedback Effects
Empirical Evidence on Gender Differences in Quitting
The Overcrowding Model
Institutional Models
The Internal Labor Market
Primary and Secondary Jobs
Feedback Effects
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 12. Government Policies to Combat Employment Discrimination
Rationales for Government Intervention
Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and Regulations
Equal Pay Act
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
Executive Order 11246 and Affirmative Action
Major Court Decisions and Legislation That Have Shaped the Equal Employment Laws and Regulations
Effectiveness of the Government's Antidiscrimination Effort
Affirmative Action
BOX: Quotas for Women in the Boardroom
Comparable Worth
BOX: Job Evaluation
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms


Part IV The Economics of the Family: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Chapter 13. Changing Work Roles and Family Formation
Economic Explanations for Family Formation
The Role of Gains to Specialization in Production
Declining Gains from Specialization in Production
Other Benefits from Marriage Remain and Some May Be Increasing
Marriage
Marriage Patterns by Educational Attainment
Conclusion
Divorce
Cohabitation: Opposite-Sex Couples
Cohabitation and Marriage: Same-Sex Couples
Fertility
Trends in Fertility Rates: World War II to Present
Timing of Fertility by Educational Attainment
Births to Unmarried Mothers
Teen Births
Births to Older Mothers
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 14. The Changing American Family and Implications for Family Well-Being
Changing Family Structure
Dual-Earner Families
Single-Parent Families
Poverty: Incidence and Measurement
Implications for Children's Well-Being
Maternal Employment, Child Care, and Children's Outcomes
Family Economic Disadvantage and Children's Outcomes
Family Structure and Children's Outcomes
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Internet-Based Data Exercise
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 15. Government Policies Affecting Family Well-Being
Policies to Alleviate Poverty
Aid to Families with Dependent Children: The Former U.S. Welfare Program
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families: The Current U.S. Welfare Program
The Earned Income Tax Credit
Employment Strategies
Child Support Enforcement
BOX: Beyond Traditional Income and Work Support Policies: Marriage Promotion
Taxes, Specialization, and Marriage
Federal Income Tax
Social Security
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 16. Balancing the Competing Demands of Work and Family
The Competing Demands of Work and Family
Work-Family Challenges Faced by Low-Wage Workers with Families
Work-Family Challenges for Highly-Educated Professional Women
BOX: In the Media: Prominent Women Debate Whether Highly-Educated
Women Can "Have it All"
Particular Challenges for Women Balancing Work and Family
Rationales for Government and Employer Policies to Assist Workers
Rationales for Government Policies
Rationales for Employer Policies
Government and Employer Family-Friendly Policies
Government Leave Policies at the Federal Level
Paid Leave: Action on Leave Policies at the State Level
Child Care
Other Family-Friendly Policies
Alternative Work Schedules
Flexible Benefits
Policies to Assist Couples
BOX: How to Handle a Job Interview
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms


Part V. The Economic Status of the World's Women

Chapter 17. Gender Differences Around the World
Indicators of Women's Economic Status
The International Context
Labor Force Participation
Time Spent in Unpaid Work
Educational Attainment
BOX: Middle East and North Africa: Low Female Labor Force Participation Despite Rising Educational Attainment
The Benefits of Educating Girls
Cross-National Trends in Fertility Rates
Variations in Sex-Ratios at Birth
BOX: China's One-Child Policy: A Case Study of the Unintended Consequences of a Seemingly Neutral Fertility Policy
Women's Political and Legal Empowerment
Multidimensional Measures of Women's Status
Economic Development, Globalization, and Women's Status
BOX: Microfinance: Mirage or Lifeline?
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Chapter 18. A Comparison of the United States to Other Economically Advanced Countries
An Overview of International Differences in Policies and Institutions
Labor Market Policies to Combat Gender Discrimination
Wage-Setting Policies
Family-Friendly Policies
Tax Policies
U.S. Women's Labor Force Participation in an International Context
The U.S. Gender Wage Ratio in an International Context
BOX: Comparable Worth in Australia
Understanding Low Fertility in Economically Advanced Countries
Conclusion
Questions for Review and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Key Terms

Author Index
Subject Index

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