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Educating Exceptional Children

by Unknown
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780395961377

ISBN10:
0395961378
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/2/1999
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Table of Contents

Preface xvi
Educating the Exceptional Child
1(31)
The Exceptional Child
2(4)
Who Is an Exceptional Child?
2(1)
Categories of Exceptional Children
3(1)
Prevalence
4(1)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
5(1)
The Context of the Exceptional Child
6(4)
Family, School, Peer Culture, and Community
6(2)
The Ecological Approach
8(1)
The Interaction of Heredity and Environment
8(1)
Intra-Individual Differences
9(1)
Developmental Profiles
9(1)
The Unique Influence of the Family
10(7)
Child-Family Interaction
12(1)
Parental Response
12(1)
Family Responsibilities
13(2)
Changing Family Roles
15(1)
Working Mothers
15(1)
Parent Empowerment
15(2)
Ecology of The Child: Family
17(5)
Parents as Collaborators
19(1)
Parents as Advocates
19(1)
Siblings
20(2)
The Influence of School, Peer Culture, and the Community
22(10)
The Influence of Culture
23(1)
Families from Diverse Cultures
24(2)
Culture and Assessment
26(1)
Parents of Children Who Are Gifted and Talented
27(5)
Exceptional Children and Their Environment
32(50)
A Historical Perspective
34(1)
Residential Schools
34(1)
Public Schools
34(1)
The Exceptional Child and the School
35(1)
Ecology of The Child: Family, School, and Community
36(6)
Lifespan Perspective
39(1)
Transition
39(1)
Referral and Assessment
40(2)
Educational Adaptations for Exceptional Children
42(7)
Prereferral: Teacher-Assistance Teams
48(1)
Peer Collaboration for Teachers
48(1)
Assessment
49(1)
Individual Differences
49(13)
Individual Differences and the Classroom
50(1)
The Role of Assessment
50(1)
Inter-Individual Differences
50(4)
Culture-Bound Assessment Measures
54(2)
Developmental Profile
56(1)
The Individualized Education Program
56(1)
Case Study: Frank
57(1)
Educational Restructuring in Special Education
58(1)
The Inclusion Movement
58(2)
Inclusion and the General Education Teacher
60(2)
Ecology of The Child: School
62(4)
Social Relationships in the General Education Classroom
63(1)
How Much Inclusion Is ``Included''?
63(3)
Restructuring in General Education: America 2000
66(1)
Some Results of Restructuring General Education
66(11)
Middle Schools
66(1)
Cooperative Learning
66(1)
Site-Based Management
67(1)
The Academic Standards Movement versus the Inclusion Movement
68(1)
Effective Assessment Tools
69(1)
Accountability
70(1)
State and Federal Legislation
70(1)
An Overview
71(1)
Public Law 88-164
71(1)
Public Law 94-142
71(2)
Public Law 99-457 and IDEA (Public Law 105-17)
73(1)
Federal Actions for Students Who Are Gifted
74(1)
The Role of the Courts
74(3)
Conclusion
77(5)
Early Intervention: Priorities and Programs
82(33)
Overview of Early Intervention
84(3)
Definitions and Goals
84(1)
Origins of Early Intervention
84(1)
Legislative Support for Early Intervention
85(2)
Why Early Intervention?
87(2)
Avoiding Developmental Delays
87(1)
Preventing Additional Deficits
87(1)
Are Early Childhood Intervention Programs Effective?
88(1)
What Puts Children at Risk?
89(2)
Genetic Disorders
89(1)
Events During Pregnancy and Birth
89(1)
Environmental Risks
90(1)
Child Abuse
90(1)
Lower Socioeconomic Conditions (Poverty)
90(1)
Substance Abuse
91(1)
Prevention Before Birth
91(2)
Genetic Counseling
91(1)
Prenatal Care
92(1)
Alpha-Fetoprotein Test
92(1)
Sonography (Ultrasound)
93(1)
Amniocentesis
93(1)
Chorionic Villus Biopsy
93(1)
Detecting Disabilities After Birth
93(2)
Screening at Birth
94(1)
Medical Intervention
94(1)
Developmental Screening
94(1)
Early Intervention Programs
95(11)
The Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP)
96(1)
IDEA, Part C: Legal Requirements of the IFSP
96(1)
The Multidisciplinary Team
97(3)
Settings and Strategies
100(1)
In a Hospital
100(1)
Home and Family
101(1)
Education Programs
102(1)
Early Childhood Intervention Center
102(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)
103(1)
Regular Day-Care and Early Childhood Centers
104(1)
Assessment and Curriculum
104(2)
Ecology of the Child: School
106(2)
Family and Lifespan Issues
108(7)
Culture
109(1)
Coping with Stress
109(1)
Transition
110(5)
Children Who Are Gifted and Talented
115(50)
Definitions
117(1)
Components of Intellectual Competence
118(1)
One Gift or Many?
119(2)
Factors That Contribute to Giftedness and Talent
121(1)
Heredity and Environment
121(1)
Studies of Students Who Are Gifted
122(3)
The Challenges Associated with Giftedness
125(2)
Developmental Profiles
127(1)
Ecology of the Child: School
128(3)
Identification
131(2)
Special Groups of Children Who Are Gifted
133(8)
Girls Who Are Gifted
133(2)
Children of Extraordinary Ability
135(1)
Underachievers Who Are Gifted
136(2)
Culturally Diverse Children Who Are Gifted
138(2)
Children with Disabilities Who Are Gifted
140(1)
Education Reform and Its Effects
141(2)
Educational Adaptations for Children Who Are Gifted and Talented
143(17)
Adapting the Learning Environment
143(1)
Flexible Pacing
143(2)
Grouping
145(1)
Special Courses
146(1)
Inclusion
147(1)
Adapting Curriculum
147(1)
Effective Education Programs
147(1)
Curriculum Compacting
147(1)
Content Acceleration and Enrichment
148(1)
Content Sophistication
149(1)
Content Novelty
150(1)
Adapting Cognitive Strategies
150(1)
Enrichment Triad Experiences
151(1)
Problem Finding and Problem Solving
151(2)
Problem-Based Learning
153(1)
Creativity
154(4)
Instructional Technology
158(1)
Time
158(1)
Student Acceleration
159(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
160(5)
Children with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities
165(53)
Definition
166(5)
Intellectual Subnormality
166(1)
Adaptive Behavior
167(2)
Levels of Mental Retardation
169(2)
Biological Factors That Contribute to Mental Retardation
171(5)
Chromosomal Abnormalities
171(1)
Down Syndrome
172(1)
Phenylketonuria
173(1)
Fragile X Syndrome
174(1)
Toxic Agents
174(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
174(1)
Heavy Metals
175(1)
Infections
176(1)
Environmental Factors That Affect Mental Retardation
176(1)
Characteristics of Children with Mental Retardation or Developmental Disabilities
177(3)
Ability to Process Information
177(2)
Ability to Acquire and Use Language
179(1)
Emotional Problems and Social Acceptance
179(1)
Developmental Profiles
180(1)
Prevention of Mental Retardation
181(1)
Ecology of the Child: Family
182(3)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Mental Retardation or Developmental Disabilities
185(24)
Adapting the Learning Environment
185(1)
Identifying Students with MR/DD
185(2)
Issues of Inclusion
187(1)
Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
188(1)
General Education Classroom
188(2)
Teacher Consultants or Facilitators
190(1)
How to Use the Resource Room
190(2)
Special Classes
192(1)
Adapting Curriculum
192(1)
What Are the Goals?
192(1)
Educational Reform and Students with MR/DD
193(1)
Differential Instruction
194(1)
Basic Academic Skills
194(1)
Language and Communication
195(1)
Socialization
196(2)
Prevocations and Work-Study Skills
198(2)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
200(1)
Behavior Modification
200(2)
Fading and Self-Instruction
202(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
203(1)
Cooperative Learning
203(1)
Skills Mastery
204(1)
Technology
205(1)
Can Special Education Make a Difference?
205(1)
Transition
206(1)
From School to Work
206(2)
Adulthood
208(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
209(9)
Family Support
209(3)
Interaction with the Community: The Special Olympics
212(6)
Children with Learning Disabilities
218(41)
A Historical Overview
219(1)
Definitions
220(2)
Prevalence
222(1)
Is There a Single Cause?
223(1)
Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities
224(1)
Classification of Learning Disabilities
225(6)
Neuropsychological/Developmental Learning Disabilities
225(1)
Biological and Genetic Explanations
226(1)
Perceptual-Motor Problems
227(1)
Visual Processing Deficits
227(1)
Auditory Processing Deficits
227(1)
Memory Disorders
228(1)
Attentional Deficits and Hyperactivity
228(1)
Academic Achievement Learning Disabilities
229(1)
Language and Reading Disorders
229(1)
Dyslexia
229(1)
Writing Disorders
230(1)
Spelling Disorders
230(1)
Mathematics Disorders
230(1)
Ecology of the Child: School
231(2)
Deficits in Executive Function or Cognitive Strategies
233(1)
Social Disabilities
233(1)
Developmental Profile
233(1)
Identification and Assessment
234(5)
Diagnosis
235(1)
Early Intervention
236(1)
Language Disabilities
237(1)
Perceptual-Motor Disabilities
237(1)
Attentional and Other Disabilities
238(1)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Learning Disabilities
239(14)
Adapting the Learning Environment
239(1)
Issues of Achievement
239(1)
Collaboration and Inclusion
240(1)
Adapting Curriculum
240(1)
Supportive Inclusion
241(2)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
243(1)
Applied Behavioral Analysis
243(2)
Diagnostic Prescriptive Model
245(2)
Mnemonic Devices
247(1)
Cooperative Learning
247(1)
Mastery Learning
247(1)
Cognitive Instruction
247(1)
Approaches to Content Instruction
248(3)
Instructional Technology
251(1)
Transition
252(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
253(6)
Children with Emotional and Behavior Disorders
259(47)
Definition
260(3)
Factors Related to Behavior Problems
263(5)
Biological Risk Factors
263(1)
The Influence of Genes
264(1)
Interaction Between Genes and Environment
264(1)
The Influence of Drugs
265(1)
The Interaction of Factors
265(1)
Family Risk Factors
265(1)
School Risk Factors
266(1)
Social Risk Factors
266(1)
Violence in the Schools
266(1)
Family and Culture
267(1)
The Challenge of Substance Abuse
268(1)
Classifications and Characteristics
268(5)
Conduct Disorders
269(1)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
270(1)
Anxiety-Withdrawal
271(2)
Developmental Profiles
273(2)
Identification and Placement
275(2)
Ecology of the Child: Family and Community
277(1)
Intervention Strategies
278(6)
Positive Reinforcement
278(1)
Functional Assessment
279(1)
Ecological Strategies
280(1)
Project Re-Ed
281(1)
Time-Out
281(2)
Drug Treatment
283(1)
Treatment Combinations
283(1)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Emotional and Behavior Disorders
284(14)
Adapting the Learning Environment
284(1)
Understanding Emotional and Behavior Disorders
284(1)
Collaboration: The Role of the Multidisciplinary Team
284(2)
The Helping Teacher
286(1)
The Wraparound Approach
286(1)
Inclusion
286(3)
Adapting Curriculum
289(1)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
290(1)
Skills Mastery Techniques
290(8)
Technology
298(1)
Computers: Aiding Content Mastery and Avoiding Negative Response
298(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
298(8)
Transition from School to Work
299(1)
Adulthood
299(7)
Children with Communication Disorders in Speech and Language
306(38)
Definitions
307(1)
Differences Between Speech Disorders and Language Disorders
308(1)
The Elements of Verbal Language
309(1)
Prevalence of Communication Disorders
310(3)
Language Development: A Brief Overview
313(3)
Characteristics of Language Development
314(1)
The Sequence of Language Development
314(2)
Classification of Communication Disorders
316(3)
Disorders of Articulation-Phonology
316(1)
The Nature of Articulation-Phonology Disorders
317(1)
Disabilities Associated with Articulation-Phonology Disorders
317(1)
Disorders of Fluency and Speech Timing
317(1)
Disorders of Voice
318(1)
Disorders of Language
318(1)
Developmental Delay in Communication
319(1)
Developmental Profile
319(2)
Identification and Assessment
321(5)
Preschool Children and Early Intervention
321(2)
School-Age Children
323(1)
Screening
323(1)
Evaluation and Diagnosis
323(1)
Developing the IEP
324(1)
Linguistic Diversity
324(1)
Assessment of Non-English-Speaking Children
324(2)
Education Adaptations for Children with Communication Disorders in Speech and Language
326(12)
Adapting the Learning Environment
326(1)
Inclusion
326(1)
Consultative Service
326(1)
Itinerant Service
326(1)
Intensive-Cycle Scheduling
326(1)
Educational Setting
327(1)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
327(1)
Speech and Language Therapy
327(4)
Interactive Approaches
331(1)
Intervention for Fluency Disorders
331(1)
Focused Stimulation
332(1)
Phonological Training
332(1)
Slow Anditory Processing
333(1)
Augmented and Alternative Communication
333(1)
Adapting Curriculum
334(1)
Intervention Priorities
334(1)
Dialects
334(1)
Technology
335(1)
Instructional Technology
335(2)
Transition
337(1)
Ecology of the Child: Community
338(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
339(5)
Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearning
344(45)
Definitions
345(4)
Degree of Hearing Loss
346(1)
Age of Onset of Loss
346(1)
The Structure of the Ear and Types of Hearing Loss
346(3)
Prevalence of Hearing Loss
349(1)
Causes of Hearing Loss
349(5)
Genetic Causes
350(1)
Environmental Causes
351(3)
Characteristics of Children with Hearing Loss
354(7)
Cognitive Development
354(1)
Language Development
355(2)
Social and Personal Adjustment
357(2)
Interpreters
359(1)
The Deaf Community
360(1)
Some Special Services
360(1)
Developmental Profiles
361(1)
The School's Role in Identification
362(2)
The General Education Teacher
363(1)
The Audiologist
364(1)
Means of Testing Hearing Loss
364(2)
Audiometry
364(1)
Pure-Tone Audiometry
364(1)
Behavioral Observation Audiometry
364(1)
Play Audiometry
365(1)
Auditory Brainstem Response
365(1)
Bone-Conductor Test
365(1)
Cochlear Implants
365(1)
Ecology of the Child: Community
366(2)
Educational Adaptations for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
368(14)
Adapting the Learning Environment
368(1)
Parent Involvement and Early Intervention
368(2)
Inclusion in Elementary School
370(1)
Inclusion in Secondary School
370(1)
The Education Team
371(1)
Adapting Curriculum
371(1)
Academic Achievement
371(1)
Components of Successful Programs
372(1)
Encouraging Academic Achievement at Home
372(1)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
373(1)
Communication Skills
373(2)
Communication Methods
375(2)
Approaches to Teaching Communication
377(2)
Teacher Strategies
379(1)
Technology
379(1)
Assistive Technology
379(2)
Instructional Technology
381(1)
Transition
Postsecondary Programs
381(1)
National Information Center on Deafness
382(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
382(7)
Children with Visual Impairments
389(50)
Definitions
390(1)
Visual Interpretation of the Human Eye
390(3)
The Human Eye
391(1)
Causes of Visual Impairments
392(1)
Characteristics of Children with Visual Impairments
393(5)
Intellectual Development
393(1)
Language Development
394(1)
Sensory Compensation and Perception
394(1)
Personal and Social Adjustment
395(3)
Developmental Profiles
398(2)
Early Intervention
400(2)
Identification
402(2)
Ecology of the Child: School
404(1)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Visual Impairments
405(28)
Adapting the Learning Environment
408(1)
Inclusion
408(5)
Individualized Education Program
413(1)
Special Schools
413(2)
Adapting Curriculum
415(1)
Literacy
415(1)
Mathematics
416(1)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
416(1)
Communication Skills
417(4)
Environment Skills
421(4)
Skills in the Learning Environment
425(1)
Additional Skills Training
426(1)
Technology
426(1)
Assistive Technology
426(4)
Transition
430(1)
From School to Work
430(1)
Program Evaluation
431(1)
A National Agenda
432(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
433(1)
A Final Word
433(6)
Children with Multiple and Severe Disabilities
439(45)
A Note About Terminology
441(1)
Definition
441(2)
Prevalence of Multiple and Severe Disabilities
443(1)
Causes of Multiple and Severe Disabilities
443(1)
Characteristics of Children with Multiple and Severe Disabilities
444(9)
Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), and Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)
444(1)
Autism
445(1)
Rhett Disorder
446(1)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
446(1)
Asperger's Disorder
446(1)
Autism and PDDNOS
446(1)
Treatment Programs
446(1)
Lovaas's Young Autism Program
446(1)
TEECH
447(1)
Other Programs
448(1)
Deafblind Impairment
448(1)
The Education Program
448(1)
Early Intervention
449(1)
Behavior Disturbance and Hearing Impairment
450(1)
Mental Retardation with Another Disability
451(1)
Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy
452(1)
Early Intervention
453(3)
Identification of Children with Multiple and Severe Disabilities
456(1)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Multiple and Severe Disabilities
457(16)
Adapting the Learning Environment
457(2)
Inclusion: Integrated Settings
459(2)
Adapting Curriculum
461(1)
Data Collecting
461(1)
Functional Age-Appropriate Skills
462(2)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
464(1)
Teaching and Assessing
464(2)
Preschool
466(1)
Primary and Secondary School
467(2)
Teaching Strategies for Nonvocal Students
469(1)
Technology for Nonvocal Students
469(1)
Technology
470(1)
Instructional Technology
470(1)
Assistive Technology
470(1)
Transition
470(1)
From Home and School to Community and Work
470(3)
Family and Lifespan Issues
473(3)
Living Arrangements
473(1)
Vocational Opportunities
474(1)
Day Treatment Programs
474(1)
Day Habilitation Programs
474(1)
Sheltered Workshops
474(2)
Ecology of the Child: Family
476(8)
Supportive Competitive Employment
478(6)
Children with Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
484(43)
Definitions
485(1)
Prevalence of Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
486(1)
Causes of Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
487(1)
Congenital Disabilities
487(1)
Acquired Disabilities
488(1)
Classification and Characteristics
488(4)
Children with Physical Disabilities
488(1)
Neurological Conditions
489(3)
Ecology of the Child: School
492(13)
Musculoskeletal Conditions
494(2)
Children with Health Impairments
496(1)
Metabolic Disorders
496(1)
Cardiopulmonary Conditions
496(1)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
497(2)
Cooley's Anemia and Sickle Cell Anemia
499(1)
Substance Abuse
499(1)
Other Health-Related Conditions
500(1)
Technology-Dependent Health Conditions
501(1)
A Home-Care Success Story
501(1)
Tube Feeding
502(1)
Intravenous Feeding
503(1)
Catheterization and Colostomy
503(1)
Oxygen-Dependent Children
503(1)
Child Abuse
503(1)
Traumatic Brain Injury and Accidents
504(1)
Developmental Profiles
505(2)
Early Intervention
507(1)
Identification of Children with Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
507(1)
Educational Adaptations for Children with Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
508(13)
Adapting the Learning Environment
508(1)
Inclusion
508(4)
Instructional Materials and Classroom Equipment
512(1)
Accessibility of Facilities
512(1)
Adapting Curriculum
513(1)
Skill Development
513(3)
Adapting Teaching Strategies
516(1)
Increasing the Understanding of the Disabling Condition
516(1)
Emphasizing the Quality of Life
516(1)
Increasing the Sense of Control
517(1)
Physical Education
517(1)
Technology
517(1)
Assistive Communication
517(3)
Transition
520(1)
Family and Lifespan Issues
521(6)
Length of Life
521(1)
Discrimination
521(6)
Afterword: New Millennium, New Opportunities 527(5)
Glossary 532(7)
References 539(24)
Author/Source Index 563(8)
Subject Index 571


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