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Education : The Practice and Profession of Teaching,9780205485581
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Education : The Practice and Profession of Teaching

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205485581

ISBN10:
0205485588
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $82.66
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Summary

With new cases in every chapter that bring readers into the real world of teaching, this widely admired text now integrates the core foundations of education with case-based analysis, practical examples of technology in the classroom, and personal encounters with diversity. Now more than ever teachers are being held accountable for results achieved by their students; now more than ever new teachers must be true education professionals, with a wide grasp of teaching knowledge and the ability to use it to solve real problems. This exciting new edition of "Education: The Practice and Profession of Teaching "melds comprehensive coverage of foundations topics with practical guidance on learning and instruction, and a wealth of insights into how authentic schools, classrooms, and educational systems function.

Table of Contents

Features xv
Preface xvii
Part I. Teaching from the Inside Out
1(90)
A Teacher's Role
2(28)
Case Study: Investigating Professionalism
2(2)
Is Teaching a Profession?
4(3)
Teaching Is a Profession
5(1)
Teaching Is a Semiprofession
5(2)
How Are Views of Teaching Changing?
7(3)
Technology in Practice: Thinking and Behaving Like a Professional
8(1)
A View of Teaching as Basic Professional Competence: INTASC
9(1)
What Career Issues Do Beginning Teachers Face?
10(5)
Teacher Licensure
10(2)
Availability of Jobs
12(2)
Teacher Salaries
14(1)
Successfully Performing Responsibilities
15(1)
How Are Teachers Evaluated?
15(5)
Competency Testing
17(1)
Performance Evaluations of Teachers
18(1)
Portfolios
19(1)
National Teacher Examinations: The Praxis Series™
19(1)
How Are Teachers Supported and Rewarded?
20(2)
Mentoring Programs
20(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
20(1)
Career Ladders and Merit Pay
21(1)
National Certification
22(1)
How Do Teachers Demonstrate Professional Leadership?
22(8)
Advanced College Degrees
22(1)
Working with Professional Organizations
23(1)
Teachers and the Law: Must teachers pay union dues if they are not members?
23(2)
Meeting the Challenges of Professional Practice
25(1)
Case Perspectives
25(2)
Summary
27(1)
Terms and Concepts
27(1)
Reflective Activity: Choosing a Teaching Path
27(1)
Additional Readings
28(1)
Web Resources
28(2)
Challenges Teachers and Schools Face
30(30)
Case Study: School Violence
30(2)
What Are Society's Expectations for Schools?
32(1)
How Does Poverty Place Students at Risk of School Failure?
33(2)
How Can Schools Intervene to Help Students at Risk?
35(6)
Providing Early Intervention Programs
36(2)
Keeping Students in School
38(1)
Providing Compensatory Education
38(1)
Providing Before- and After-School Programs
39(1)
Using the Arts to Engage Children
40(1)
Providing Mentors and Tutors
40(1)
How Can Schools Get Parents Involved in Their Children's Education?
41(2)
Implementing Parental Involvement Programs
41(1)
Providing Family Services through Full-Service Schools
42(1)
How Can Schools Reduce Risks That Threaten Children's Health and Safety?
43(17)
Teachers and the Law: What rights and responsibilities do teachers have in protecting students' online privacy?
44(1)
Preventing and Curing Childhood Obesity
45(1)
Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect
46(1)
Preventing and Responding to Teen Pregnancy
47(1)
Technology in Practice: Stopping Online Predators
48(1)
Issues in School Reform: No Name-Calling
49(1)
Preventing the Spread of AIDS and Other Communicable Diseases
49(3)
Preventing Suicide and Accidental Injury or Death
52(1)
Preventing School Violence
53(2)
Preventing Substance Abuse
55(1)
Case Perspectives
56(1)
Summary
57(1)
Terms and Concepts
58(1)
Reflective Activity: The Achievement Gap
58(1)
Additional Readings
59(1)
Web Resources
59(1)
The Richness of Classroom Cultures
60(31)
Case Study: Are Some Curricula Discriminatory?
60(2)
What Is Diversity?
62(2)
Culture
62(1)
Race and Ethnicity
63(1)
What Other Concepts Define Diversity?
64(7)
From the Perspective of Immigrants
64(2)
From the Perspective of Being a Language Minority or Bilingual Person
66(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Bias in the African American Community
66(1)
From the Perspective of Gender
67(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
68(1)
From the Perspective of Exceptionality
69(1)
From the Perspective of Sexual Orientation
70(1)
What Is Multicultural Education?
71(3)
Teaching the Culturally Different
72(1)
Human Relations Approaches
73(1)
Single-Group Studies
73(1)
Multicultural Approaches
73(1)
Education That Is Multicultural and Social Reconstructionist
74(1)
What Types of Multicultural Education Curricula Exist, and How Are They Evaluated?
74(3)
Accountability Issues
75(2)
How Are Educational Services Adapted for Students with Exceptionalities?
77(6)
Technology in Practice: Countering Prejudice
78(1)
Delivering Services to Students with Disabilities
78(2)
Issues in School Reform: Serving Children with Special Needs through Inclusion
80(1)
Delivering Services to Gifted and Talented Students
81(2)
How Can Teachers Create Culturally Relevant Classrooms?
83(5)
Cultural Mismatches
83(1)
Responsive Instruction
83(1)
Case Perspectives
84(2)
Summary
86(1)
Terms and Concepts
86(1)
Reflective Activity: One Immigrant's Success Story
86(1)
Additional Readings
87(1)
Web Resources
87(1)
Developing a Professional Portfolio: Digital Portfolios
88(1)
Timeline: Historical and Philosophical Touchstones in Education
88(1)
Online Activity: The Learning Network
89(2)
Part II. Our Educational Heritage
91(94)
Education in America: The Early Years
92(32)
Case Study: The Long Shadow of History
92(2)
Which Europeans Influenced Early Education?
94(2)
Comenius: Value of Structure
94(1)
Locke and Rousseau: Enlightened Views
94(1)
Pestalozzi: Encouraging Development
95(1)
Froebel: Start Early
95(1)
How Did Informal Education Develop before the Civil War?
96(6)
Education in the Southern Colonies
97(1)
Voices Pro and Con: The Role of Competition in Learning
98(1)
Education in the Middle Atlantic Colonies
99(1)
Education in the New England Colonies
99(1)
A National View of Education
100(2)
What Were the Aims of Education?
102(7)
The Role of Religion
102(1)
Industry Affects Education
103(1)
Teachers and the Law: How free are teachers to practice their religion?
104(1)
Education for Slaves
104(1)
Education for Native Americans
105(1)
Education in Spain's American Colonies
106(2)
Education for Women
108(1)
Education for People with Disabilities
109(1)
How Did Formal Education Develop in America before the Civil War?
109(15)
Life in Colonial Schools
109(2)
Curricula
111(1)
Issues in School Reform: Children's Books Have Staying Power
112(1)
Recognizing Educational Success and Failure
112(1)
The Monitorial Method and the American Lyceum
113(1)
The Latin School and the English Academy: No Girls Allowed
113(1)
Early Ideas of Public Education
114(1)
Leaders in the Movement for Universal Education
115(1)
Technology in Practice: Turn on, Tune In--Leap for Joy!
116(1)
The Development of Parochial Schools
116(1)
The Growth of Institutions of Higher Education
117(2)
Case Perspectives
119(2)
Summary
121(1)
Terms and Concepts
121(1)
Reflective Activity: Eliza Pinckney
121(1)
Additional Readings
122(1)
Web Resources
123(1)
Education in America: Then and Now
124(34)
Case Study: Where Do I Fit?
124(2)
How Did Educational Life Change after the Civil War?
126(6)
Ending Slavery and Reconstructing the South
126(1)
We Need Educational and Social Reform
127(1)
Science and Philanthropy Combine to Educate
128(1)
Learning from Mass Media
129(1)
Federal Influence on Education
129(2)
Teachers and the Law: Has NCLB changed the rules on prayer in public schools?
131(1)
Who Are ``We the People''?
132(11)
Native Americans
132(2)
European Americans
134(1)
Technology in Practice: Accessing History
135(1)
African Americans
135(2)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
137(1)
Hispanic Americans
138(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Illegal Immigrants
139(1)
Asian Americans
140(1)
Exceptional Learners in America
141(1)
American Women
142(1)
How Did Teaching Change after the Civil War?
143(2)
Status of Women in Teaching Changes
143(1)
The Progressive Movement Begins
144(1)
Trying to Educate the Nation
144(1)
How Have Schools Changed During the Modern Era?
145(4)
Consolidation and Bureaucratization
145(1)
New Links between Schools and Communities
145(1)
Rise of Preschools
146(1)
The Middle School Movement
146(1)
Comprehensive High Schools
146(1)
Homeschooling
147(1)
Adult Education
148(1)
Opportunities for Higher Education
148(1)
Why Was Curriculum So Important?
149(3)
Standardized Curriculum
150(1)
Diversified Curriculum
150(1)
Censorship and Core Curricula
151(1)
Innovative Curriculum
151(1)
How Do We Typically Judge Educational Success and Failure?
152(6)
Case Perspectives
153(1)
Summary
154(1)
Terms and Concepts
154(1)
Reflective Activity: Cycles of Education
155(1)
Additional Readings
156(1)
Web Resources
157(1)
Why Teachers Behave As They Do
158(27)
Case Study: Developing Civic Attitudes
158(2)
What Does Philosophy Have to Do with You As a Teacher?
160(1)
Philosophy Influences Education
160(1)
Voices Pro and Con: The Core Philosophies of Public Schools
161(1)
What Are the Roots of American Educational Philosophies?
161(4)
Idealism
162(1)
Realism
163(1)
Humanism
164(1)
What Modern Philosophies Influence Western Education?
165(8)
Existentialism
165(2)
Marxism
167(1)
Behaviorism and Cognitivism
168(1)
Pragmatism
169(1)
Technology in Practice: Pragmatism at Work
170(1)
Perennialism and Essentialism
171(1)
Social Reconstuctionism
172(1)
What Non-Western Philosophies Influence American Education?
173(4)
Hinduism
174(1)
Buddhism
174(1)
Islam
175(1)
African and Native American Philosophies
176(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
176(1)
What Shapes Teachers' Personal Philosophies of Education?
177(5)
Learning from Teaching: Reflection
177(1)
Case Perspectives
178(1)
Summary
179(1)
Terms and Concepts
179(1)
Reflective Activity: Philosophical Differences
179(1)
Additional Readings
180(1)
Web Resources
181(1)
Developing a Professional Portfolio: Your Own Philosophy of Teaching
182(1)
Timeline: Professional Teaching in a Diverse Society
182(1)
Online Activity: Exploring the Library of Congress
183(2)
Part III. Education from the Outside In
185(102)
Where Teachers Work: Schools
186(30)
Case Study: A Rose by Any Other Name
186(2)
How Is Public Schooling Organized in the United States?
188(8)
School Districts
188(1)
Types of Schools
189(1)
Early Childhood Education
190(1)
Kindergarten
191(1)
Elementary Schools
192(1)
Junior High Schools and Middle Schools
192(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
193(1)
High Schools
194(1)
Higher Education
194(1)
Issues in School Reform: School Consolidation
195(1)
What Are Some Schooling Alternatives?
196(6)
Magnet Schools
196(1)
Vocational-Technical Schools
197(1)
Montessori and Waldorf Schools
197(1)
Private and Independent Schools
198(1)
Teachers and the Law: Does a public school have to accept a student's credit for a private school course?
199(1)
For-Profit Schools
200(1)
Charter Schools
200(1)
Parochial Schools
200(2)
Home Schools
202(1)
How Are Schools Administered?
202(2)
The School Superintendent
203(1)
Principals and Assistant Principals
204(1)
What Organizational and Policy Issues Do Schools Face?
204(4)
Retention
205(1)
Class Schedule and Class Size
205(2)
Technology in Practice: Recognizing and Promoting School Quality
207(1)
Tracking
207(1)
What Makes Some Schools More Effective Than Others?
208(8)
Positive School Environments
209(1)
Relations between Home and School
209(2)
Case Perspectives
211(2)
Summary
213(1)
Terms and Concepts
213(1)
Reflective Activity: A New Paradigm for School Goals
213(1)
Additional Readings
214(1)
Web Resources
215(1)
Leading, Governing, and Funding Schools
216(34)
Case Study: Scopes Revisited
216(2)
What Are School Governance and Education Finance?
218(7)
How Schools Are Run
218(1)
How Schools Are Funded
218(1)
Connections between Education and the Economy
219(1)
Political Influences on Public Education
220(1)
Issues in School Reform: Leadership in an Age of Reform
221(4)
How Does the Federal Government Influence Education?
225(2)
Federal Funding for Education
225(2)
How Is Education Financed and Controlled by the States?
227(7)
State Funding
228(2)
State Education Oversight
230(3)
Cooperation among School Districts
233(1)
How Are Schools Financed and Managed at the Local Level?
234(5)
Property Taxes
234(1)
Local School Boards
235(1)
School District Budgets
235(1)
Technology in Practice: How Do Schools' Expenditures and Revenues Compare?
236(3)
How Are Governance and Funding Related to Educational Success?
239(11)
The Issue of Funding Equity
240(2)
The Issue of School Choice
242(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Public Support for Private Schools?
243(1)
The Issue of Site-Based Management
244(1)
Case Perspectives
245(2)
Summary
247(1)
Terms and Concepts
247(1)
Reflective Activity: School Board Membership
247(1)
Additional Readings
248(1)
Web Resources
249(1)
The Influence of the Law
250(37)
Case Study: To Catch a Thief
250(2)
How Does Government Influence Education?
252(1)
What Legal Principles Affect Public Education?
253(3)
What Are Parents' Rights and Responsibilities?
256(3)
A Question of Religious Principle
256(1)
You Can't Spank My Child!
257(1)
Do Some Parents Have Special Rights?
258(1)
What Are Students' Rights and Responsibilities?
259(3)
In God Somebody Trusts
259(2)
Playing Fairly
261(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Zero Tolerance
262(5)
Show Me What's In There!
263(1)
Are There Limits on Student Expression?
264(1)
Treating Different Students Differently---Illegal Discrimination?
265(1)
Would You Check These Papers for Me?
266(1)
What Are Teachers' Rights and Responsibilities?
267(7)
There's Got to Be a Way to Keep This Job!
267(1)
A Line between Personhood and Professionalism
268(1)
What Do You Mean I'm Violating Copyright Laws?
269(1)
Maybe She Is Just a Sickly Child
270(1)
You Should Have Known Better
271(3)
Technology in Practice: Online Training for Recognizing Child Neglect and Abuse
274(1)
What Are School Districts' Rights and Responsibilities?
274(10)
Balancing Academic Freedom
274(1)
Equal Treatment
275(1)
How Could You Let This Happen to a Student?
276(1)
Somebody Will Pay!
277(1)
What Kind of Choice Is This?
278(1)
Case Perspectives
279(1)
Summary
280(1)
Terms and Concepts
280(1)
Reflective Activity: Sexual Harassment
280(2)
Additional Readings
282(1)
Web Resources
283(1)
Developing a Professional Portfolio: Planning Your Professional Development
284(1)
Timeline: Important Events in Educational Governance, Finance, and Law
284(1)
Online Activity: Oyez Project
285(2)
Part IV. Helping Students Succeed
287(66)
Curriculum and Instruction
288(36)
Case Study: Reaching Every Student
288(2)
What Is Curriculum?
290(3)
Explicit and Implicit Curricula
290(1)
Null Curriculum
291(1)
Extracurriculum
292(1)
Integrated Curriculum
292(1)
What Forces for Change Affect Curriculum Content?
293(8)
Voices Pro and Con: To Standardize or Not to Standardize the Curriculum?
294(1)
The National Interest
294(1)
Teachers and the Law: Can students be required to recite the Pledge of Allegiance?
295(1)
State and Local Priorities
295(1)
Social Issues and Public Opinion
296(1)
Professional Groups and Individuals
296(3)
Educational Publishing and Mass Media
299(2)
How Are Curriculum and Instruction Planned and Organized?
301(3)
Aims of Education
301(1)
Teacher Planning for Instruction
301(3)
What Are Four General Models of Instruction?
304(7)
Issues in School Reform: Improving Achievement
305(1)
Behavioral Systems Strategies
305(1)
Social Strategies
306(2)
Information-Processing Strategies
308(1)
Personal Sources Strategies
309(1)
Technology in Practice: Technologies Old and New Make for Creative Curriculum
310(1)
What Is Effective Instruction?
311(5)
Understanding Students
312(1)
Communicating
313(1)
Creative Learning Environments
313(1)
Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needs
314(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
315(1)
Evaluating Student Learning
315(1)
How Do Teachers Manage Students Effectively?
316(8)
Research Informs Teacher Management Behavior
316(1)
Relationships between Teachers and Students
317(1)
Classroom Management: An Environment of Self-Control
318(1)
Case Perspectives
319(1)
Summary
320(1)
Terms and Concepts
320(1)
Reflective Activity: Making Real-Life Connections
320(1)
Additional Readings
321(1)
Web Resources
322(2)
Recognizing Educational Success: Standards and Assessment
324(29)
Case Study: Dodging Academic Disaster
324(2)
How Do We Know What Works in Education?
326(6)
Personal Standards
326(2)
National Goals and Standards
328(1)
The Nation's Report Card
328(1)
State Standards
329(1)
Issues in School Reform: Measuring Progress under NCLB
330(1)
Opportunity Standards
331(1)
What Types of Classroom Assessments Do Teachers Use?
332(12)
Classroom Assessment Triad
333(1)
Cognition and Learning
333(1)
Standardized Testing
334(2)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
336(1)
Minimum Competency Testing
336(1)
Asking Questions
337(1)
Authentic Assessment
338(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Grading
339(2)
Grading and Recommendations
341(1)
Student's Role
342(1)
Technology in Practice: Rubrics
343(1)
How Can Teachers Know Whether They Are Assessing Students Fairly?
344(6)
Bias in Assessment
344(1)
Teaching to the Test
344(1)
Multiple Measures
345(1)
Case Perspectives
346(1)
Summary
347(1)
Terms and Concepts
347(1)
Reflective Activity: Arithmetic Test
348(1)
Additional Readings
349(1)
Web Resources
349(1)
Developing a Professional Portfolio: Assessing Students through Observation
350(1)
Timeline: Milestones in Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
350(1)
Online Activity: Teaching with Census Information
351(2)
Part V. A Connected Future
353(70)
A Global Educational Context
354(34)
Case Study: The USA as International Magnet
354(2)
Why Learn about Educational Life Outside the United States?
356(4)
Preparing for the Future
356(1)
Voices Pro and Con: Are There Global Limits to Our Tolerance?
357(1)
Becoming Globally Aware
358(2)
Why Study Educational Policy in Other Countries?
360(17)
Education in Canada
361(1)
Education in Mexico
362(1)
Technology in Practice: Let the Machine Do the Translation?
363(2)
Education in Japan
365(3)
Education in India
368(2)
Education in the United Kingdom
370(3)
Education in Singapore
373(2)
Education in South Africa
375(2)
How Might We Enhance Understanding of Global Interdependence?
377(11)
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
377(1)
Issues in School Reform: Will Jordan Lead the Way in Educational Reform in the Middle East?
378(1)
International Comparisons: Smoke and Mirrors?
379(1)
Comparisons that Foster a Global View
380(3)
Case Perspectives
383(2)
Summary
385(1)
Terms and Concepts
385(1)
Reflective Activity: Project Cuba
385(1)
Additional Readings
386(1)
Web Resources
387(1)
What Lies Ahead
388(35)
Case Study: Looking to the Future
388(2)
How Are Teachers' Professional Roles Changing?
390(7)
Trends toward Common Educational Expectations
390(1)
Cultural Awareness: Lessons Learned
391(1)
Trends toward Comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment
392(2)
Trends toward Education for Diversity
394(1)
Trends toward Defining Diversity in Economic Terms
395(1)
Trends toward Character Education
395(2)
How Are Links to Technology Changing the Foundations of Education?
397(8)
Distance Learning
400(1)
Telecommunications Capabilities in the Schools
401(1)
Technology in Practice: Blogging, Vloging, and Podcasting
402(3)
How Are Small Schools Transforming Teaching and Learning?
405(1)
Targeting Students at Risk
406(5)
Increasing Parental Involvement
409(1)
Enhancing Relationships among Educators
409(2)
How Can Professional Educators Prepare for the Future?
411(9)
Using Professional Knowledge
411(4)
Reflecting on Professional Practice
415(2)
Case Perspectives
417(1)
Summary
418(1)
Terms and Concepts
418(1)
Reflective Activity: Turning Classrooms Over to Interns
418(1)
Additional Readings
419(1)
Web Resources
419(1)
Developing a Professional Portfolio: Preparing Your Resume
420(1)
Timeline: From the Past Comes the Future
420(2)
Online Activity: Teaching Overseas
422(1)
Glossary 423(8)
References 431(12)
Name Index 443(6)
Subject Index 449


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