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Educational Psychology, Active Learning Edition

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205435296

ISBN10:
0205435297
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Teachers, Teaching, and Educational Psychology
1(17)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
1(1)
Teachers, Teaching, and Educational Psychology
1(1)
Overview
2(1)
Teacher-Student Relationships
2(1)
Teacher Preparation and Quality
2(2)
Inside Four Classrooms
4(1)
A Bilingual 1st Grade
4(1)
A Suburban 5th Grade
4(1)
Two Advanced Math Classes
5(1)
Expert Knowledge
5(1)
Beginning Teachers
6(2)
The Role of Educational Psychology: Is It Just Common Sense?
8(2)
Taking Turns
9(1)
Helping Students
9(1)
Skipping Grades
9(1)
Obvious Answer?
10(1)
Using Research to Understand and Improve Teaching
10(4)
Descriptive Studies
10(1)
Correlational Studies
11(1)
Experimental Studies
11(1)
Single-Subject Experimental Designs
12(1)
Microgenetic Studies
12(1)
The Role of Time in Research
13(1)
Theories for Teaching
13(1)
Teachers as Researchers
14(1)
Summary
14(1)
Key Terms
15(1)
Check Yourself
16(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
17
Point/Counterpoint: What Is Good Teaching?
7(11)
Cognitive Development and Language
18(42)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
19(1)
Development: Some General Principles
20(1)
Overview
20(1)
The Brain and Cognitive Development
21(3)
The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex
21(1)
Specialization and Integration
22(1)
The Developing Brain: Neurons
22(2)
Implications for Teachers
24(1)
The Development of Language
24(2)
Diversity in Language: Dual Language Development
26(1)
Language Development in the School Years
26(3)
Pronunciation
26(1)
Syntax
27(1)
Vocabulary and Meaning
27(1)
Pragmatics
27(1)
Metalinguistic Awareness
27(1)
Partnerships with Families
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
Key Terms
29(1)
Check Yourself
30(1)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
31(1)
Overview
31(1)
Influences on Development
31(1)
Basic Tendencies in Thinking
32(1)
Organization
32(1)
Adaptation
32(1)
Equilibration
33(1)
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
33(8)
Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage
33(1)
Early Childhood to the Elementary Years: The Preoperational Stage
34(2)
Later Elementary to the Middle School Years: The Concrete-Operational Stage
36(2)
Junior and Senior High: Formal Operations
38(2)
Do We All Reach the Fourth Stage?
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
Key Terms
41(1)
Check Yourself
42(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective
43(1)
Overview
43(1)
The Social Sources of Individual Thinking
44(1)
Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development
45(1)
The Role of Language and Private Speech
45(3)
Language and Cultural Diversity
46(1)
Vygotsky's and Piaget's Views Compared
46(1)
Self-Talk and Learning
47(1)
The Role of Learning and Development
48(1)
Vygotsky's and Piaget's Views Compared
48(1)
The Role of Adults and Peers
48(1)
Summary
49(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
Check Yourself
50(1)
Implications of Piaget and Vygotsky for Teachers
51(1)
Overview
51(1)
Understanding and Building on Students' Thinking
51(1)
Activity and Constructing Knowledge
52(1)
The Value of Play
52(1)
Some Limitations of Piaget's Theory
53(2)
The Trouble with Stages
53(1)
Underestimating Children's Abilities
53(1)
Cognitive Development and Information Processing
54(1)
Cognitive Development and Culture
54(1)
Assisted Learning
55(1)
The Zone of Proximal Development
55(2)
Private Speech and the Zone
56(1)
Teaching
56(1)
Summary
57(1)
Key Terms
57(1)
Check Yourself
58(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
59
Point/Counterpoint: Brain-Based Education
25(3)
Family and Community Partnerships: Promoting Literacy
28(32)
Guidelines: Teaching the Preoperational Child
37(2)
Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child
39(2)
Helping Students to Use Formal Operations
41(16)
Applying Vygotsky's Ideas in Teaching
57(3)
Personal, Moral, and Social Development
60(40)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
61(1)
Understanding Ourselves and Others
62(1)
Overview
62(1)
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
62(1)
The Preschool Years: Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative
62(2)
Elementary and Middle School Years: Industry versus Inferiority
64(1)
Adolescence: The Search for Identity
65(1)
Identity Statuses
65(1)
Consequences of Different Statuses
65(1)
Beyond the School Years
66(1)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
66(3)
The Structure of Self-Concept
67(1)
How Self-Concept Develops
68(1)
School Life and Self-Esteem
69(2)
Gender, Ethnicity, and Self-Esteem
71(3)
Diversity and Self-Esteem
72(1)
Personal and Collective Self-Esteem
73(1)
The Self and Others
74(2)
Intention
74(1)
Taking the Perspective of Others
74(1)
Emotional Competence
75(1)
Summary
76(1)
Key Terms
76(1)
Check Yourself
77(1)
Moral Development
78(1)
Overview
78(1)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
78(2)
Alternatives to Kohlberg's Theory
80(1)
Cultural Differences in Moral Reasoning
80(1)
Diversity in Reasoning: The Morality of Caring
80(2)
Moral Behavior
82(4)
Aggression
82(1)
Bullies
83(1)
Relational Aggression
83(1)
Victims
84(1)
When Aggression Leads to Violence
84(1)
Cheating
85(1)
Summary
86(1)
Key Terms
86(1)
Check Yourself
87(1)
Socialization: Family, Peers, and Teachers
88(1)
Overview
88(1)
American Families Today
88(1)
Divorce
88(1)
Effects of Divorce
89(1)
Peer Relationships and Peer Cultures
89(2)
Who Is Likely to Have Problems with Peers?
90(1)
Peer Cultures
90(1)
New Roles for Teachers
91(1)
Navigating Transitions
92(2)
Young Children: Starting School
92(1)
Students in the Middle Grades: Another Transition
92(2)
Children and Youth at Risk
94(3)
Child Abuse
94(1)
Eating Disorders
95(1)
Drug Abuse
96(1)
Suicide
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
Key Terms
97(1)
Check Yourself
98(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
99
Point/Counterpoint: What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students' Self-Esteem?
70(4)
Family and Community Partnerships: Building Self-Esteem
74(26)
Guidelines: Encouraging Initiative in Preschool Children
64(1)
Encouraging Industry
64(2)
Supporting Identity Formation
66(9)
Encouraging Emotional Competence
75(9)
Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation
84(5)
Helping Children of Divorce
89(2)
Supporting Personal and Social Development
91(3)
Safety on the Internet
94(6)
Learner Differences and Learning Needs
100(46)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
101(1)
Individual Differences: Intelligence, Cognitive Processing, and Learning Styles
102(1)
Overview
102(1)
Language and Labeling
102(1)
Person-First Language
102(1)
Disabilities and Handicaps
103(1)
Individual Differences in Intelligence
103(4)
Intelligence: One Ability or Many?
104(1)
Multiple Intelligences
104(2)
Multiple Intelligences Go to School
106(1)
Intelligence as a Process
107(2)
How Is Intelligence Measured?
109(1)
Binet's Dilemma
109(1)
Group versus Individual IQ Tests
109(1)
What Does an IQ Score Mean?
110(1)
Intelligence and Achievement
110(1)
Intelligence: Heredity or Environment?
111(1)
Cognitive Styles
111(1)
Field Dependence and Field Independence
111(1)
Impulsive and Reflective Cognitive Styles
112(1)
Learning Styles and Preferences
112(2)
What Are Learning Preferences?
113(1)
Cautions
113(1)
Summary
114(1)
Key Terms
114(1)
Check Yourself
115(1)
Integration and Inclusion: Teaching Every Child in Today's Classroom
116(1)
Overview
116(1)
Least Restrictive Placement
116(1)
Individualized Educational Program
117(1)
The Rights of Students and Families
117(1)
Prevalent Problems and Mild Disabilities
118(1)
Students with Learning Disabilities
118(3)
Student Characteristics
119(2)
Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
121(1)
Students with Communication Disorders
121(2)
Speech Disorders
121(1)
Language Disorders
122(1)
Students with Mental Retardation
123(2)
Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
125(1)
Less Prevalent Problems and More Severe Disabilities
126(1)
Students with Health Impairments
126(2)
Cerebral Palsy and Multiple Disabilities
127(1)
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
127(1)
Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
128(1)
Students with Low Vision and Blindness
128(1)
Section 504 Protections for Students
129(1)
Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
130(1)
Treating and Teaching Students with ADHD
131(2)
Summary
133(1)
Key Terms
134(1)
Check Yourself
135(1)
Ability Differences and Teaching
136(1)
Overview
136(1)
Between-Class Ability Grouping
136(1)
Within-Class Ability Grouping
137(2)
Students Who are Gifted and Talented: Who Are These Students?
139(2)
What Is the Origin of These Gifts?
140(1)
What Problems Do The Gifted Face?
141(1)
Strategies for Identifying and Teaching Gifted Students
141(2)
Recognizing Gifts and Talents
142(1)
Teaching Gifted Students
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Key Terms
144(1)
Check Yourself
144(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
145
Point/Counterpoint: Is Tracking an Effective Strategy?
138
Family and Community Partnerships: Productive Conferences
118(28)
Guidelines: Interpreting IQ Scores
110(12)
Encouraging Language Development
122(2)
Teaching Students with Mild Retardation
124(2)
Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems
126(13)
Grouping by Achievement
139(7)
Culture and Community
146(42)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
147(1)
Diversity in Today's Classrooms
148(1)
Overview
148(1)
Individuals, Groups, and Society
148(2)
American Cultural Diversity
150(1)
Culture and Group Membership
150(1)
Cautions in Interpreting Cultural Differences
150(1)
Social Class Differences: Being Poor
151(1)
SES and Achievement
152(3)
Poor Health Care
152(1)
Low Expectations---Low Self-Esteem
152(1)
Learned Helplessness
153(1)
Peer Influences and Resistance Cultures
153(1)
Tracking
153(1)
Childrearing Styles
154(1)
Home Environment and Resources
154(1)
Ethnic, Racial, and Cultural Differences: The Changing Demographics
155(2)
Cultural Conflicts
156(1)
Cultural Compatibility
156(1)
Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement
157(1)
The Legacy of Discrimination
158(3)
The Development of Prejudice
159(1)
Continuing Discrimination
160(1)
Stereotype Threat
161(2)
Short-Term Effects: Test Performance
161(1)
Long-Term Effects: Disidentification
162(1)
Combating Stereotype Threat
162(1)
Summary
163(1)
Key Terms
163(1)
Check Yourself
164(1)
Girls and Boys: Differences in the Classroom
165(1)
Overview
165(1)
Gender-Role Identity
165(3)
Gender-Role Stereotyping in the Preschool Years
166(1)
Gender Bias in the Curriculum
167(1)
Sex Discrimination in Classrooms
167(1)
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities
168(1)
Eliminating Gender Bias
169(2)
Summary
171(1)
Key Terms
171(1)
Check Yourself
172(1)
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
173(1)
Overview
173(1)
Social Organization
173(1)
Learning Styles
173(2)
Possible Differences
173(2)
Cautions about Learning Styles Research
175(1)
Sociolinguistics: Language Differences in the Classroom
175(1)
Participation Structures
175(1)
Sources of Misunderstanding
175(1)
Dialects
176(1)
Dialects and Pronunciation
176(1)
Dialects and Teaching
176(1)
Bilingualism
177(4)
What Does Bilingualism Mean?
177(1)
Becoming Bilingual
178(1)
Bilingual Education
179(2)
Research on Bilingual Programs
181(1)
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
181(2)
Students Must Experience Academic Success
181(1)
Develop/Maintain Their Cultural Competence
181(1)
Develop a Critical Consciousness to Challenge the Status Quo
182(1)
Teaching Every Student: Know Your Students, Respect Your Students, Teach Your Students
183(2)
Know Your Students
183(1)
Respect Your Students
183(1)
Teach Your Students
184(1)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
185(1)
Check Yourself
186(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
187
Point/Counterpoint: Do Boys and Girls Learn Differently?
170
Family and Community Partnerships: Building Learning Communities
158(30)
Guidelines: Avoiding Sexism in Teaching
169(9)
Dialects in the Classroom
178(6)
Culturally Relevant Teaching
184(4)
Behavioral Views of Learning
188(38)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
189(1)
Behavioral Explanations of Learning: Continguity, Classical Conditioning, and Operant Conditioning
190(1)
Overview
190(1)
Learning: A Definition
190(1)
Learning Is Not Always What It Seems
191(1)
Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning
192(1)
Pavlov's Dilemma and Discovery: Classical Conditioning
192(1)
Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction
193(1)
Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses
194(1)
The Work of Thorndike and Skinner
195(1)
Types of Consequences
195(3)
Reinforcement
196(1)
Punishment
197(1)
Reinforcement Schedules
198(1)
Extinction
198(1)
Antecedents and Behavior Change
199(2)
Cueing
199(1)
Prompting
200(1)
Summary
201(1)
Key Terms
201(1)
Check Yourself
202(1)
Applied Behavior Analysis
203(1)
Overview
203(1)
Methods for Encouraging Behaviors
203(3)
Reinforcing with Teacher Attention
203(2)
Selecting Reinforcers: The Premack Principle
205(1)
Shaping
205(1)
Positive Practice
206(1)
Coping with Undesirable Behavior
206(4)
Negative Reinforcement
206(2)
Satiation
208(1)
Reprimands
208(1)
Response Cost
209(1)
Social Isolation
209(1)
Some Cautions
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Check Yourself
211(1)
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management
212(1)
Overview
212(1)
Mastery Learning
212(1)
Group Consequences
213(1)
Token Reinforcement Programs
213(1)
Contingency Contract Programs
214(1)
Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation and Cognitive Behavior Modification
215(1)
Self-Management
216(2)
Goal Setting
216(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress
216(1)
Self-Reinforcement
217(1)
Cognitive Behavior Modification and Self-Instruction
218(1)
Criticisms of Behavioral Methods
219(3)
Ethical Issues
222(1)
Goals
222(1)
Strategies
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
Key Terms
223(1)
Check Yourself
224(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
225
Point/Counterpoint: Should Students Be Rewarded for Learning?
221
Family and Community Partnerships: Student Self-Management
218(8)
Guidelines: Applying Classical Conditioning
194(10)
Using Praise Appropriately
204(3)
Encouraging Positive Behaviors
207(2)
Using Punishment
209(17)
Cognitive Views of Learning
226(38)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
227(1)
Elements of the Cognitive Perspective: Information Processing
228(1)
Overview
228(1)
Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views
228(1)
The Importance of Knowledge in Learning
229(1)
General and Specific Knowledge
230(1)
Declarative, Procedural, and Conditional Knowledge
230(1)
An Overview of the Information Processing Model of Memory
230(2)
Sensory Memory
232(2)
Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Sensory Memory
232(1)
Perception
232(1)
The Role of Attention
233(1)
Attention and Teaching
233(1)
Working Memory
234(4)
The Central Executive
235(1)
The Phonological Loop
235(1)
The Visuospatial Sketchpad
236(1)
Duration and Contents of Working Memory
236(1)
Retaining Information in Working Memory
237(1)
Forgetting
238(1)
Summary
238(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Check Yourself
240(1)
Long-Term Memory: The Goal of Teaching
241(1)
Overview
241(1)
Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory
241(1)
Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic
242(3)
Propositions and Propositional Networks
243(1)
Images
243(1)
Schemas
243(2)
Episodic Memory
245(1)
Implicit Memories
245(1)
Storing and Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory
246(4)
Levels of Processing Theories
247(1)
Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory
247(1)
Forgetting and Long-Term Memory
248(2)
Summary
250(1)
Key Terms
250(1)
Check Yourself
251(1)
Cognition, Metacognition, and Teaching
252(1)
Overview
252(1)
Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation
252(1)
Individual Differences in Metacognition
253(1)
Individual Differences and Working Memory
253(2)
Developmental Differences
254(1)
Individual Differences
254(1)
Individual Differences and Long-Term Memory
255(1)
Development of Declarative Knowledge
255(3)
Making it Meaningful
255(2)
Mnemonics
257(1)
Rote Memorization
258(1)
Becoming an Expert: Development of Procedural and Conditional Knowledge
258(2)
Automated Basic Skills
259(1)
Domain-Specific Strategies
260(1)
Learning Outside School
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Key Terms
261(1)
Check Yourself
262(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
263
Point/Counterpoint: What's Wrong with Memorizing?
259(2)
Family and Community Partnerships: Organizing Learning
261(3)
Guidelines: Getting and Maintaining Attention
234(15)
Using Information Processing Ideas in the Classroom
249(15)
Complex Cognitive Processes
264(38)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
265(1)
Learning and Teaching about Concepts
266(1)
Overview
266(1)
Views of Concept Learning
266(1)
Prototypes and Exemplars
266(1)
Concepts and Schemas
267(1)
Strategies for Teaching Concepts
267(3)
An Example Concept-Attainment Lesson
267(1)
Lesson Components
268(1)
Lesson Structure
268(2)
Extending and Connecting Concepts
270(1)
Teaching Concepts through Discovery
270(1)
Structure and Discovery
270(1)
Discovery in Action
270(1)
Teaching Concepts through Exposition
271(2)
Advance Organizers
272(1)
Steps in an Expository Lesson
273(1)
Teaching Concepts in Diverse Classrooms
273(1)
Summary
274(1)
Key Terms
274(1)
Check Yourself
275(1)
Problem Solving
276(1)
Overview
276(1)
Problem Solving: General or Domain-Specific?
276(1)
Identifying: Problem Finding
277(1)
Defining Goals and Representing the Problem
277(3)
Focusing Attention
278(1)
Understanding the Words
278(1)
Understanding the Whole Problem
278(1)
Translation and Schema Training
279(1)
The Results of Problem Representation
280(1)
Exploring Possible Solution Strategies
280(1)
Algorithms
280(1)
Heuristics
281(1)
Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back
281(1)
Factors That Hinder Problem Solving
282(2)
Functional Fixedness
282(1)
Response Set
283(1)
The Importance of Flexibility
284(1)
Effective Problem Solving: What Do the Experts Do?
284(3)
Expert Knowledge
284(2)
Novice Knowledge
286(1)
Summary
287(1)
Key Terms
287(1)
Check Yourself
288(1)
Teaching for Transfer
289(1)
Overview
289(1)
Learning Strategies and Tactics
289(3)
Deciding What Is Important
290(1)
Summaries
290(1)
Underlining and Highlighting
290(1)
Taking Notes
291(1)
Visual Tools for Organizing
292(1)
Reading Strategies
292(2)
Applying Learning Strategies
294(2)
Valuing Learning
294(1)
Effort and Efficacy
295(1)
Epistemological Beliefs
295(1)
A Contemporary View of Teaching for Transfer
296(1)
Teaching for Positive Transfer
297(2)
What Is Worth Learning?
298(1)
How Can Teachers Help?
298(1)
Stages of Transfer for Strategies
298(1)
Summary
299(1)
Key Terms
300(1)
Check Yourself
300(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
301
Point/Counterpoint: Should Students Be Allowed to Use Calculators and Spell-Checkers?
283(16)
Family and Community Partnerships: Promoting Transfer
299(3)
Guidelines Applying Bruner's Ideas
272(1)
Applying Ausubel's Ideas
273(13)
Problem Solving
286(9)
Becoming an Expert Student
295(7)
Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views of Learning
302(36)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
303(1)
Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theories
304(1)
Overview
304(1)
Parents, Peers, and Teachers
304(2)
Learning by Observing Others
306(2)
Attention
306(1)
Retention
307(1)
Production
307(1)
Motivation and Reinforcement
307(1)
Factors That Influence Observational Learning
308(1)
Observational Learning in Teaching
308(2)
Directing Attention
309(1)
Fine-Tuning Already-Learned Behaviors
309(1)
Strengthening or Weakening Inhibitions
309(1)
Teaching New Behaviors
309(1)
Arousing Emotion
309(1)
Reciprocal Determinism
310(2)
Summary
312(1)
Key Terms
312(1)
Check Yourself
313(1)
Constructivism and Situated Learning
314(1)
Overview
314(1)
Constructivist Views of Learning
315(2)
Psychological/Individual Constructivism
315(1)
Vygotsky's Social Constructivism
316(1)
Constructionism
316(1)
How Is Knowledge Constructed?
317(1)
Knowledge: Situated or General?
318(1)
Common Elements of Constructivist Perspectives
318(2)
Complex Learning Environments and Authentic Tasks
319(1)
Social Negotiation
319(1)
Multiple Perspectives and Representations of Content
319(1)
Understanding the Knowledge Construction Process
320(1)
Student Ownership of Learning
320(1)
Looking Back at Learning
320(2)
Summary
322(1)
Key Terms
322(1)
Check Yourself
323(1)
Applications of Constructivist and Situated Perspectives on Learning
324(1)
Overview
324(1)
Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
324(4)
Examples of Inquiry
324(2)
Problem-Based Learning
326(1)
Research on Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
327(1)
Dialogue and Instructional Conversations
328(1)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
329(2)
A Cognitive Apprenticeship in Learning Mathematics
330(1)
Cognitive Apprenticeships in Thinking
331(2)
Developing Thinking in Every Class
331(1)
Critical Thinking
331(2)
The Language of Thinking
333(1)
An Integretated Constructivist Program: Fostering Communities of Learners
333(2)
Working with Families
335(1)
Summary
335(1)
Key Terms
335(1)
Check Yourself
336(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
337
Point/Counterpoint: Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving?
332(2)
Family and Community Partnerships: Communicating about Innovations
334(4)
Guidelines: Using Observational Learning
310(28)
Motivation in Learning and Teaching
338(48)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
339(1)
Motivation: A Definition and Four General Approaches
340(1)
Overview
340(1)
Meeting Some Students
340(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
341(2)
Behavioral Approaches to Motivation
343(1)
Humanistic Approaches to Motivation
343(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy
343(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Motivation
344(2)
Attribution Theory
344(1)
Attributions in the Classroom
345(1)
Teacher Actions and Student Attributions
345(1)
Expectancy x Value Theories
346(1)
Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation
346(2)
Summary
348(1)
Key Terms
348(1)
Check Yourself
349(1)
Goals, Interests, and Emotions
350(1)
Overview
350(1)
Types of Goals and Goal Orientations
350(3)
Four Goal Orientations in School
351(1)
Wait---Are Performance Goals Always Bad?
351(1)
Beyond Mastery and Performance
352(1)
Feedback and Goal Acceptance
353(1)
Goals: Lessons for Teachers
353(1)
Tapping Interests and Emotions
353(1)
Arousal: Excitement and Anxiety in Learning
354(4)
Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity
355(2)
Anxiety in the Classroom
357(1)
How Does Anxiety Interfere with Achievement?
357(1)
Coping with Anxiety
357(1)
Interests and Emotions: Lessons for Teachers
358(1)
Summary
359(1)
Key Terms
359(1)
Check Yourself
360(1)
Self-Schemas
361(1)
Overview
361(1)
Beliefs about Ability
361(1)
Beliefs about Self-Efficacy
362(2)
Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem
362(1)
Sources of Self-Efficacy
362(1)
Efficacy and Motivation
363(1)
Teacher Efficacy
363(1)
Self-Determination
364(1)
Self-Determination in the Classroom
364(1)
Information and Control
364(1)
Learned Helplessness
365(1)
Self-Worth
366(1)
Self-Schemas: Lessons for Teachers
367(1)
Summary
368(1)
Key Terms
368(1)
Check Yourself
369(1)
Motivation to Learn in School
370(1)
Overview
370(1)
On TARGET for Learning
370(1)
Tasks for Learning
370(3)
Task Value
371(1)
Authentic Tasks
371(2)
Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment
373(2)
Supporting Choices
373(2)
Recognizing Accomplishment
375(1)
Grouping, Evaluation, and Time
375(2)
Grouping and Goal Structures
375(1)
Evaluation
375(1)
Time
376(1)
Bringing it All Together: Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning
377(1)
Can I Do It? Building Confidence and Positive Expectations
378(1)
Do I Want to Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning
379(2)
Attainment and Intrinsic Value
379(1)
Instrumental Value
380(1)
What Do I Need to Do to Succeed? Staying Focused on the Task
381(1)
Summary
382(1)
Key Terms
383(1)
Check Yourself
384(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
385
Point/Counterpoint: Does Making Learning Fun Make Good Learning?
356(26)
Family and Community Partnerships: Motivation to Learn
382(4)
Guidelines: Building on Students' Interests
355(3)
Coping with Anxiety
358(7)
Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy
365(2)
Encouraging Self-Efficacy and Self-Worth
367(19)
Creating Learning Environments
386(36)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
387(1)
Creating a Positive Learning Environment
388(1)
Overview
388(1)
The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation
388(1)
The Goals of Classroom Management
389(3)
More Time for Learning
390(1)
Access to Learning
390(1)
Management for Self-Management
391(1)
Some Research Results
392(1)
Rules and Procedures Required
392(5)
Procedures
393(1)
Rules
393(1)
Rules for Elementary School
394(1)
Rules for Secondary School
395(1)
Consequences
395(1)
Who Sets the Rules and Consequences?
396(1)
Planning Spaces for Learning
397(1)
Interest-Areas
397(1)
Personal Territories
397(1)
Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class
398(2)
Effective Managers for Elementary Students
398(2)
Effective Managers for Secondary Students
400(1)
Summary
400(1)
Key Terms
400(1)
Check Yourself
401(1)
Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning
402(1)
Overview
402(1)
Encouraging Engagement
402(1)
Prevention Is the Best Medicine
402(2)
Withitness
403(1)
Overlapping and Group Focus
403(1)
Movement Management
403(1)
Dealing with Discipline Problems
404(1)
Special Problems with Secondary Students
405(3)
Summary
408(1)
Key Terms
408(1)
Check Yourself
409(1)
The Need for Communication
410(1)
Overview
410(1)
Message Sent---Message Received
410(1)
Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?
411(1)
Counseling: The Student's Problem
411(1)
Confrontation and Assertive Discipline
412(2)
Messages
412(1)
Assertive Discipline
412(1)
Confrontations and Negotiations
413(1)
Student Conflicts and Confrontations
414(2)
Peer Harassment
414(1)
Violence in the Schools
415(1)
Summing It Up: Learning Environments for All Students
416(1)
Culturally Responsive Management
417(1)
Communicating with Families about Classroom Management
418(1)
Summary
419(1)
Key Terms
419(1)
Check Yourself
420(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
421
Point/Counterpoint: Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea?
406(12)
Family and Community Partnerships: Classroom Management
418(4)
Guidelines: Establishing Class Procedures
394(5)
Designing Learning Spaces
399(4)
Keeping Students Engaged
403(3)
Imposing Penalties
406(16)
Teaching for Academic Learning
422(46)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
423(1)
The First Step: Planning
424(1)
Overview
424(1)
Objectives for Learning
425(2)
Mager: Start with the Specific
425(1)
Gronlund: Start with the General
426(1)
Flexible and Creative Plans---Using Taxonomies
427(2)
The Cognitive Domain
427(1)
Bloom 2001
427(1)
The Affective Domain
428(1)
The Psychomotor Domain
429(1)
Another View: Planning from a Constructivist Perspective
429(3)
An Example of Constructivist Planning
430(1)
Integrated and Thematic Plans
430(2)
Summary
432(1)
Key Terms
432(1)
Check Yourself
433(1)
Teacher-Directed Instruction and Teacher Expectations
434(1)
Overview
434(1)
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
434(2)
Teachers' Knowledge
434(1)
Clarity and Organization
435(1)
Warmth and Enthusiasm
435(1)
Explanation and Direct Instruction
436(3)
Direct Instruction
437(1)
Rosenshine's Six Teaching Functions
437(1)
Why Does Direct Instruction Work?
438(1)
Criticisms of Direct Instruction
439(1)
Seatwork and Homework
439(3)
Seatwork
440(1)
Homework
440(1)
Making Seatwork and Homework Valuable
440(2)
Questioning and Recitation
442(3)
Kinds of Questions
443(1)
Fitting the Questions to the Students
444(1)
Responding to Student Answers
445(1)
Group Discussion
445(1)
Teacher Expectations: Two Kinds of Expectation Effects
446(1)
Sources of Expectations
447(1)
Do Teachers' Expectations Really Affect Students' Achievement?
448(1)
Teacher Behavior and Student Reaction
448(3)
Instructional Strategies
448(1)
Teacher---Student Interactions
449(2)
Summary
451(1)
Key Terms
451(1)
Check Yourself
452(1)
Student-Centered Teaching in Content Areas and Inclusive Classrooms
453(1)
Overview
453(1)
Learning to Read and Write
454(2)
Balance in Reading and Writing
454(1)
Comprehension Monitoring and Reading: Reciprocal Teaching
454(2)
Applying Reciprocal Teaching
456(1)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics
456(1)
Learning and Teaching Science
457(2)
Beyond the Debates to Outstanding Teaching
459(1)
Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms
460(1)
Resource Rooms, Collaborative Consultation, and Cooperative Teaching
461(1)
Working with Individual Students
462(1)
Technology and Exceptional Students
462(2)
Summary
464(1)
Key Terms
465(1)
Check Yourself
466(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
467
Point/Counterpoint: Is Homework a Valuable Use of Time?
441(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Homework
442(26)
Guidelines: Using Instructional Objectives
429(7)
Teaching Effectively
436(10)
Productive Group Discussions
446(4)
Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations
450(9)
Teaching for Conceptual Change
459(9)
Teaching for Self-Regulation, Creativity, and Tolerance
468(34)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
469(1)
Self-Regulation and Agency
470(1)
Overview
470(1)
What Influences Self-Regulation?
470(1)
Knowledge
470(1)
Motivation
471(1)
Volition
471(1)
Family Influences
471(1)
Self-Regulation Processes
471(2)
Social and Emotional Learning
473(2)
What Is EQ?
474(1)
EQ Goes to School
475(1)
Cautions
475(1)
Social Skills
475(1)
Life Skills: Preventing High-Risk Behaviors
476(1)
Compassion and Tolerance
477(2)
Group Work and Cooperation in Learning
479(2)
Beyond Groups to Cooperation
479(1)
What Can Go Wrong: Misuses of Group Learning
480(1)
Making Cooperative Learning Work
481(2)
Setting Up Cooperative Groups
481(1)
Giving and Receiving Explanations
481(1)
Assigning Roles
482(1)
Strategies for Cooperation
483(4)
Jigsaw
483(1)
Reciprocal Questioning
484(1)
Scripted Cooperation
485(1)
STAD
485(2)
Summary
487(1)
Key Terms
487(1)
Check Yourself
488(1)
Creativity and Community
489(1)
Overview
489(1)
Defining Creativity
489(1)
What Is the Source of Creativity?
489(1)
Creativity and Cognition
490(1)
Creativity and Diversity
490(1)
Assessing Creativity
490(1)
Creativity in the Classroom
491(2)
Brainstorming
491(1)
Take Your Time---and Play!
492(1)
The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation
493(1)
Creating a Classroom Learning Community
493(3)
Getting Started on Community
496(1)
Conflict and Negotiation
496(1)
Respect and Protect
497(1)
Community Outside the Classroom: Service Learning
497(2)
Summary
499(1)
Key Terms
499(1)
Check Yourself
500(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
501
Point/Counterpoint: Should Schools Teach Character and Compassion?
478
Family and Community Partnerships: Parents Supporting Self-Regulation
472(30)
Guidelines: Using Cooperative Learning
486(6)
Encouraging Creativity
492(10)
Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment
502(65)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
503(1)
Definitions and Concepts
504(1)
Overview
504(1)
Norm-Referenced Tests
505(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
505(1)
What Test Scores Mean
506(3)
Frequency Distributions
507(1)
Measurements of Central Tendency and Standard Deviation
507(1)
The Normal Distribution
508(1)
Types of Scores
509(3)
Percentile Rank Scores
509(1)
Grade Equivalent Scores
510(1)
Standard Scores
511(1)
Interpreting Test Scores
512(5)
Reliability
512(1)
True Score
512(1)
Confidence Interval
513(1)
Validity
513(1)
Absence of Bias
514(3)
Summary
517(1)
Key Terms
517(1)
Check Yourself
518(1)
Standardized Tests
519(1)
Overview
519(1)
Achievement Tests: What Has the Student Learned?
519(3)
Using Information from a Norm-Referenced Achievement Test
519(3)
Diagnostic Tests: What Are the Student's Strengths and Weaknesses?
522(1)
Aptitude Tests: How Well Will the Student Do in the Future?
522(1)
IQ and Scholastic Aptitude
522(1)
Discussing Test Results with Families
523(1)
How Widespread Is Standardized Testing?
523(1)
Accountability and High Stakes Testing
524(2)
Testing Teachers
526(2)
PRAXIS™
527(1)
National Board Certification
527(1)
The Uses of Testing in American Society
528(1)
Preparing for Tests
528(1)
New Directions in Standardized Testing: Authentic Assessment
529(3)
Changes in the SAT
530(2)
Accommodating Diversity in Testing
532(1)
Summary
532(1)
Key Terms
532(1)
Check Yourself
533(1)
Getting the Most from Traditional Assessment Approaches: Testing and Grading
534(1)
Overview
534(1)
Formative and Summative Assessment
534(1)
Planning for Testing
535(1)
When to Test?
535(1)
Judging Textbook Tests
535(1)
Objective Testing
535(3)
Using Multiple-Choice Tests
536(1)
Writing Multiple-Choice Questions
536(2)
Essay Testing
538(2)
Constructing Essay Tests
538(1)
Evaluating Essays: Dangers
538(1)
Evaluating Essays: Methods
539(1)
Grades, Grading, and Students
540(1)
Effects of Failure
540(1)
Effects of Feedback
541(1)
Grades and Motivation
541(1)
Grading and Reporting: Nuts and Bolts
542(1)
Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Grading
543(1)
Criterion-Referenced Systems
543(1)
Norm-Referenced Systems
543(1)
The Point System and Percentage Grading
543(3)
The Contract System and Grading Rubrics
546(1)
Grading on Effort and Improvement
546(2)
Cautions: Being Fair
548(1)
Diversity and Grading
548(1)
Beyond Grading: Communication
549(2)
Summary
551(1)
Key Terms
551(1)
Check Yourself
552(1)
Innovations in Classroom Assessment
553(1)
Overview
553(1)
Authentic Classroom Assessment
553(2)
Performance in Context: Portfolios and Exhibitions
555(3)
Portfolios
556(1)
Exhibitions
557(1)
Evaluating Portfolios and Performances
558(3)
Scoring Rubrics
558(3)
Reliability, Validity, Generalizability
561(1)
Diversity and Equity in Performance Assessment
561(1)
Assessing Learning Potential: Dynamic Assessment
561(1)
Summary
562(1)
Key Terms
563(1)
Check Yourself
564(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
565
Point/Counterpoint: Should Tests Be Used to Hold Teachers Accountable?
525(29)
Point/Counterpoint: Which Is Better---Traditional Tests or Authentic Assessments?
554
Family and Community Partnerships: Explaining and Using Test Results
515(35)
Family and Community Partnerships: Conferences
550(17)
Guidelines: Increasing Reliability and Validity
514(2)
Becoming an Expert Test-Taker
516(15)
Accommodations in Testing
531(6)
Writing Objective Test Items
537(5)
Minimizing the Detrimental Effects of Grades
542(5)
Using Any Grading System
547(11)
Creating Portfolios
558(2)
Developing a Rubric
560(7)
Appendix A: Becoming a Professional 567(18)
Appendix B: Standards and Licensure: PRAXIS II™ and INTASC 585(16)
Glossary 601(10)
References 611(38)
Name Index 649(12)
Subject Index 661


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