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Table of Contents
All chapters begin with “Overview,” “Questions,” and “Teachers' Casebook (What Would You Do?).” All chapters conclude with “Summary Table,” “Becoming a Professional,” “Passing the PRAXIS,” “Teachers' Casebook (What Would They Do?),” and “Guidelines.”
1. Teachers, Teaching and Educational Psychology.
Do Teachers Make a Difference?
What Is Good Teaching?
How This Book Can Help You Learn.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Professional Development.
2. Cognitive Development and Language.
A Definition of Development.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development.
Implications of Piaget's Theory for Teachers.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective.
Implications of Vygotsky's Theory for Teachers.
The Development of Language.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Language and Literacy Development.
Applying Vygotsky's Ideas in Teaching.
3. Personal, Social, and Emotional Development.
The Work of Erikson.
Understanding Ourselves and Others.
Socialization: Family, Peers, and Teachers.
Challenges for Children.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Emotional and Social Development.
4. Learner Differences.
Language and Labeling.
Individual Differences in Intelligence.
Ability Differences and Teaching
Cognitive and Learning Styles.
Changes in the Law: Integration, Mainstreaming, and Inclusion.
Prevalent Problems and Mild Disabilities.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Learning About Learning Disabilities.
Less Prevalent Problems and More Severe Disabilities.
Section 504 Protections for Students.
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented.
5. Culture and Community.
Today's Multicultural Classrooms.
Social Class Differences.
Ethnic and Racial Differences.
Girls and Boys: Differences in the Classroom.
Language Differences in the Classroom.
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Teaching Every Student.
6. Behavioral Views of Learning.
Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning.
Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses.
Applied Behavior Analysis.
Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation and Cognitive Behavior Modification.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Self-Regulation.
Problems and Issues.
7. Cognitive Views of Learning.
Elements of the Cognitive Perspective.
The Information Processing Model of Memory.
Metacognition, Regulation, and Individual Differences.
Becoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic Principles.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Memory Techniques.
8. Complex Cognitive Processes
The Importance of Understanding.
Learning and Teaching About Concepts.
Teaching Concepts in Diverse Classrooms.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Problem Solving.
Becoming an Expert Student: Learning Strategies and Study Skills.
Teaching for Transfer.
9. Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views of Learning
Social Processes in Learning.
Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theories.
Constructivism and Situated Learning.
Applications of Constructivist and Situated Perspectives on Learning.
Enhancing YourExpertise with Technology: Thinking Skills.
Looking Back at Learning.
10. Motivation in Learning and Teaching.
What Is Motivation?
Four General Approaches to Motivation.
Goal Orientation and Motivation.
Goals: Lessons for Teachers.
Interests and Emotions.
Motivation to Learn in School.
On TARGETT for Learning.
Bringing it All Together: Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Motivation to Learn.
11. Creating Learning Environments
The Need for Organization.
Creating a Positive Learning Environment.
Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Classroom Management.
The Need for Communication.
Summing it up: Learning Environments for All Students.
12. Teaching for Academic Learning
The First Step: Planning.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Questioning Techniques.
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching: Small Victories.
Student-Centered Teaching: Examples in Reading, Mathematics, and Science.
Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms.
13. Teaching for Self-Regulation, Creativity, and Tolerance.
Self-Regulation and Agency.
Social and Emotional Learning.
Reaching Every Student: Learning to Listen.
Compassion and Tolerance.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Cooperative Learning.
Creating a Learning Community.
14. Standardized Testing.
Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment.
What Do Test Scores Mean?
Types of Standardized Tests.
Issues in Standardized Testing.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Standardized Testing.
New Directions in Standardized Testing.
15. Classroom Assessment and Grading.
Formative and Summative Assessment.
Getting the Most from Traditional Assessment Approaches.
Innovations in Assessment.
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Assessment.
Effects of Grades and Grading on Students.
Grading and Reporting: Nuts and Bolts.
Beyond Grading: Communication.
Appendix: Preparing for Licensure: PRAXIS II.