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Educational Psychology (with "Becoming a Professional" CD-ROM), MyLabSchool Edition

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205449194

ISBN10:
0205449190
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $113.20
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Summary

This best-selling, classic text provides beginning teachers with the tools and inspiration to become masters of their chosen profession. The Ninth Edition maintains the lucid writing style for which the author is renowned, combined with a clear emphasis on educational psychology's practical relevance. This edition provides especially helpful new material on the non-academic outcomes of schooling, recognizing the challenges educators face in the next decade to keep all schools safe and compassionate. The most applied text on the market, this text is replete with examples, lesson segments, case studies, and practical ideas from experienced teachers. The much-admired theme of Becoming a Professional is now further enhanced with information about how text content is specifically related to professional standards and PRAXIS II preparation.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Teachers, Teaching, and Educational Psychology
1(22)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
1(1)
Overview
1(1)
Do Teachers Make a Difference?
2(1)
Teacher--Student Relationships
2(1)
Teacher Preparation and Quality
2(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching---Jay
3(1)
What Is Good Teaching?
4(3)
Inside Four Classrooms
4(1)
A Bilingual 1st Grade
4(1)
A Suburban 5th Grade
5(1)
Two Advanced Math Classes
5(1)
Expert Knowledge
6(1)
Point/Counterpoint: What Is Good Teaching?
7(2)
Beginning Teachers
8(1)
Reaching Every Student: Creativity in an Urban School
9(1)
The Role of Educational Psychology
9(2)
Is It Just Common Sense?
10(1)
Taking Turns
10(1)
Helping Students
10(1)
Skipping Grades
11(1)
Obvious Answers?
11(1)
Using Research to Understand and Improve Teaching
11(4)
Descriptive Studies
11(1)
Correlational Studies
12(1)
Experimental Studies
12(1)
Single-Subject Experimental Designs
13(1)
Microgenetic Studies
14(1)
The Role of Time in Research
14(1)
Theories for Teaching
14(1)
Teachers as Researchers
15(1)
How This Book Can Help You Learn
15(1)
Structure and Content Supports Learning
15(1)
Getting Ready to Learn
15(1)
Aids to Understanding
15(1)
Applying Knowledge
16(1)
Using Web Resources to Enhance Professional Development
16(1)
Organize
16(1)
Evaluate
16(1)
Share
16(1)
Becoming a Good Beginning Teacher
17(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Professional Development
17(1)
Summary Table
18(2)
Becoming a Professional
20(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
21(2)
PART 1 STUDENTS
Cognitive Development and Language
23(42)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
23(1)
Overview
23(1)
A Definition of Development
24(5)
General Principles of Development
24(1)
The Brain and Cognitive Development
24(1)
The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex
25(1)
Specialization and Integration
25(1)
The Developing Brain: Neurons
26(2)
Implications for Teachers
28(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Brain-Based Education
29
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
28(11)
Influences on Development
30(1)
Basic Tendencies in Thinking
30(1)
Organization
30(1)
Adaptation
31(1)
Equilibration
31(1)
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
31(1)
Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage
32(1)
Early Childhood to the Elementary Years: The Preoperational Stage
33(1)
Later Elementary to the Middle School Years: The Concrete-Operational Stage
34(3)
Junior and Senior High: Formal Operations
37(2)
Do We All Reach the Fourth Stage?
39(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching---Desmund Tutu
39(1)
Implications of Piaget's Theory for Teachers
40(4)
Understanding and Building on Students' Thinking
40(1)
Activity and Constructing Knowledge
41(1)
The Value of Play
42(1)
Some Limitations of Piaget's Theory
42(1)
The Trouble with Stages
42(1)
Underestimating Children's Abilities
43(1)
Cognitive Development and Information Processing
43(1)
Cognitive Development and Culture
44(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective
44(6)
The Social Sources of Individual Thinking
45(1)
Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development
46(1)
The Role of Language and Private Speech
47(1)
Language and Cultural Diversity
47(1)
Vygotsky's and Piaget's Views Compared
48(1)
Self-Talk and Learning
49(1)
The Role of Learning and Development
49(1)
Vygotsky's and Piaget's Views Compared
49(1)
The Role of Adults and Peers
50(1)
Implications of Vygotsky's Theory for Teachers
50(1)
Reaching Every Student: Scaffolding Learning
51(2)
Assisted Learning
51(1)
The Zone of Proximal Development
52(1)
Private Speech and the Zone
52(1)
Teaching
52(1)
The Development of Language
53(3)
Diversity in Language: Dual Language Development
54(1)
Language Development in the School Years
54(1)
Pronunciation
55(1)
Syntax
55(1)
Vocabulary and Meaning
55(1)
Pragmatics
55(1)
Metalinguistic Awareness
55(1)
Partnerships with Families
55(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Promoting Literacy
56(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Language and Literacy Development
57(1)
Summary Table
58(4)
Becoming a Professional
62(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
63
Guidelines
Teaching the Preoperational Child
35(2)
Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child
37(3)
Helping Students to Use Formal Operations
40(13)
Applying Vygotsky's Ideas in Teaching
53(12)
Personal, Social, and Emotional Development
65(40)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
65(1)
Overview
65(1)
The Work of Erikson
66(4)
The Preschool Years: Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative
67(1)
Elementary and Middle School Years: Industry versus Inferiority
67(1)
Adolescence: The Search for Identity
67(1)
Identity Statuses
68(1)
Consequences of Different Statuses
69(1)
Beyond the School Years
69(1)
Understanding Ourselves and Others
70(4)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
70(1)
The Structure of Self-Concept
71(1)
How Self-Concept Develops
72(1)
School Life and Self-Esteem
73(1)
Point/Counterpoint: What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students Self-Esteem?
74(4)
Gender, Ethnicity, and Self-Esteem
75(1)
Diversity and Self-Esteem
76(1)
Personal and Collective Self-Esteem
77(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Building Self-Esteem
78(2)
The Self and Others
78(1)
Intention
78(1)
Taking the Perspective of Others
78(1)
Emotional Competence
79(1)
Moral Development
80(7)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
80(2)
Alternatives to Kohlberg's Theory
82(1)
Cultural Differences in Moral Reasoning
82(1)
Diversity in Reasoning: The Morality of Caring
82(1)
Moral Behavior
83(1)
Aggression
84(1)
Bullies
85(1)
Relational Aggression
85(1)
Victims
85(1)
When Aggression Leads to Violence
86(1)
Cheating
86(1)
Socialization: Family, Peers, and Teachers
87(4)
American Families Today
88(1)
Divorce
88(1)
Effects of Divorce
88(1)
Peer Relationships and Peer Cultures
88(1)
Who Is Likely to Have Problems with Peers?
89(1)
Peer Cultures
90(1)
New Roles for Teachers
90(1)
Challenges for Children
91(4)
Navigating Transitions
91(1)
Young Children: Starting School
92(1)
Students in the Middle Grades: Another Transition
92(1)
Children and Youth at Risk
93(1)
Child Abuse
94(1)
Reaching Every Student: Safety on the Internet
95(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching David
95(2)
Eating Disorders
96(1)
Drug Abuse
96(1)
Suicide
96(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Emotional and Social Development
97(2)
Summary Table
99(3)
Becoming a Professional
102(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
103
Guidelines
Encouraging Initiative in Preschool Children
68(1)
Encouraging Industry
68(2)
Supporting Identity Formation
70(9)
Encouraging Emotional Competence
79(7)
Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation
86(3)
Helping Children of Divorce
89(2)
Supporting Personal and Social Development
91(14)
Learner Differences and Learning Needs
105(48)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
105(1)
Overview
105(1)
Language and Labeling
106(1)
Person-First Language
106(1)
Disabilities and Handicaps
107(1)
Individual Differences in Intelligence
107(8)
What Does Intelligence Mean?
107(1)
Intelligence: One Ability or Many?
108(1)
Multiple Intelligences
108(2)
Multiple Intelligences Go to School
110(1)
Intelligence as a Process
111(2)
How Is Intelligence Measured?
113(1)
Binet's Dilemma
113(1)
Group versus Individual IQ Tests
113(1)
What Does an IQ Score Mean?
114(1)
Intelligence and Achievement
114(1)
Intelligence: Heredity or Environment?
115(1)
Ability Differences and Teaching
115(2)
Between-Class Ability Grouping
115(2)
Point/Counterpoint: Is Tracking an Effective Strategy?
117(1)
Within-Class Ability Grouping
118(1)
Cognitive and Learning Styles
118(3)
Cognitive Styles
118(1)
Field Dependence and Field Independence
119(1)
Impulsive and Reflective Cognitive Styles
119(1)
Learning Styles and Preferences
120(1)
What Are Learning Preferences?
120(1)
Cautions
121(1)
Changes in the Law: Integration and Inclusion
121(2)
Least Restrictive Placement
122(1)
Individualized Educational Program
122(1)
The Rights of Students and Families
123(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Productive Conferences
123(1)
Prevalent Problems and Mild Disabilities
124(3)
Students with Learning Disabilities
124(1)
Student Characteristics
125(1)
Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
126(1)
Reaching Every Student: Higher Order Comprehension and Severe Learning Disabilities
127
Students with Communication Disorders
126(7)
Speech Disorders
127(1)
Language Disorders
128(1)
Students with Mental Retardation
128(3)
Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
131(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Learning about Learning Disabilities
133(1)
Less Prevalent Problems and More Severe Disabilities
133(3)
Students with Health Impairments
133(1)
Cerebral Palsy and Multiple Disabilities
133(1)
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
134(1)
Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
134(1)
Students with Low Vision and Blindness
135(1)
Section 504 Protections for Students
136(4)
Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
137(1)
Treating and Teaching Students with ADHD
138(2)
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
140(1)
Who Are These Students?
140(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Charelle
141(4)
What Is the Origin of these Gifts?
141(1)
What Problems Do the Gifted Face?
142(1)
Strategies for Identifying and Teaching Gifted Students
143(1)
Recognizing Gifts and Talents
143(1)
Teaching Gifted Students
143(2)
Summary Table
145(5)
Becoming a Professional
150(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
151
Guidelines
Interpreting IQ Scores
114(5)
Grouping by Achievement
119(11)
Teaching Students with Mild Retardation
130(2)
Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems
132(21)
Culture and Community
153(44)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
153(1)
Overview
153(1)
Today's Multicultural Classrooms
154(3)
Individuals, Groups, and Society
154(2)
American Cultural Diversity
156(1)
Culture and Group Membership
156(1)
Cautions in Interpreting Cultural Differences
156(1)
Social Class Differences
157(4)
Being Poor
158(1)
SES and Achievement
158(1)
Poor Health Care
158(1)
Low Expectations---Low Self-Esteem
158(1)
Learned Helplessness
159(1)
Peer Influences and Resistance Cultures
159(1)
Tracking
159(1)
Childrearing Styles
160(1)
Home Environment and Resources
160(1)
Ethnic and Racial Differences
161(3)
The Changing Demographics: Cultural Differences
161(1)
Cultural Conflicts
162(1)
Cultural Compatibility
162(1)
Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement
163(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Building Learning Communities
164(5)
The Legacy of Discrimination
164(1)
The Development of Prejudice
165(2)
Continuing Discrimination
167(1)
Stereotype Threat
167(1)
Short-Term Effects: Test Performance
167(1)
Long-Term Effects: Disidentification
168(1)
Combating Stereotype Threat
168(1)
Girls and Boys: Differences in the Classroom
169(6)
Gender-Role Identity
169(1)
Gender-Role Stereotyping in the Preschool Years
170(1)
Gender Bias in the Curriculum
171(1)
Sex Discrimination in Classrooms
172(1)
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities
172(1)
Eliminating Gender Bias
172(3)
Point/Counterpoint: Do Boys and Girls Learn Differently?
175
Language Differences in the Classroom
174(4)
Dialects
174(1)
Dialects and Pronunciation
175(1)
Dialects and Teaching
176(1)
Bilingualism
176(1)
What Does Bilingualism Mean?
176(1)
Becoming Bilingual
177(1)
Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual Students
178(3)
Bilingual Education
178(2)
Research on Bilingual Programs
180(1)
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
181(5)
Social Organization
182(1)
Learning Styles
182(1)
Possible Differences
182(1)
Cautions about Learning Styles Research
183(1)
Sociolinguistics
183(1)
Participation Structures
184(1)
Sources of Misunderstanding
184(1)
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
184(1)
Students Must Experience Academic Success
185(1)
Develop/Maintain Their Cultural Competence
185(1)
Develop a Critical Consciousness to Challenge the Status Quo
185(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Mrs. Thompson
186(1)
Bringing It All Together: Teaching Every Student
186(3)
Know Your Students
186(1)
Respect Your Students
187(1)
Teach Your Students
187(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Teaching Every Student
189(1)
Summary Table
190(4)
Becoming a Professional
194(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
195
Guidelines
Avoiding Sexism in Teaching
174(3)
Dialects in the Classroom
177(11)
Culturally Relevant Teaching
188(9)
PART 2 LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
Behavioral Views of Learning
197(38)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
197(1)
Overview
197(1)
Understanding Learning
198(2)
Learning: A Definition
198(1)
Learning Is Not Always What It Seems
198(2)
Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning
200(2)
Pavlov's Dilemma and Discovery: Classical Conditioning
200(1)
Generalization, Discrimination, and Extinction
201(1)
Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses
202(7)
The Work of Thorndike and Skinner
203(1)
Types of Consequences
203(1)
Reinforcement
204(1)
Punishment
205(1)
Reinforcement Schedules
206(1)
Extinction
207(1)
Antecedents and Behavior Change
207(1)
Cueing
207(1)
Prompting
207(2)
Applied Behavior Analysis
209(3)
Methods for Encouraging Behaviors
209(1)
Reinforcing with Teacher Attention
209(1)
Selecting Reinforcers: The Premack Principle
210(1)
Shaping
211(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- My Third Grade Teacher
212(4)
Positive Practice
213(1)
Coping with Undesirable Behavior
213(1)
Negative Reinforcement
214(1)
Satiation
214(1)
Reprimands
215(1)
Response Cost
215(1)
Social Isolation
215(1)
Some Cautions
215(1)
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management
216(2)
Mastery Learning
217(1)
Group Consequences
217(1)
Reaching Every Student: Students with Learning and Behavior Problems
218(3)
Token Reinforcement Programs
219(1)
Contingency Contract Programs
219(2)
Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation and Cognitive Behavior Modification
221(2)
Self-Management
221(1)
Goal Setting
221(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress
222(1)
Self-Reinforcement
222(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Student Self-Management
223(2)
Cognitive Behavior Modification and Self-Instruction
223(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Self-Regulation
225(1)
Problems and Issues
225(2)
Criticisms of Behavioral Methods
226(1)
Ethical Issues
226(1)
Goals
226(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Should Students Be Rewarded for Learning?
227(2)
Strategies
228(1)
Summary Table
229(3)
Becoming a Professional
232(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
233
Guidelines
Applying Classical Conditioning
202(8)
Using Praise Appropriately
210(3)
Encouraging Positive Behaviors
213(3)
Using Punishment
216(19)
Cognitive Views of Learning
235(40)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
235(1)
Overview
235(1)
Elements of the Cognitive Perspective
236(3)
Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views
236(1)
The Importance of Knowledge in Learning
237(1)
General and Specific Knowledge
237(1)
Declarative, Procedural, and Conditional Knowledge
238(1)
The Information Processing Model of Memory
239(7)
An Overview of the Model
239(1)
Sensory Memory
240(1)
Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Sensory Memory
240(1)
Perception
240(1)
The Role of Attention
241(1)
Attention and Teaching
241(1)
Working Memory
242(1)
The Central Executive
243(1)
The Phonological Loop
243(1)
The Visuospacial Sketchpad
244(1)
Duration and Contents of Working Memory
244(1)
Retaining Information in Working Memory
245(1)
Forgetting
246(1)
Long-Term Memory: The Goal of Teaching
246(2)
Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory
246(1)
Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic
247(1)
Reaching Every Student: A Picture and a Few Hundred Words
248(7)
Propositions and Propositional Networks
249(1)
Images
249(1)
Schemas
250(1)
Episodic Memory
251(1)
Implicit Memories
252(1)
Storing and Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory
252(1)
Levels of Processing Theories
253(1)
Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory
253(2)
Forgetting and Long-Term Memory
255(1)
Metacognition, Regulation, and Individual Differences
255(5)
Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation
256(1)
Individual Differences in Metacognition
257(1)
Individual Differences and Working Memory
258(1)
Developmental Differences
258(1)
Individual Differences
259(1)
Individual Differences and Long-Term Memory
259(1)
Becoming Knowledgeable: Some Basic Principles
260(2)
Development of Declarative Knowledge
260(1)
Making it Meaningful
260(1)
Mnemonics
261(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Susan
262(2)
Rote Memorization
263(1)
Point/Counterpoint: What's Wrong with Memorizing?
264(2)
Becoming an Expert: Development of Procedural and Conditional Knowledge
264(1)
Automated Basic Skills
265(1)
Domain-Specific Strategies
266(1)
Learning outside School
266(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Organizing Learning
266(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Memory Techniques
267(1)
Summary Table
268(4)
Becoming a Professional
272(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
273
Guidelines
Getting and Maintaining Attention
242(14)
Using Information Processing Ideas in the Classroom
256(19)
Complex Cognitive Processes
275(38)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
275(1)
Overview
275(1)
Learning and Teaching about Concepts
276(7)
Views of Concept Learning
276(1)
Prototypes and Exemplars
276(1)
Concepts and Schemas
277(1)
Strategies for Teaching Concepts
277(1)
An Example Concept-Attainment Lesson
277(1)
Lesson Components
277(2)
Lesson Structure
279(1)
Extending and Connecting Concepts
279(1)
Teaching Concepts through Discovery
280(1)
Structure and Discovery
280(1)
Discovery in Action
281(1)
Teaching Concepts through Exposition
281(1)
Advance Organizers
282(1)
Steps in an Expository Lesson
282(1)
Teaching Concepts in Diverse Classrooms
283(1)
Problem Solving
283(7)
Problem Solving: General or Domain-Specific?
284(1)
Identifying: Problem Finding
285(1)
Defining Goals and Representing the Problem
285(1)
Focusing Attention
285(1)
Understanding the Words
285(1)
Understanding the Whole Problem
286(1)
Translation and Schema Training
286(1)
The Results of Problem Representation
287(1)
Exploring Possible Solution Strategies
288(1)
Algorithms
288(1)
Heuristics
288(1)
Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back
289(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Should Students Be Allowed to Use Calculators and Spell-Checkers?
290(5)
Factors That Hinder Problem Solving
290(1)
Functional Fixedness
290(1)
Response Set
291(1)
The Importance of Flexibility
291(1)
Effective Problem Solving: What Do the Experts Do?
292(1)
Expert Knowledge
292(1)
Novice Knowledge
293(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Problem Solving
295(1)
Becoming an Expert Student: Learning Strategies and Study Skills
295(5)
Learning Strategies and Tactics
296(1)
Deciding What Is Important
296(1)
Summaries
296(1)
Underlining and Highlighting
297(1)
Taking Notes
298(1)
Visual Tools for Organizing
298(1)
Reading Strategies
299(1)
Reaching Every Student: Teaching Them How to Learn
300(3)
Applying Learning Strategies
300(1)
Valuing Learning
301(1)
Effort and Efficacy
301(1)
Epistomological Beliefs
302(1)
Teaching for Transfer
303(2)
A Contemporary View of Transfer
303(1)
Teaching for Positive Transfer
304(1)
What Is Worth Learning?
304(1)
How Can Teachers Help?
304(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Esme Codell
305(1)
Stages of Transfer for Strategies
305(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Promoting Transfer
306(1)
Summary Table
307(3)
Becoming a Professional
310(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
311
Guidelines
Applying Bruner's Ideas
281(2)
Applying Ausubel's Ideas
283(11)
Problem Solving
294(7)
Becoming an Expert Student
301(12)
Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views of Learning
313(36)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
313(1)
Overview
313(1)
Social Processes in Learning
314(1)
Parents, Peers, and Teachers
314(1)
Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theories
315(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Three Letters from Teddy
316(6)
Learning by Observing Others
317(1)
Attention
317(1)
Retention
317(1)
Production
317(1)
Motivation and Reinforcement
318(1)
Factors That Influence Observational Learning
318(1)
Observational Learning in Teaching
319(1)
Directing Attention
319(1)
Fine-Tuning Already-Learned Behaviors
319(1)
Strengthening or Weakening Inhibitions
320(1)
Teaching New Behaviors
320(1)
Arousing Emotion
320(1)
Reciprocal Determinism
320(2)
Constructivism and Situated Learning
322(7)
Constructivist Views of Learning
323(1)
Psychological/Individual Constructivism
323(1)
Vygotsky's Social Constructivism
324(1)
Constructionism
325(1)
How Is Knowledge Constructed?
325(1)
Knowledge: Situated or General?
326(1)
Common Elements of Constructivist Perspectives
327(1)
Complex Learning Environments and Authentic Tasks
327(1)
Social Negotiation
327(1)
Multiple Perspectives and Representations of Content
327(1)
Understanding the Knowledge Construction Process
328(1)
Student Ownership of Learning
328(1)
Applications of Constructivist and Situated Perspectives on Learning
329(5)
Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
329(1)
Examples of Inquiry
329(2)
Problem-Based Learning
331(1)
Research on Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
332(1)
Dialogue and Instructional Conversations
333(1)
Reaching Every Student: Lunch Learning
334(3)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
334(2)
A Cognitive Apprenticeship in Learning Mathematics
336(1)
Cognitive Apprenticeships in Thinking
336(1)
Developing Thinking in Every Class
336(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving?
337(3)
Critical Thinking
338(1)
The Language of Thinking
338(1)
An Integretated Constructivist Program: Fostering Communities of Learners
339(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Communicating about Innovations
340(1)
Working with Families
340(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Thinking Skills
341(1)
Looking Back at Learning
341(2)
Summary Table
343(3)
Becoming a Professional
346(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
347
Guidelines
Using Observational Learning
321(28)
Motivation in Learning and Teaching
349(46)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
349(1)
Overview
349(1)
What Is Motivation?
350(2)
Meeting Some Students
350(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
351(1)
Four General Approaches to Motivation
352(5)
Behavioral Approaches to Motivation
352(1)
Humanistic Approaches to Motivation
353(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy
353(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Motivation
354(1)
Attribution Theory
354(1)
Attributions in the Classroom
355(1)
Teacher Actions and Student Attributions
355(1)
Expectancy x Value Theories
356(1)
Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation
356(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--Creating Communities
357(1)
Goal Orientation and Motivation
358(4)
Types of Goals and Goal Orientations
359(1)
Four Goal Orientations in School
359(1)
Wait---Are Performance Goals Always Bad?
360(1)
Beyond Mastery and Performance
360(1)
Feedback and Goal Acceptance
361(1)
Goals: Lessons for Teachers
361(1)
Interests and Emotions
362(2)
Tapping Interests
362(2)
Point/Counterpoint: Does Making Learning Fun Make for Good Learning?
364(3)
Arousal: Excitement and Anxiety in Learning
364(1)
Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity
365(1)
Anxiety in the Classroom
365(1)
How Does Anxiety Interfere with Achievement?
366(1)
Coping with Anxiety
366(1)
Interests and Emotions: Lessons for Teachers
366(1)
Self-Schemas
367(7)
Beliefs about Ability
367(1)
Beliefs about Self-Efficacy
368(1)
Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem
368(1)
Sources of Self-Efficacy
369(1)
Efficacy and Motivation
369(1)
Teacher Efficacy
370(1)
Self-Determination
370(1)
Self-Determination in the Classroom
371(1)
Information and Control
371(1)
Learned Helplessness
371(1)
Self-Worth
372(2)
Self-Schemas: Lessons for Teachers
374(1)
Motivation to Learn in School
374(1)
On Target for Learning
375(4)
Tasks for Learning
376(1)
Task Value
376(1)
Authentic Tasks
376(2)
Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment
378(1)
Supporting Choices
378(1)
Recognizing Accomplishment
378(1)
Reaching Every Student: Bounded Choice
379(4)
Grouping, Evaluation, and Time
380(1)
Grouping and Goal Structures
380(1)
Evaluation
380(1)
Time
381(2)
Bringing It All Together: Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful Learning
383(3)
Can I Do It? Building Confidence and Positive Expectations
384(1)
Do I Want to Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning
384(1)
Attainment and Intrinsic Value
384(1)
Instrumental Value
385(1)
What Do I Need to Do to Succeed? Staying Focused on the Task
386(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Motivation to Learn
386(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Motivation to Learn
387(1)
Summary Table
388(4)
Becoming a Professional
392(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
393
Guidelines
Building on Students' Interests
363(4)
Coping with Anxiety
367(5)
Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy
372(2)
Encouraging Self-Efficacy and Self-Worth
374(21)
PART 3 TEACHING
Creating Learning Environments
395(36)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
395(1)
Overview
395(1)
The Need for Organization
396(3)
The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation
396(1)
The Goals of Classroom Management
397(1)
More Time for Learning
397(1)
Access to Learning
397(2)
Management for Self-Management
399(1)
Creating a Positive Learning Environment
399(9)
Some Research Results
399(1)
Rules and Procedures Required
400(1)
Procedures
401(1)
Rules
402(1)
Rules for Elementary School
402(1)
Rules for Secondary School
403(1)
Consequences
403(1)
Who Sets the Rules and Consequences?
404(1)
Planning Spaces for Learning
404(1)
Interest Areas
405(1)
Personal Territories
405(1)
Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class
406(1)
Effective Managers for Elementary Students
407(1)
Effective Managers for Secondary Students
407(1)
Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning
408(4)
Encouraging Engagement
408(1)
Prevention Is the Best Medicine
408(1)
Withitness
409(1)
Overlapping and Group Focus
409(1)
Movement Management
410(1)
Dealing with Discipline Problems
410(2)
Point/Counterpoint: Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea?
412(2)
Special Problems with Secondary Students
412(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Classroom Management
414(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Robert and Daniel
415(1)
The Need for Communication
415(7)
Message Sent---Message Received
416(1)
Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?
416(1)
Counseling: The Student's Problem
417(1)
Confrontation and Assertive Discipline
418(1)
``I'' Messages
418(1)
Assertive Discipline
418(1)
Confrontations and Negotiations
419(1)
Student Conflicts and Confrontations
420(1)
Peer Harassment
420(1)
Violence in the Schools
421(1)
Summing It Up: Learning Environments for All Students
422(1)
Research on Different Management Approaches
422(1)
Culturally Responsive Management
422(1)
Reaching Every Student: Culturally Responsive Management
423(1)
Communicating with Families about Classroom Management
423(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Classroom Management
424(1)
Summary Table
425(3)
Becoming a Professional
428(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
429
Guidelines
Establishing Class Procedures
401(5)
Designing Learning Spaces
406(3)
Keeping Students Engaged
409(2)
Imposing Penalties
411(20)
Teaching for Academic Learning
431(46)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
431(1)
Overview
431(1)
The First Step: Planning
432(8)
Objectives for Learning
433(1)
Mager: Start with the Specific
433(1)
Gronlund: Start with the General
434(1)
Flexible and Creative Planning---Using Taxonomies
434(1)
The Cognitive Domain
435(1)
Bloom 2001
435(1)
The Affective Domain
436(1)
The Psychomotor Domain
436(1)
Another View: Planning from a Constructivist Perspective
437(1)
An Example of Constructivist Planning
438(1)
Integrated and Thematic Plans
439(1)
Teacher--Directed Instruction
440(7)
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
440(1)
Teachers' Knowledge
440(1)
Clarity and Organization
440(1)
Warmth and Enthusiasm
441(1)
Explanation and Direct Instruction
441(1)
Direct Instruction
441(2)
Rosenshine's Six Teaching Functions
443(1)
Why Does Direction Instruction Work?
443(1)
Criticisms of Direct Instruction
443(2)
Seatwork and Homework
445(1)
Seatwork
445(1)
Homework
446(1)
Making Seatwork and Homework Valuable
446(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Is Homework a Valuable Use of Time?
447(1)
Questioning and Recitation
447(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Homework
448(4)
Kinds of Questions
448(1)
Fitting the Questions to the Students
449(1)
Responding to Student Answers
450(1)
Group Discussion
451(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Questioning Techniques
452(1)
Teacher Expectations
453(2)
Two Kinds of Expectation Effects
453(1)
Sources of Expectations
454(1)
Do Teachers' Expectations Really Affect Students' Achievement?
454(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Small Victories
455(2)
Teacher Behavior and Student Reaction
456(1)
Instructional Strategies
456(1)
Teacher-Student Interactions
456(1)
Student-Centered Teaching: Examples in Reading, Mathematics, and Science
457(8)
Learning to Read and Write
457(1)
Balance in Reading and Writing
458(3)
Comprehension Monitoring and Reading: Reciprocal Teaching
461(1)
Applying Reciprocal Teaching
461(1)
Learning and Teaching Mathematics
461(2)
Learning Science
463(2)
Beyond Debates to Outstanding Teaching
465(1)
Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms
465(5)
Working with Individual Students
466(1)
Reaching Every Student: Resource Rooms Collaborative Consultation, and Cooperative Teaching
467(1)
Technology and Exceptional Students
468(2)
Summary Table
470(4)
Becoming a Professional
474(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
475
Guidelines
Using Instructional Objectives
437(5)
Teaching Effectively
442(10)
Productive Group Discussions
452(6)
Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations
458(6)
Teaching for Conceptual Change
464(13)
Teaching for Self-Regulation, Creativity, and Tolerance
477(36)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
477(1)
Overview
477(1)
Self-Regulation and Agency
478(1)
What Influences Self-Regulation?
478(1)
Knowledge
478(1)
Motivation
478(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Parents Supporting Self-Regulation
479(3)
Volition
479(1)
Family Influences
479(1)
Self-Regulation Processes
480(2)
Creativity
482(4)
Defining Creativity
482(1)
What Is the Source of Creativity?
482(1)
Creativity and Cognition
483(1)
Creativity and Diversity
483(1)
Assessing Creativity
483(1)
Creativity in the Classroom
484(1)
Brainstorming
484(1)
Take Your Time---and Play!
485(1)
The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation
486(1)
Social and Emotional Learning
486(2)
Emotional Intelligence
486(1)
What Is EQ?
487(1)
EQ Goes to School
487(1)
Cautions
487(1)
Social Skills
488(1)
Reaching Every Student: Learning to Listen
488(2)
Life Skills: Preventing High-Risk Behaviors
489(1)
Compassion and Tolerance
490(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Should Schools Teach Character and Compassion?
491(6)
Group Work and Cooperation in Learning
492(1)
Beyond Groups to Cooperation
492(1)
What Can Go Wrong: Misuses of Group Learning
493(1)
Making Cooperative Learning Work
494(1)
Setting Up Cooperative Groups
494(1)
Giving and Receiving Explanations
495(1)
Assigning Roles
495(1)
Strategies for Cooperation
496(1)
Jigsaw
496(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Carlos
497(4)
Reciprocal Questioning
497(2)
Scripted Cooperation
499(1)
STAD
499(2)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Cooperative Learning
501(1)
Creating a Learning Community
501(7)
Classroom Community
502(2)
Getting Started on Community
504(1)
Conflict and Negotiation
505(1)
Respect and Protect
505(1)
Community Outside the Classroom: Service Learning
506(2)
Summary Table
508(2)
Becoming a Professional
510(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
511
Guidelines
Encouraging Creativity
485(15)
Using Cooperative Learning
500(13)
PART 4 ASSESSING
Standardized Testing
513(34)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
513(1)
Overview
513(1)
Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment
514(2)
Norm-Referenced Tests
514(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
515(1)
What Do Test Scores Mean?
516(9)
Basic Concepts
516(1)
Frequency Distributions
516(1)
Measurements of Central Tendency and Standard Deviation
517(1)
The Normal Distribution
518(1)
Types of Scores
519(1)
Percentile Rank Scores
519(1)
Grade Equivalent Scores
520(1)
Standard Scores
521(1)
Interpreting Test Scores
522(1)
Reliability
522(1)
True Score
522(1)
Confidence Interval
523(1)
Validity
523(1)
Absence of Bias
524(1)
Types of Standardized Tests
525(5)
Achievement Tests: What Has the Student Learned?
526(2)
Using Information from a Norm-Referenced Achievement Test
528(1)
Diagnostic Tests: What Are the Student's Strengths and Weaknesses?
529(1)
Aptitude Tests: How Well Will the Student Do in the Future?
530(1)
IQ and Scholastic Aptitude
530(1)
Discussing Test Results with Families
530(1)
Issues in Standardized Testing
530(1)
Family and Community Partnerships: Explaining and Using Test Results
531(2)
How Widespread is Standardized Testing?
531(1)
Accountability and High-Stakes Testing
532(1)
Point/Counterpoint: Should Tests Be Used to Hold Teachers Accountable?
533(4)
Testing Teachers
534(1)
Praxis™
535(1)
National Board Certification
535(1)
The Uses of Testing in American Society
536(1)
Preparing for Tests
536(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching---The Test
537(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Standardized Testing
538(1)
New Directions in Standardized Testing
538(2)
Authentic Assessment
538(1)
Changes in the SAT
539(1)
Reaching Every Student: Accommodations in Testing
540(2)
Accommodating Diversity in Testing
540(2)
Summary Table
542(2)
Becoming a Professional
544(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
545
Guidelines
Increasing Reliability and Validity
524(2)
Becoming an Expert Test-Taker
526(21)
Classroom Assessment
547(34)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would You Do?
547(1)
Overview
547(1)
Formative and Summative Assessment
548(1)
Getting the Most from Traditional Assessment Approaches
548(6)
Planning for Testing
549(1)
When to Test?
549(1)
Judging Textbook Tests
549(1)
Objective Testing
550(1)
Using Multiple-Choice Tests
550(1)
Writing Multiple-Choice Questions
550(2)
Essay Testing
552(1)
Constructing Essay Tests
552(1)
Evaluating Essay Tests: Dangers
552(1)
Evaluating Essays: Methods
552(2)
Point/Counterpoint: Which is Better---Traditional Tests or Authentic Assessments?
554(1)
Innovations in Assessment
554(3)
Authentic Classroom Assessment
555(1)
Performance in Context: Portfolios and Exhibitions
555(1)
Portfolios
556(1)
Stories of Learning/Tributes to Teaching--- Meaningful Testing
557(6)
Exhibitions
558(1)
Evaluating Portfolios and Performances
559(1)
Scoring Rubrics
559(1)
Reliability, Validity, Generalizability
560(2)
Diversity and Equity in Performance Assessment
562(1)
Assessing Learning Potential: Dynamic Assessment
562(1)
Enhancing Your Expertise with Technology: Assessment
563(1)
Effects of Grades and Grading on Students
564(2)
Effects of Failure
564(1)
Effects of Feedback
565(1)
Grades and Motivation
566(1)
Grading and Reporting: Nuts and Bolts
566(6)
Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Grading
567(1)
Criterion-Referenced Systems
567(1)
Norm-Referenced Systems
567(2)
The Point System and Percentage Grading
569(1)
The Contract System and Grading Rubrics
570(2)
Grading on Effort and Improvement
572(1)
Reaching Every Student: Using Technology to Recognize Improvement
572(1)
Cautions: Being Fair
572(1)
Diversity and Grading
573(1)
Beyond Grading: Communication
573(2)
Family and Community Partnerships: Conferences
575(1)
Summary Table
576(2)
Becoming a Professional
578(1)
Teachers' Casebook: What Would They Do?
579
Guidelines
Writing Objective Test Items
551(8)
Creating Portfolios
559(2)
Developing a Rubric
561(6)
Minimizing the Detrimental Effects of Grades
567(4)
Using Any Grading System
571(10)
Appendix Standards and Licensure: PRAXIS II™ and INTASC 581(18)
Glossary 599(10)
References 609(38)
Name Index 647(12)
Subject Index 659


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