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Educational Psychology : Developing Learners,9780131190870

Educational Psychology : Developing Learners

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131190870

ISBN10:
0131190873
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $117.33

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Summary

Educational Psychology: Developing Learnersis known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps teachers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts. The book gives an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology, and moves seamlessly between theory and applications, including innumerable concrete examples-video cases, written cases, artifacts, and more-to help the reader connect educational psychology to children and classrooms.

Table of Contents

Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making
2(16)
Case Study: Hidden Treasure
3(1)
Teaching as Decision Making
4(1)
Using Research in Classroom Decision Making
5(5)
Drawing Conclusions from Research
7(3)
Applying Psychological Theories in Classroom Decision Making
10(1)
Importance of Regular Assessments in Classroom Decision Making
10(1)
Accommodating Diversity in the Classroom
11(2)
Developing as a Teacher
13(1)
Studying Educational Psychology Effectively
14(2)
The Big Picture
16(1)
Case Study: More Harm Than Good?
16(2)
PART I DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSITY
Cognitive and Linguistic Development
18(42)
Case Study: Economic Activities
19(1)
Basic Principles of Human Development
20(2)
Role of the Brain in Cognitive Development
22(2)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
24(9)
Piaget's Basic Assumptions
25(1)
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
26(5)
Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory
31(2)
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
33(9)
Vygotsky's Basic Assumptions
34(3)
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky's Theory
37(5)
An Information Processing View of Cognitive Development
42(7)
Attention
43(1)
Learning Strategies
44(1)
Knowledge
45(1)
Metacognition
46(2)
Critiquing Information Processing Theory
48(1)
Linguistic Development
49(6)
Theoretical Perspectives on Language Development
50(1)
Trends in Language Development
50(3)
Learning a Second Language
53(2)
Considering Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development
55(2)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
55(2)
The Big Picture
57(1)
Case Study: In the Eye of the Beholder
58(2)
Development of Self, Social Skills, and Morality
60(42)
Case Study: The Bad Apple
61(1)
Environmental Influences on Personal, Social, and Moral Development
61(4)
Effects of Parenting
62(1)
Effects of Culture
62(2)
Peer Influences
64(1)
Self-Socialization
64(1)
Development of a Sense of Self
65(7)
Factors Influencing the Development of Self-Views
66(2)
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self
68(4)
Social Development
72(14)
Peer Relationships
73(4)
Social Cognition
77(6)
Fostering Social Skills
83(2)
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups
85(1)
Moral and Prosocial Development
86(9)
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior
87(2)
Development of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg's Theory
89(2)
Possible Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning: Gilligan's Theory
91(1)
Determinants of Moral and Prosocial Behavior
92(1)
Promoting Moral and Prosocial Development in the Classroom
93(2)
Considering Diversity in Sense of Self, Social Development, and Morality
95(3)
Ethnic Differences
95(1)
Gender Differences
96(1)
Socioeconomic Differences
96(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
97(1)
The Big Picture
98(1)
Characteristics of Different Age-Groups
98(1)
General Themes in Personal, Social, and Moral Development
98(1)
Case Study: The Scarlet Letter
99(3)
Group Differences
102(36)
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn't in School
103(1)
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective
104(1)
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
105(11)
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School
105(2)
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity
107(6)
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment
113(3)
Gender Differences
116(8)
Origins of Gender Differences
121(3)
Socioeconomic Differences
124(5)
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty
125(3)
Working with Homeless Students
128(1)
Fostering Resilience
128(1)
Building on Students' Strengths
129(1)
Students at Risk
129(4)
Characteristics of Students at Risk
130(1)
Why Students Drop Out
131(1)
Supporting Students at Risk
131(2)
Remembering Within-Group Diversity
133(2)
Group Differences and Special Needs
134(1)
The Big Picture
135(1)
Case Study: The Active and the Passive
136(2)
Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs
138(44)
Case Study: Tim
139(1)
Keeping Individual Differences in Perspective
140(1)
Intelligence
140(9)
Measuring Intelligence
141(3)
How Theorists Conceptualize Intelligence
144(3)
Nature, Nurture, and Group Differences in Intelligence
147(1)
Being Optimistic About Students' Potential
148(1)
Temperament
149(2)
Temperament in the Classroom
150(1)
Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms
151(3)
Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
151(2)
Is Inclusion in the Best Interest of Students?
153(1)
Classifying Students with Special Needs
154(1)
Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties
155(8)
Learning Disabilities
155(4)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
159(2)
Speech and Communication Disorders
161(1)
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties
162(1)
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems
163(5)
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
163(3)
Autism
166(1)
General Recommendations for Students with Social or Behavioral Problems
167(1)
Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning
168(2)
Mental Retardation
169(1)
Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges
170(6)
Physical and Health Impairments
170(1)
Visual Impairments
171(1)
Hearing Loss
172(2)
Severe and Multiple Disabilities
174(1)
General Recommendations for Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges
174(2)
Students with Advanced Cognitive Development
176(2)
Giftedness
176(2)
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs
178(1)
The Big Picture
179(1)
Case Study: Quiet Amy
180(2)
PART II LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
Learning and Cognitive Processes
182(40)
Case Study: Darren's Day at School
183(1)
Looking at Learning from Different Perspectives
184(3)
Learning as a Change in Behavior
184(1)
Learning as a Change in Mental Representations or Associations
185(1)
Learning and the Brain
186(1)
Keeping an Open Mind About Theories of Learning
187(1)
Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
187(2)
Basic Terminology in Cognitive Psychology
189(2)
A Model of Human Memory
191(5)
The Nature of the Sensory Register
191(1)
Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention
192(1)
The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory
193(1)
Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge
194(1)
The Nature of Long-Term Memory
195(1)
Critiquing the Three-Component Model
195(1)
Long-Term Memory Storage
196(14)
The Various Forms of Knowledge
196(1)
How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned
197(9)
How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned
206(1)
Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage
207(1)
Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge
208(2)
Long-Term Memory Retrieval
210(6)
The Nature of Long-Term Memory Retrieval
210(1)
Factors Affecting Retrieval
211(3)
Why Learners Sometimes Forget
214(2)
Giving Students Time to Process: Effects of Increasing Wait Time
216(1)
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Processes
217(2)
Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs
219(1)
The Big Picture
219(1)
Case Study: How Time Flies
220(2)
Knowledge Construction
222(32)
Case Study: Pulling It All Together
223(1)
Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory
224(3)
Construction in Storage
224(2)
Construction in Retrieval
226(1)
Knowledge Construction as a Social Process
227(1)
Benefits of Joint Meaning-Making with Peers
227(1)
Organizing Knowledge
228(7)
Concepts
228(5)
Schemas and Scripts
233(1)
Theories
234(1)
When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Origins and Effects of Misconceptions
235(3)
Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction
238(7)
Providing Opportunities for Experimentation
238(1)
Presenting the Ideas of Others
239(1)
Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding
239(2)
Promoting Dialogue
241(1)
Using Authentic Activities
242(1)
Creating a Community of Learners
243(2)
The Challenge of Conceptual Change
245(5)
Considering Diversity in Constructive Processes
250(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
251(1)
The Big Picture
251(1)
Case Study: Earth-Shaking Summaries
251(3)
Higher-Level Thinking Processes
254(40)
Case Study: A Question of Speed
255(1)
The Nature of Higher-Level Thinking
256(1)
Metacognition and Study Strategies
257(12)
Effective Study Strategies
259(6)
Factors Affecting Strategy Use
265(4)
Transfer
269(5)
Basic Concepts in Transfer
269(2)
Factors Affecting Transfer
271(2)
Importance of Retrieval in Transfer
273(1)
Problem Solving
274(10)
Basic Concepts in Problem Solving
275(3)
Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving
278(5)
Using Computer Technology to Promote Problem Solving
283(1)
Creativity
284(3)
Fostering Creativity
285(2)
Critical Thinking
287(3)
Fostering Critical Thinking
288(2)
Considering Diversity in Higher-Level Thinking Processes
290(2)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
291(1)
The Big Picture
292(1)
Case Study: Checks and Balances
292(2)
Behaviorist Views of Learning
294(34)
Case Study: The Attention Getter
295(1)
Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism
295(3)
Classical Conditioning
298(3)
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses
299(1)
Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning
300(1)
Operant Conditioning
301(9)
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
302(1)
Reinforcement in the Classroom
302(5)
Using Reinforcement Effectively
307(3)
Shaping New Behaviors
310(1)
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses
311(3)
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors
314(5)
Extinction
314(1)
Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors
314(1)
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors
315(1)
Punishment
315(4)
Maintaining Desirable Behaviors Over the Long Run
319(2)
Promoting Intrinsic Reinforcement
320(1)
Using Intermittent Reinforcement
320(1)
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors
321(2)
Applied Behavior Analysis
321(1)
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support
322(1)
Considering Diversity in Student Behaviors
323(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
324(1)
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches
324(2)
The Big Picture
326(1)
Case Study: Hostile Helen
326(2)
Social Cognitive Views of Learning
328(36)
Case Study: Parlez-Vous Francais?
329(1)
Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory
329(2)
The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment
331(3)
Expectations
331(1)
Vicarious Experiences
332(1)
Cognitive Processing
332(1)
Decisions About How to Behave
333(1)
Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequences
333(1)
Modeling
334(6)
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling
335(1)
How Modeling Affects Behavior
336(1)
Characteristics of Effective Models
337(1)
Helping Students Learn from Models
338(2)
Self-Efficacy
340(6)
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition
341(1)
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy
342(2)
Fostering High Self-Efficacy
344(2)
Teacher Self-Efficacy
346(1)
Self-Regulation
346(11)
Self-Regulated Behavior
347(5)
Self-Regulated Learning
352(3)
Self-Regulated Problem Solving
355(2)
Reciprocal Causation
357(2)
Considering Diversity from a Social Cognitive Perspective
359(2)
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy
359(1)
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk
360(1)
Supporting Students with Special Needs
360(1)
The Big Picture
361(2)
Unifying Ideas in Social Cognitive Theory
361(1)
Comparing the Three Perspectives of Learning
362(1)
Case Study: Teacher's Lament
363(1)
Motivation and Affect
364(26)
Case Study: Quick Draw
365(1)
The Nature of Motivation
365(3)
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior
366(1)
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation
367(1)
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation
368(2)
The Trait Perspective
368(1)
The Behaviorist Perspective
369(1)
The Social Cognitive Perspective
370(1)
The Cognitive Perspective
370(1)
What Basic Needs Do People Have?
370(4)
Self-Worth
370(2)
Relatedness
372(2)
Affect and Its Effects
374(9)
How Affect Is Related to Motivation
375(1)
How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition
376(1)
Anxiety
377(6)
Addressing Diversity in Motivation and Affect
383(3)
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
384(1)
Gender Differences
385(1)
Socioeconomic Differences
385(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
385(1)
The Big Picture
386(1)
Guiding Principles
387(1)
Case Study: When ``Perfect'' Isn't Good Enough
387(3)
Cognitive Factors in Motivation
390(42)
Case Study: Passing Algebra
391(1)
The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation
392(1)
Self-Perceptions and Intrinsic Motivation
392(6)
Self-Efficacy
393(1)
Self-Determination
394(4)
Expectancies and Values
398(2)
Internalizing the Values of Others
399(1)
Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom
400(1)
Interest
400(3)
Situational Versus Personal Interest
401(2)
Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter
403(1)
Goals
403(7)
Achievement Goals
404(4)
Work-Avoidance Goals
408(1)
Social Goals
408(1)
Career Goals
409(1)
Coordinating Multiple Goals
409(1)
Dispositions
410(2)
Attributions: Perceived Causes of Success and Failure
412(7)
How Attributions Influence Affect, Cognition, and Behavior
414(1)
Developmental Trends in Attributions
415(2)
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions
417(1)
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness
418(1)
Teacher Expectations and Attributions
419(5)
How Expectations and Attributions Affect Classroom Performance
420(1)
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance
421(3)
Considering Diversity in the Cognitive Aspects of Motivation
424(4)
Ethnic Differences
424(1)
Gender Differences
425(1)
Socioeconomic Differences
425(2)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
427(1)
The Big Picture
428(2)
General Principles of Motivation
428(1)
Revisiting the Four Theoretical Perspectives
428(2)
Case Study: Writer's Block
430(2)
PART III CLASSROOM STRATEGIES
Instructional Strategies
432(50)
Case Study: Oregon Trail
433(1)
Overview of Instructional Strategies
434(1)
Planning for Instruction
435(8)
Identifying the Goals of Instruction
436(4)
Conducting a Task Analysis
440(2)
Developing a Lesson Plan
442(1)
Expository Approaches
443(8)
Lectures and Textbooks
443(3)
Mastery Learning
446(1)
Direct Instruction
447(2)
Computer-Based Instruction
449(1)
Online Research
450(1)
Hands-On and Practice Activities
451(6)
Discovery Learning
451(2)
In-Class Activities
453(1)
Computer Simulations and Applications
454(1)
Homework
455(1)
Authentic Activities
456(1)
Interactive and Collaborative Approaches
457(17)
Teacher Questions
458(2)
Class Discussions
460(2)
Reciprocal Teaching
462(3)
Technology-Based Discussions
465(1)
Cooperative Learning
465(5)
Peer Tutoring
470(4)
Taking Student Diversity into Account
474(3)
Considering Group Differences
474(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
475(2)
The Big Picture
477(1)
Case Study: Uncooperative Students
477(5)
Creating a Productive Learning Environment
482(40)
Case Study: A Contagious Situation
483(1)
Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning
484(15)
Arranging the Classroom
485(1)
Creating an Effective Classroom Climate
485(5)
Setting Limits
490(3)
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task
493(3)
Monitoring What Students Are Doing
496(1)
Modifying Instructional Strategies
496(1)
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account
497(2)
Dealing with Misbehaviors
499(5)
Ignoring Behavior
499(1)
Cueing a Student
500(1)
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student
500(2)
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies
502(1)
Using Behaviorist Approaches
503(1)
Conferring with Parents
504(1)
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School
504(3)
Creating a Nonviolent School Environment
506(1)
Intervening Early for Students at Risk
507(1)
Providing Intensive Intervention for Students in Trouble
507(1)
Taking Student Diversity into Account
507(3)
Creating a Supportive Climate
508(1)
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors
509(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
510(1)
Coordinating Efforts with Others
510(9)
Working with Other Teachers
510(2)
Working with the Community at Large
512(1)
Working with Parents
512(7)
The Big Picture
519(1)
Case Study: Old Friends
520(2)
Classroom Assessment Strategies
522(48)
Case Study: The Math Test
523(1)
Assessments as Tools
524(1)
The Various Forms of Educational Assessment
525(2)
Using Assessment for Different Purposes
527(3)
Promoting Learning
527(2)
Guiding Instructional Decision Making
529(1)
Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems
529(1)
Promoting Self-Regulation
529(1)
Determining What Students Have Learned
529(1)
Important Qualities of Good Assessment
530(9)
Reliability
531(3)
Standardization
534(1)
Validity
534(4)
Practicality
538(1)
Informal Assessment
539(2)
RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment
540(1)
Paper-Pencil Assessment
541(12)
Constructing the Assessment Instrument
542(7)
Administering the Assessment
549(1)
Scoring Students' Responses
550(2)
RSVP Characteristics of Paper-Pencil Assessment
552(1)
Performance Assessment
553(8)
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks
553(2)
Planning and Administering the Assessment
555(1)
Scoring Students' Responses
556(1)
RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment
557(4)
Including Students in the Assessment Process
561(1)
Encouraging Risk Taking
562(1)
Evaluating an Assessment Tool Through Item Analysis
563(1)
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments
564(4)
Test Anxiety
564(2)
Testwiseness
566(1)
Accommodating Group Differences
566(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
566(2)
The Big Picture
568(1)
Learning, Motivation, and Assessment
568(1)
General Guidelines for Classroom Assessment
568(1)
Case Study: Pick and Choose
569(1)
Summarizing Student Achievement
570
Case Study: B in History
571(1)
Revisiting Self-Regulation and the RSVP Characteristics
572(1)
Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment
572(5)
Raw Scores
572(1)
Criterion-Referenced Scores
573(1)
Norm-Referenced Scores
574(3)
Using Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom
577(1)
Determining Final Class Grades
577(5)
Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit
579(1)
Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades
580(1)
Including Students in the Grading Process
581(1)
Using Portfolios
582(2)
Standardized Tests
584(7)
Types of Standardized Tests
584(3)
Technology and Assessment
587(1)
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests
587(1)
Interpreting Standardized Test Scores
588(3)
High-Stakes Testing and Accountability
591(3)
Problems with High-Stakes Testing
592(1)
Potential Solutions to the Problems
593(1)
Taking Student Diversity into Account
594(2)
Cultural Bias
594(1)
Language Differences
595(1)
Accommodating Students with Special Needs
595(1)
Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results
596(3)
Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents
598(1)
The Big Picture
599(1)
Case Study: Can Johnny Read?
600
Appendix A: Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients 1(1)
Appendix B: Analyses of the Ending Case Studies 1(1)
Appendix C: Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the Praxis® Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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