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Educational Psychology : Developing Learners (with MyEducationLab)



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The best-selling Educational Psychology: Developing Learnersis known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications.#xA0; Its unique approach helps readers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers.#xA0; The book concentrates on core concepts and principles and gives readers an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology#x13;helping them better understand children and adolescents. #xA0; More than any other educational psychology book, this book moves seamlessly between theory and applications, features the most extensive and integrated coverage of diversity, and includes innumerable concrete examples to help readers connect educational psychology to real children and classrooms. #xA0;

Author Biography

Jeanne Ellis Ormrod received her A.B. in psychology from Brown University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from The Pennsylvania State University. She earned licensure in school psychology through postdoctoral work at Temple University and the University of Colorado at Boulder and has worked as a middle school geography teacher and school psychologist. She was Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado until 1998, when she moved east to return to her native New England. She is currently affiliated with the University of New Hampshire, where she occasionally teaches courses in educational psychology and research methods. She has published numerous research articles on cognition and memory, cognitive development, and giftedness, but she is probably best known for this textbook and four others: Human Learning (currently in its fifth edition); Essentials of Educational Psychology (currently in its second edition); Child Development and Education(co-authored with Teresa McDevitt, currently in its fourth edition); and Practical Research(co-authored with Paul Leedy, currently in its ninth edition). With her three children now grown and out on their own, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband Richard.

Table of Contents


Teaching and Educational Psycholog 1

CASE STUDY: Picture Yourself 1

Teaching as Evidence-Based Practice 2

Understanding Research 4

Quantitative Research 5 Ï Qualitative Research 7 Ï

Interpreting Research Results: A Cautionary Note 8 Ï

From Research to Practice: The Importance of Theories 9

Collecting Data and Drawing Conclusions About Your Own

Students 10

Assessing Students’ Achievements and Behaviors 10 Ï

Conducting Action Research 11

Developing as a Teacher 12

Strategies for Studying and Learning Effectively 13

The Big Picture 14



Development and Diversity


Chapter 2

Cognitive and Linguistic Development 19

CASE STUDY:Apple Tarts 19

General Principles of Human Development 20

The Multiple Layers of Environmental Influence:

Bronfenbrenner’s Theory 22

Role of the Brain in Learning and Development 23

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 26

Piaget’s Basic Assumptions 27 Ï Piaget’s Stages of

Cognitive Development 29 Ï Critiquing Piaget’s Theory

34 Ï Considering Diversity from the Perspective of

Piaget’s Theory 35 Ï Contemporary Extensions and

Applications of Piaget’s Theory 36

Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive

Development 38

Vygotsky’s Basic Assumptions 39 Ï Critiquing

Vygotsky’s Theory 43 Ï Considering Diversity from the

Perspective of Vygotsky’s Theory 43 Ï Contemporary

Extensions and Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory 44

Language Development 49

Theoretical Issues Regarding Language Development 49 Ï

Trends in Language Development 50 Ï Diversity in

Language Development 53 Ï Second-Language Learning

and English Language Learners 53

The Big Picture 57



Chapter 3

Personal and Social Development 61

CASE STUDY: Hidden Treasure 61

Personality Development 62

Temperament 62 Ï Environmental Influences on

Personality Development 63 Ï The “Big Five” Personality

Traits 66 Ï Temperament, Personality, and Goodness of

Fit 66

Development of a Sense of Self 66

Factors Influencing Sense of Self 68 Ï Developmental

Changes in Sense of Self 71 Ï Diversity in Sense of Self


Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal

Understandings 75

Roles of Peers in Children’s Development 76 Ï

Characteristics of Peer Relationships 77 Ï Social Cognition

81 Ï Aggression 84 Ï Technology and Peer

Relationships 86 Ï Diversity in Peer Relationships and

Social Cognition 87 Ï Promoting Health Peer

Relationships 87

Moral and Prosocial Development 90

Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior 90

Ï Factors Influencing Moral and Prosocial Behavior 95 Ï

Diversity in Moral and Prosocial Behavior 95 Ï

Encouraging Moral and Prosocial Development in the

Classroom 97

The Big Picture 99

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vi Contents



Chapter 4

Group Differences 103

CASE STUDY:Why Jack Wasn’t in School 103

Cultural and Ethnic Differences 104

Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School 105

Ï Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity 107 Ï

Creating a Culturally Inclusive Classroom Environment


Gender Differences 118

Research Findings Regarding Gender Differences 118 Ï

Origins of Gender Differences 121 Ï Making

Appropriate Accommodations for Gender Differences 124

Socioeconomic Differences 125

Challenges Associated with Poverty 126 Ï Fostering

Resilience 128 Ï Working with Homeless Students


Students at Risk 130

Characteristics of Students at Risk 130 Ï Why Students

Drop Out 131 Ï Supporting Students at Risk 132

The Big Picture 133



Chapter 5

Individual Differences and Special

Education Needs 137


Intelligence 138

Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence 138 Ï Measuring

Intelligence 142 Ï Nature and Nurture in the

Development of Intelligence 144 Ï Cultural and Ethnic

Diversity in Intelligence 145 Ï Being Smart About

Intelligence and IQ Scores 145

Cognitive Styles and Dispositions 147

Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education

Classrooms 149

Public Law 94- 142: Individuals with Disabilities Education

Act (IDEA) 150 Ï Potential Benefits and Drawbacks on

Inclusion 152 Ï Identifying Students’ Particular Special

Needs: Response to Intervention and People-First Language


Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties


Learning Disabilities 154 Ï Attention-Deficit

Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 158 Ï Speech and

Communication Disorders 159 Ï General

Recommendations 161

Students with Social or Behavioral Problems 161

Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 162 Ï Autism

Spectrum Disorders 164 Ï General Recommendations


Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social

Functioning 166

Intellectual Disabilities 166

Students with Physical or Sensory Challenges 168

Physical and Health Impairments 168 Ï General

Recommendations 171

Students with Advanced Cognitive Development 172

Giftedness 172

Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing

Special Needs 174

General Recommendations for Working with Students Who

Have Special Needs 175

The Big Picture 176



Learning and Motivation


Chapter 6

Learning and Cognitive Processes 179

CASE STUDY: Bones 179

Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology 180

Models of Human Memory 183

The Nature of the Sensory Register 185 Ï Moving

Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention

186 Ï The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory 186

Ï Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting

New Information with Prior Knowledge 189 Ï The

Nature of Long-Term Memory 189 Ï Critiquing the

Three-Component Model 190

Long-Term Memory Storage 190

How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned 191 Ï How

Procedural Knowledge Is Learned 197 Ï Roles of Prior

Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory

Storage 198 Ï Encouraging a Meaningful Learning Set

201 Ï Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior

Knowledge 202

Long-Term Memory Retrieval 204

Factors Affecting Retrieval 204 Ï Why Learners

Sometimes Forget 209

Diversity in Cognitive Processes 210

Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special

Needs 211

The Big Picture 213

Practicing for Your Licensure Exam 214

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Contents vii


Chapter 7

Knowledge Construction 217

CASE STUDY: The New World 217

Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory 218

Construction in Storage 218 Ï Construction in Retrieval

220 Ï Knowledge Construction as a Social Process 220

Organizing Knowledge 222

Concepts 222 Ï Schema and Scripts 224 Ï

Theories 226 Ï Worldviews 227

Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction 228

Providing Opportunities for Firsthand Observation and

Experimentation 228 Ï Presenting Experts’ Perspectives

228 Ï Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding 229

Ï Encouraging Classroom Dialogue 230 Ï Assigning

Authentic Activities 231 Ï Scaffolding Theory

Construction 232 Ï Creating a Community of Learners


When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry:Addressing

Learners’ Misconceptions 236

Obstacles to Conceptual Change 239 Ï Promoting

Conceptual Change 240

Diversity in Constructive Processes 243

Accommodating Students with Special Needs 244

The Big Picture 245



Chapter 8

Complex Cognitive Processes 249

CASE STUDY:Taking Over 249

Metacognition and Learning Strategies 250

Effective Learning Strategies 251 Ï Factors Affecting

Strategy Use 256 Ï Diversity, Disabilities, and

Exceptional Abilities in Metacognition 258

Transfer 261

Factors Affecting Transfer 263

Problem Solving 265

Problem-Solving Strategies: Algorithms and Heuristics 267

Ï Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving 269 Ï

Using Computer Technology to Teach Problem-Solving Skills


Creativity 273

Fostering Creativity 274

Critical Thinking 275

Fostering Critical Thinking 277

Diversity in Creativity,Critical Thinking, and Other Complex

Thinking Processes 278

Accommodating Students with Special Needs 280

The Big Picture 281



Chapter 9

Behaviorist Views of Learning 285

CASE STUDY: The Attention Getter 285

Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism 286

Building on Existing Stimulus–Response Associations:

Classical Conditioning 287

Classical Conditioning of Involuntary Emotional Responses


Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning 290 Ï

Addressing Counterproductive Emotional Responses 291

Learning from Consequences: Instrumental Conditioning


Contrasting Classical Conditioning and Instrumental

Conditioning 292

The Various Forms That Reinforcement Can Take 293 Ï

The Various Forms That Punishment Can Take 297

Strategies for Encouraging Productive Behaviors 301

Using Reinforcement Effectively 302 Ï Shaping New

Behaviors 307

Bringing Antecedent Stimuli and Responses into the Picture


Strategies for Discouraging Undesirable Behaviors 310

Creating Conditions for Extinction 310 Ï Cueing

Inappropriate Behaviors 310 Ï Reinforcing

Incompatible Behaviors 311 Ï Using Punishment When

Necessary 311

Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors 313

Applied Behavior Analysis 313 Ï Functional Analysis

and Positive Behavioral Support 314

Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to

Consequences 316

Accommodating Students with Special Needs 317

Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches


The Big Picture 319



Chapter 10

Social Cognitive Views of Learning 323

CASE STUDY: Parlez-Vous Français? 323

Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory 324

The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment


Modeling 329

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viii Contents

Behaviors and Skills That Can Be Learned Through

Modeling 330 Ï Characteristics of Effective Models

331 Ï Essential Conditions for Successful Modeling 333

Self-Efficacy 335

How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition 335 Ï

Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy 337 Ï

Teacher Self-Efficacy 339

Self-Regulation 341

Self-Regulated Behavior 342 Ï Self-Regulated Learning

347 Ï Self-Regulated Problem Solving 349 Ï

Diversity in Self-Regulation 351

Revisiting Reciprocal Causation 352

Comparing the Three General Perspectives of Learning 356

The Big Picture 357



Chapter 11

Motivation and Affect 361

CASE STUDY: Passing Algebra 361

The Nature of Motivation 362

Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation 364

Basic Human Needs 365

Arousal 365 Ï Competence and Self-Worth 366 Ï

Self-Determination 368 Ï Relatedness 371 Ï

Universality and Diversity in Basic Needs 372 Ï A

Possible Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s Theory 373

Cognitive Factors in Motivation 374

Interests 375 Ï Expectancies and Values 376 Ï

Goals 379 Ï Attributions 385 Ï Teacher

Expectations and Attributions 391 Ï Diversity in

Cognitive Factors Affecting Motivation 394

Affect and Its Effects 399

How Affect and Motivation Are Interrelated 399 Ï How

Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition 400 Ï Anxiety

in the Classroom 401 Ï Diversity in Affect 406

The Big Picture 408



Classroom Strategies


Chapter 12

Instructional Strategies

CASE STUDY: Oregon Trail

Planning for Instruction

Identifying The Goals Of Instruction Ï Conducting A Task

Analysis Ï Developing A Lesson Plan Ï Setting Up a

Class Website

Expository Strategies

Lectures And Textbooks Ï Mastery Learning Ï Direct

Instruction Ï Computer-Based Instruction Ï

Instructional Websites

Hands-On,“Head-On,” and Practice Activities

Discovery And Inquiry Learning Ï In-Class Assignments

Ï Computer Simulations and Applications Ï Homework

Interactive and Collaborative Approaches

Teacher Questions Ï Class Discussions Ï Reciprocal

Teaching Ï Cooperative Learning Ï Peer Tutoring Ï

Technology-Based Collaborative Learning

Taking Student Diversity Into Account

Considering Group Differences Ï Accommodating

Students with Special Needs

The Big Picture




Chapter 13

Creating A Productive Learning


CASE STUDY: A Contagious Situation

Creating a Setting Conducive to Learning

Arranging the Classroom Ï Establishing and Maintaining

Productive Teacher–Student Relationships Ï Creating an

Effective Psychological Climate Ï Setting Limits

Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task Ï

Monitoring What Students Are Doing

Modifying Instructional Strategies Ï Taking

Developmental Differences into Account

Taking Individual And Group Differences into Account

Coordinating Efforts with Others

Working with Other Faculty Members Ï Working with the

Community at Large

Working with Parents

Dealing with Misbehaviors

Ignoring Behavior Ï Cueing Students Ï Discussing

Problems Privately with Students Ï Teaching Self-

Regulation Strategies Ï Conferring with Parents Ï

Conducting Planned, Systematic Interventions Ï Taking

Students’ Cultural Backgrounds into Account

Addressing Aggression and Violence at School

A Three-Level Approach Ï Addressing Gang-Related


The Big Picture


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Contents ix


Chapter 14

Classroom Assessment Strategies

CASE STUDY: The Math Test

The Many Forms of Assessment

Using Assessment for Different Purposes

Guiding Instructional Decision Making Ï Diagnosing

Learning and Performance Problems Ï Determining What

Students Have Learned from Instruction Ï Evaluating the

Quality of Instruction Ï Promoting Learning

Important Qualities of Good Assessment

Reliability Ï Standardization Ï Validity Ï Practicality

Informal Assessment

RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment

Paper–Pencil Assessment

Constructing the Assessment Instrument Ï Administering

the Assessment Ï Scoring Students’ Responses Ï RSVP

Characteristics of Paper–Pencil Assessment

Performance Assessment

Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks Ï Planning and

Administering the Assessment Ï Scoring Students’

Responses Ï RSVP Characteristics of Performance


Additional Considerations in Formal Assessment

Including Students in the Assessment Process Ï Teaching

Testwiseness Ï Keeping Test Anxiety in Check Ï

Encouraging Risk Taking Ï Evaluating an Assessment

After the Fact: Item Analysis

Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom


Accommodating Group Differences Ï Accommodating

Students with Special Needs

The Big Picture



Chapter 15

Summarizing Students’ Achievement

and Abilities

CASE STUDY: B in History

Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment

Raw Scores Ï Criterion-Referenced Scores Ï Norm-

Referenced Scores Ï Using Criterion-Referenced versus

Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom

Determining Final Class Grades

Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit Ï

Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades

Ï Including Students in the Grading Process

Using Portfolios

Types and Purposes of Portfolios Ï Benefits and

Limitations of Portfolios Ï Helping Students Construct


Standardized Tests

Types of Standardized Tests Ï Technology and

Assessment Ï Guidelines for Choosing and Using

Standardized Tests Ï Interpreting Standardized Test


High-Stakes Testing and Accountability

The U.S. No Child Left Behind Act Ï Problems with High-

Stakes Testing Ï Potential Solutions

Taking Student Diversity into Account

Cultural Bias in Test Content Ï Cultural and Ethnic

Differences Ï Language Differences and English

Language Learners Ï Accommodating Students with

Special Needs

Confidentiality and Communication about Assessment Results

Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents

The Big Picture



Appendix A: Describing Associations with Correlation



Appendix B: Determining Reliability and Predictive



Appendix C: Matching Book and MyEducationLab

Content to the Praxis Principles of Learning and

Teaching (PLT) Tests



Name Index

Subject Index

Photo Credits

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